Sri Lankan Film Industry


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Sri Lankan Film Industry

  1. 1. Macro Environmentof Sri Lankan FilmIndustry Marketing Management Business Management (Special) (UGU ) Group No: 04 0|Page
  3. 3. Objective OutlineExecutive summary………………………………………………………1Introduction of Sri Lankan Film Industry………………………………..3  In recent years best movies……………………………………….4  Films……………………………………………………………..5History……………………………………………………………………..6  1970‟s…………………………………………………………..….7  1980‟s- 1990………………………………………………………..81.0 Political Environment…………………………………………………9 1.1 Sri Lankan Political Environment……………………………10 1.2 Latest Changes in the political arena…………………………11 1.3 Opportunity‟s in the political arena…………………………..12 1.4 Threats in the political arena………………………………….13 1.5 Recommendations…………………………………………….14 1.6 images………………………………………………………….152.0 Economical Environment………………………………………………16 2.1 latest changes…………………………………………………..17 2.2 latest changes…………………………………………………..18 2.3 threats……………………………………………………….....19 2.4 recommendations……………………………….………………203.0 Socio-cultural-demographic Environment……………………………..22 3.1 people‟s views…………………………………………………….23 3.2 latest changes……………………………………………………..24 3.3 threats…………………………………………………………….25 3.4 demographical environment………………………………………26 3.5 population…………………………………………………………27 3.6 threats in demographical environment…………………………….284.0 Technological Environment………………………………………………29 4.1 Digitalization…………………………………………………………30 4.2 advantages…………………………………………………………31 2|Page
  4. 4. 4.3 latest changes…………………………………………………….32 4.4 cameras,lights,grid equipment…………………………………....33 4.5 steady cams,generators,sounds………………………………….34 4.6 behind the scene…………………………………………………..35 4.7 technological threats……………………………………………..36 4.8 camera selection………………………………………………..37 4.9 rcomenations for technological factors……………………….38 5.0 Ecological Environment…………………………………………………..39 5.1 main aspects of ecology………………………………………..40 5.2 latest changes……………………………………………………41 5.3 wild screen charity…………………………………………….42 5.4 locations………………………………………………………….43 5.5 opportunity‟s in ecological factors…………………………………44 5.6 major oppurtunity‟s in wild screen……………………………….45 5.7 recommendations…………………………………………………..46 5.8greening the screen of Sri Lanka…………………………………..47-48 5.9 by greening…………………………………………………………496.0 Legal Environment……………………………………………………………..50 6.1 oppurtunity‟s…………………………………………………………………51 6.2 threats……………………………………………………………………52 6.3 recommendations………………………………………………………53 6.4 legal aspect in the industry…………………………………………….54 6.5 copyright assignment…………………………………………………55 6.6 music,trade marks…………………………………………………….56 6.7 working with unions…………………………………………………57-58 6.8 financing and investment issues……………………………………..59 6.9 no general solicitation, disclosure requirement……………………………..60 3|Page
  5. 5. 6.9.1 filing……………………………………………………………61 6.9.2 business investment structure…………………………………62-637.0 Marketing Mix………………………………………………………….64 7.1 place,promotion…………………………………………………….65 8.0 Conclusion/poitical…………………………………………………66 8.1 economical………………………………………………………..67 8.2 socio-cultural-demographical & technological……………………68 8.3 ecological…………………………………………………………69 8.4 legal……………………………………………………………….70-71 8.5 concluding…………………………………………………………..72 9.0 remarks sheet……………………………………………………………73 4|Page
  6. 6. Executive SummaryThe macro environment of film industry in Sri Lanka.The macro environment consists of larger societalforces that affect the entire microenvironment.The six forces making up the company‟s macroenvironment include political, economic, social,technological, environment and Legal. In thisreport, express these forces. Shapeopportunities and pose threats to the filmindustry in Sri Lanka. And we suppose somerecommendations to those threats. The present state of Sri Lankan cinema does notoffer much hope.The political environment consists of laws, agencies and groups. That influence orlimit marketing actions. The political environment has under some three changes thataffect marketing worldwide. Increasing legislations regulating film industry, stronggovernment agency enforcement, and great emphasis on ethics and sociallyresponsible actions.The economic environment of film industry characterized by economic depressionhow to affect to the film industry lacks of finance to make films. Today‟s squeezedpeople are seeking greater satisfaction just the right combination of good quality ofthe film and happiness at a fair price of ticket. Another factor is the distribution ofincome also is shifting.The Social environment is made up of institutions and forces that affect a society‟svalues, perceptions, preferences and behaviors. The environment shows trendstowards behavior of Sri Lankan and their different cultural aspects.The demographic and economic factors are also a part of social environment thataffect the local film industry. Demographic is the study of the characteristics ofhuman populations. Today demographic environment shows an increasing population, 5|Page
