1. Language forms occur most naturally within a context “ dialogue”. The native language and the target language have separate linguistic systems , they should be kept apart not interfered . So teachers use only the target language.
One of the language teachers major2.roles is that of a model of the targetlanguage. Teachers should providestudents with a native-speaker-likemodel. By listening to how it issupposed to sound, students should beable to mimic the model.
3. Language learning is a processof habit formation. The moreoften something is repeated, thestronger the habit and thegreater the learning (Thestudents repeat each line of thenew dialogue several times).
4. It is important to preventlearners from making errors.Errors lead to the formation ofbad habits. When errors dooccur, they should beim-mediately corrected by theteacher.
5. The purpose of languagelearning is to learn how to usethe language to communicate(The teacher initiates a chaindrill in which each studentgreets another).
6. Positive reinforcement helps thestudents to develop correct habits(The teacher says, "Very good,"when the students answer correctly).7. The major objective of languagestudents should learn to respond toboth verbal and nonverbal stimuli(The teacher uses spoken cues andpicture cues).
8. Each language has a finitenumber of patterns.Pattern practice helps students toform habits which enable thestudents to use the patterns.Ex. Transformation or question andanswer
11. The major objective of language teachingshould be for students to acquire the structuralpatterns. New vocabulary is introducedafterwards.12. It is important to prevent learners frommaking errors. Errors lead to the formation ofbad habits. When errors do occur, they shouldbe im-mediately corrected by the teacher.
13. The learning of a foreign languages shouldbe the same as the acquisition of the nativelanguage. We do not need to memorize rules inorder to use our native language.So , no grammar rules are given but, taughtthrough examples and drills.
14. The major challenge of foreignlanguage teaching is getting students toovercome the habits of their nativelanguage. A comparison between thenative and target language will tell theteacher in what areas her students willprobably experience.
15. Language cannot be separated from culture.Culture is not only literature and the arts, butalso the everyday behavior of the people whouse the target language. One of the teachersresponsibilities is to present information aboutthat culture.16. The natural order of skill acquisition islistening, speaking, reading and writing.
Dialogue Memorization Backward Build-up (Expansion) Drill Repetition Drill Chain Drill Single-slot Substitution Drill Multiple-slot Substitution Drill Transformation Drill Question-and-answer Drill Use of Minimal Pairs Complete the Dialogue Grammar Game
Students are given a short dialog to memorize then they must use mimicry and applied role playing to present the dialog.
: Provide students with the sentence fragments found in the materials section. Students repeat each part of the sentence starting at the end of the sentence and expanding backwards through the sentence adding each part in sequence
: The teacher provides a question which must be transformed into a statement. An extension of this activity is to have the students make a question out of a statement.
: Using any piece of literature at the students reading level, read the piece aloud several times. Have the students write down what they hear. The idea is to write what they have heard as literally as possible.
: A chain of conversation forms around the room as the teacher greets or questions a student and that student responds then turns to the next student and greets or asks a question of the second student and the chain continues.
: The teacher picks a category, such as the supermarket. Then the first student says, "I am going to the supermarket. I need a few apples." (The first student names something beginning with A.) The second student says, "I am going to the supermarket. I need a few apples and I need a few bananas." The game continues in this manner with each consecutive student adding an item beginning with the next letter after repeating the items named before their own.
Multiple-slot Substitution DrillTo give cue phrases, one at time, that fitsinto different slots in the dialogue line.To recognize what part of speech each cueis and make any other changes, such assubject-verb agreement.To fit cue phrase into line where it belongsand to say the line loudly.
I’m going to the post office.SheShe is going to the post officeThe parkShe is going to the parkTheyThey are going to the park………….
To change a certain kind of sentence pattern to another form. to transform an affirmative S. into a negative S. to transform a statement into a question. to transform an active S. into a passive S. to transform a direct speech into reported speech
Students practice the target language with answering questions and the question patterns. Students answer the teacher’s question quickly.
1. introduces a new dialog (p36)2. uses a backward build-up drill3. uses a repetition drill (group)4. initiates a chain drill (individual)5. leads a single-slot substitution drill (replaces a word or phrase = cue) (shows pictures)6. praise the class during the practice
1. reviews the dialog2. expands upon the dialog by adding a few lines.3. drills the new lines and introduces new vocabulary (p.41)4. works on the mass and count nouns (a little/a few)5. uses contrastive analysis (correct the pronunciation) (use of minimal pairs)
Teachers want their students to be able to use the target language communicatively. Overlearning →automatically without stopping to think Forming new habits through overcoming the old habit.
teachers role is central and active; it is a teacher- dominated method. The teacher models the target language, controls the direction and pace of learning, and monitors and corrects the learners performance. The teacher must keep the learners attentive by varying drills and tasks and choosing relevant situations to practice structures. The teacher is like an orchestra leader. Providing students with a good model for imitation.
Learners are viewed as organisms that can be directed by skilled training techniques to produce correct responses. In accordance with behaviorist learning theory, teaching focuses on the external manifestations of learning rather than on the internal processes. Learners play a reactive role by responding to stimuli, and thus have little control over the content, pace, or style of learning. The fact that In the early stages learners do not always understand the meaning of what they are repeating is not perceived as a drawback, for by listening to the teacher, imitating accurately, and responding to and performing controlled tasks they are learning a new form of verbal behavior.
New vocabulary and structural patterns are presented through dialogs. Dialogs– learning through imitation and repetition Positively reinforced Grammar is induced from the examples.
Interaction is teacher-directed Student-student interaction →Chain drills and dialogues
The view of language → be influenced by descriptive linguists. Each level( phonological, morphological…)has its own distinctive patterns. Everyday speech is emphasized. The level of complexity of the speech is graded.
Vocabulary is kept to a minimum while the students are mastering the sound system and grammatical patterns. The natural order of skills presentation is adhered to : listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The oral/aural skills receive most of the attention .
The habits of the students’ native language are thought to interfere with the students’ attempts to master the target language. The target language is mostly used in the classroom instead of the native language.
→each question on the test would focus on only one point of the language at a time.Ex: students might be asked to distinguish between words in a minimal pair.
Students errors are to be avoided if at all possible through the teacher’s awareness of where the students will have difficulty and restriction of what they are taught to say.
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