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  1. 1. Semantics is branch of theoretical linguistics thatdeals with the meaning of words and sentences. It is asophisticated branch of knowledge that touches on many .philosophical, psychological, linguistics, and aspects
  2. 2. Triangle of Meaning: In semantics, there are three distinct elementThe thing. It is the referred-to element, which exists. 1. outside the mind and outside language. The word. It is the symbol which refers to the thing. 2The meaning. It is the concept or reference. It is the. 3. image, attributes, or abstract entity
  3. 3. Linguists, however, have shown some disagreement on the inter-relationship among the semantic trio. There are, for example,words that do not refer to things, such as honesty, piety, fear , andother similar words that symbolize abstracts. In this case, onlytwo elements, not three, exist; word and meaning .Another issueis the type of relationship that exists among the trio; Is the word .related directly to thing or indirectly through meaning
  4. 4. However, when the word has already been in existence, thelines of relationship among the trio element may take:different directionthing meaning word. You see a thing , then you remember its meaning,. 1and you remember its word. 2. meaning word thing. You recall a meaning, then its word ,and then.thingWord meaning thing. You hear a word, and then you remember its .3. meaning and then its thing
  5. 5. Semantic fieldsThe field of continuous concretes. It is a semantic field. 1of words that refer to concrete things , the classification of which . is disagreed on, such as colorsThe field of separate concretes . It is a semantic field of.2words that refer to separate concrete entities, such as the. semantic filed of plants or animalsThe field of abstracts. It is a field of words referring. 3to abstract concepts such as the semantic field of virtues, e.g. ,. honesty, courage , and loyalty
  6. 6. Semantic field share several qualities. First, the wordspertaining to the field belong to the same morphological or syntacticclass. Second, the words of the same field are either related to concreteor abstract referents. Third, the number of common features among thewords of the same field affects the number of member words, , i, e, the .size of the field
  7. 7. Semantic featur esA word may be looked upon as consisting of positive and negative:features. The word hen , for instance . is+ animate,+ bird, -human, +singular
  8. 8. Inter-FieldRelationships .Synonymy means similarity in meaning of two words or more .e. g. brave/courageous , rich/wealthy .Antonymy means against meaning e. g. big/small , hot/ cold
  9. 9. Inclusion a word may include another: A B but Bdoes not include A. For example, the first word in eachfollowing pairs includes the other one, but not the other .way round .e. g. fruit/apple, animal/lion Exclusion two words or more may be related to a field .on equal footing or manner .e. g. sheep, cow ,horse/animal
  10. 10. Totality the relation between words is a. whole-part relation. .e, g, book/cover , car/ seat , head/face
  11. 11. Relative MeaningThere are many words in all language which are relativein meaning. e. g. far/near . Small/large ,light/heavy. Thedenotation of each word differs from a person toanother . What is far to You may be near to him . Themeaning also differs from time to time which the same .person
  12. 12. From what you understand in this lecture ,.answer this questions Gave at least three semantic features for . 1 . each word :_____________________A. Lion :____________________B. Apple
  13. 13. :There are several ways to define word • . Descriptive definition • Here, a brief or detailed description is • given . For example: the whale is largestmarine animal which may be thirty meters long and five meters in diameterFunctional definition. The word is defined • by its function •
  14. 14. Demonstrative definition. The word is defined by pointing to itRank definition.A word defined by showing its position in an ordered series e. g. Saturday comes between Friday and sunday
  15. 15. Synoymous definition. The word defined by  its synonym e. g. rich means wealthyAntonymous definition. The word defined by  antonymy e. g. rich is the yhe opposite of poor
  16. 16. What is the type of the semantic relationship. 2of each pairs: synonymy, antonymy, inclusion,?exclusion, or totality :______Love/affection :______Ask/answer :______Active/lazy:_____old/young:_____Saturday/Sunday:______Body/hand:_______Teacher/instructor