  7. 7. growth in the rural population, a changing family system, and changes in the role ofwomen and a better-educated and whiter collar population and increasing diversity.Those factors directly affected to the local film industry. Because of when populationis increasingly, have to build new film halls, and develop facilities in there. Moreover,came up new generation with new ideas through films because of make a competitionwith other countries and hold the audience with our film industry. As a result, filmproducers are focus to main problems of society. With these changes come up moreopportunities and threats also.Technological environment of film industry in Sri Lanka is in low position than othercountries. Film makers face to the big problem in these days. That is a less experienceof technicians and equipments. But some foreign countries help to those problems, asan example China. „Aba‟ is a silver line to the film industry. Because they used hightechnology to this film and their cost also high. The technological environmentcreates both opportunities and threats.The environmental factors has major trends and threats also. The Sri Lanka hasattractive and beautiful locations. This is a great opportunity to the Sri Lanka, becauseof this is the way of go to the international market & make a competition with them.As a result local film industry can earn lot of money through it. Most of internationalfilm makers try to make film regarding those natural locations.The Legal environment in which the film industry operates, In recent years in SriLanka ,there have been many significant legal changes that have affected theindustry‟s behavior. The introduction of age discrimination and disabilitydiscrimination legislation and an increase in the minimum wage are examples ofrelatively recent laws that affect an industrys actions.Finally we can review here, the marketing mix of Sri Lankan film industry .Weaspire to provide through this can passively accept the marketing environment anuncontrollable element to which they must adopt, avoiding threats and advantage ofopportunities as arise. 6|Page
  8. 8. Introduction of Sri Lankan Film Industry Sri Lankan Cinema includes films made in Sri Lanka. Beginning of the industrythat has truggled to establish since its induction in 1947 with “Kadawna Poronduwa”produced by S.M. Nayagam of chithrakala move tone. Most of Sri Lankan film made inSinhalese language, the language of the majority Sinhala people. In the first nine years most films were made in SouthIndia, and followed the stands of Indian Cinema. Due to Indian style sets put up in filmstudios. How ever the pioneer director Lester James Peris was the first Sinhala film directorwho shot his first film completely out of the studio “Rekava” in 1956. This was screened inColombo and film was commended by local and international critics. Films continued to follow formally storylines borrowedfrom India up through early 60s, such as “Kulrulu Badda” and “Sande Shaya” several artisticSinhala films were made in late 60s. In 1963 Mr. Lester James Peris contributed developmentof Sri Lankan Cinema with “Gamperaliya”. It was a turning point in Sri Lankan Cinemadoing a way with songs, dance, comic and fights. He won the grand prize (Golden Peacock)at the International Film Festival of India 1965. Since then he had made 20 feature filmsincluding “Nidhanaya” (1970) and “Kaliugaya” (1983). He is internationally recognized asone of the greatest film director and considered the father of Sri Lankan Cinema. During the1970 several talents came to the forefront while commercial Cinema continued to steal fromIndian Cinema. Another big success came with “Sath samudura” by Professor SriGunasinghe supported by exquisite cinematography by Dr. D.B.Nihalsinghe. “Welikatara” byDr. Nihalsinghe Sri Lanka‟s first film in cinemascope ratio wide screen in 1972. WasanthaObesekara, Darmasena Pathiraja. Mahagama Sekara and Sumithra Peris are other majordirectors who stepped forward during this time. Deceased Mr. Joe Abeywickrama was one of the best actors in Sri Lankan Cinemaindustry. He was named as the “Best Asian Actor” at the Singapore International FilmFestival in 1999 for the film of “Pura Handa Kaluwara” He captured our hearts and mindsdiverse role such as “Vannihami” in “Pura Handa Karuwala”. Mrs. Malani Fonseka is the oneof best actress in Sri Lankan Cinema industry. She has received the “Silver Peacock Award”in Indian International Film Festival in 2009 and the “Best Actress Award” in Levante 7|Page
  9. 9. International Film Festival, Italy in 2010 for the role of “Sandhya Rani” of the film “AkasaKusum” In recent years few best movies made in Cinema industry. The filmproducers such as Tissa Abesekara. Prasanna Vithanage, Vimukthi Jayasundara and AsokaHadagama were become the leader in the industry and they have attempted to breathe newlife in to the industry. Mean while SFC (State Film Corporations) established a unique creditscheme for film production. Loans were given on the basis of a script evaluation. Recentlyreleases classical films like “Sooriya Arana, Samanalatatu, Era Handa Yata, Saroja,Sinhavalokanaya, Abha, Akasa Kusum” and commercial films like “Asai Man Piyabanna,Challengers, Adaraneeya Wassanaya, Hiripoda Wassa” have attracted Sri Lankans toCinemas. 1. Sooriya Arana Film: Directed by Somarathna Dissanayake. “Best Film Award” of Presidential Film Awards Festival 2005 in Sri Lanka 2. Samanalatatu Film: Directed by Somarathna Dissanayake “Hadurmete Gold Award” for the best children‟s feature film at the Seventh International Film Festival in Tunisia 2006. “Best Film Award” of Mexico International Film Festival 2005 “Humanitas Camera Award” & “Jury Mention Award” of Rimouski International Film Festival (Canada) 2005 3. Ira Handa Yata Film: Directed by Bennett Rathnayake This film nominated for the best performing film in Asia category at the 23th Singapore International Film Festival. “Special Jury Awards” of Los Angeles International Film Festival 2010 8|Page
  10. 10. 4. Saroja Film: Directed by Somarathne Dissanayake “Best Asian Film” of Dhaka International Film Festival in Bangladesh. “Bronze Award” of Houston‟s World fest Film Festival “Best Film of the year” of Singapore International Film Festival.5. Sinhawalokanaya Film: Directed by Suneth Malinga Lokuhewa This film won the 4 awards by the Asian Film & Drama Foundation Presents Film Awards Ceremony at Southern California.6. Abha Film: by Jakson Anthony The Silver Gavel Award (ABA) at the American Bar Association in 2009 Abha is the first Sri Lanka to be finished via digital intermediate technology. 7. Akasa Kusum Film: Directed by Prasanna Vithanage “Silver Peacock Award”(Best Actress) of Indian International Film Festival “Best Actress Award” of Levante International Film Festival Italy 2010 “Jury Special Mention Award” of Vesoul Asian Film Festival France “Best Asian Film Award” of Granada Cinesdelsur Film Festival Spain 2011 9|Page
  11. 11. History of Sri Lankan Film IndustryThe first film to be screened in Sri Lanka (called Ceylon up till 1972) was a silentnewsreel shown to Boer prisoners of war in 1901. The first cinema hall was openedin Colombo in 1903. The Colombo Cinema Society, thought to be the first FilmSociety in Asia, was started in 1945. There was no „long period of silent‟ as such inthe history of Sri Lankan film making Kadawunu Poronduwa (Broken Promise),made in 1947 with Sinhalese language dialogue, is accepted as the first Sri Lankanfilm. It was produced by S.M.Nayagam for Chitrakala Movie tone in South India.After its release, more Sinhala films were produced in South Indian studios, usingactors and actresses shipped over from Ceylon. These films, produced by Indiandirectors and technicians, were really South Indian in attitude, formation andpresentation. Many were direct copies of South Indian films in both storyline andacting styles. The three major commercial production and distribution companies,Ceylon Theatres, Ceylon Studios and Ceylon Entertainments began to have avirtual monopoly of the cinema industry in Ceylon by the late 1940‟s. Theaudiences for imported Tamil and Hindi films move faster than for Sinhala films. With the granting of independence to Ceylon in 1948 and the emergence of nationalism, efforts were made to redeem the Sinhala film from Indian influences. Sirisena Wimalaweera, who opened his Navajeevana Film Studios in 1951 and produced a film - Podi Putha (Younger Son) in 1955, is credited with giving birth to the indigenous cinema of Sri Lanka. The Government Film Unit (GFU) was established in 1948 to produce newsreels and documentaries to educate the people on their newly won independence. Noted for its „creative treatment of actuality‟ and high filmmaking standards, many GFU films won international awards. 10 | P a g e
  12. 12. In 1970, the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) led coalition of socialistparties, which advocated centralized planning was swept into power. Thefilm industry was nationalized under the monopolistic control of the StateFilm Corporation (now called the National Film Corporation – NFC). Itsinitial aim of protecting, preserving and developing an indigenous SriLankan film industry was achieved with the fostering of creative andquality film making practices in its first fifteen years. But by the end of the1980‟s, its broader, long-term aspirations and expectations were not beenfulfilled.Some even argue that the total monopoly of the film industry by the NFC,especially over distribution, hastened the decline in Sri Lankan cinema.The 1970‟s was an important decade of experimentation, of seriouswriting and debate about film as having a pleasant appearance form andindustry, and a period of learning from the European and Japanese avant-garde. New trends developed, and many writers and directors whounderstood the creative possibilities of the cinematic language emerged tomake significant films. Among the directors were Mahagama Sekera,Ranjit Lal, D.B. Nihalsinghe and Dharmasena Pathiraja. The latter‟sground breaking „alternative‟ filmmaking techniques coupled with hisstyle of „social realism‟ introduced the concept of „Third Cinema‟ to SriLankan audiences, seen in films like Ahas Gauwa (1974) andBambaruAvith (1978). The 1970‟s also saw the debut of filmmakers who are todayconsidered major directors in the Sri Lankan cinema – such as H.D.Premaratne (Sikuruliya /1975), Vasantha Obeysekera (Wesgaththo /1970)and Sumithra Peries (Gehenu Lamai /1978).Sumithra Peries went on to make films considered to be pioneering fortheir positive portrayal and strong characterization of women. 11 | P a g e
  13. 13. While the established directors continued with their creative work in the1980‟s, this decade also saw the emergence of two other directors ofquality – Dharmasiri Bandaranaike and Tissa Abeysekera. Thelatter‟s Viragaya (1987) was arguably the film of the decade. The late1980‟s and the 1990‟s saw the decline of the Sri Lankan film industrymainly due to the production of too many poor quality films and therestrictive distribution policies of the NFC. Investment in filmproduction fell and technicians and artistes moved into the making alarge profit world of television drama. However, a few youngerfilmmakers of talent emerged in the 1990‟s such as Prasanna Vithanage,Sudath Devapriya, Boodie Keerthisena, Jackson Anthony, Mohan Niyaz,Linton Semage, Asoka Handagama, Udayakantha Warnasuiya andSomaratne Dissanayake. Of these Prasanna Vithanage has received themost international critical acclaim with his award winning films PavuruWallalu(Walls Within/1997) and Purahanda Kaluwara (Death on a FullMoon Day/1997). By January 2000, the film industry was liberalizedwith the ceasing of the NFC monopoly. The NFC retained its regulatoryfunctions however. Various tax incentives for producers were introducedand the importation and distribution of foreign films opened up to theprivate sector. With the NFC now playing a more pro-active andcompetitive role among other film industry players, a bright future forthe Sri Lankan cinema. 12 | P a g e
  14. 14. Political Analysis of the Film Industry in Sri LankaPolitical environment/factorsMarketing decisions are strongly affected by developments in the political environment. ThePolitical environment consists of laws, government agencies and pressure groups thatinfluence or limit various organizations and individuals in a given society. On account ofever-increasing globalization, companies are now affected by the sociopolitical environmentof not only their own country but also other countries with which they have important tradingrelations. Marketers must keenly follow the changing sociopolitical environment of the worldin order to seek out opportunities and to address potential threats.These refer to government policy such as the degree of intervention in the economy. Whatgoods and services does a government want to provide? To what extent does it believe insubsidising firms? What are its priorities in terms of business support? Political decisions canimpact on many vital areas for business such as the education of the workforce, the health ofthe nation and the quality of the infrastructure of the economy such as the road and railsystem.Political environment in the Sri Lankan contextThe political environment is considerably stabilized and Sri Lanka is united under oneGovernment after a span of 25 years. A stabilized political system is good news for allindustries as they are more confident about planning long term strategies. Political stability isone of the fundamental aspects for any industry‟s success and growth.With the end of terrorism in Sri Lanka, the North and East areas opened up. The governmentshould take action to build cinema halls to help develop the industry for the Tamilcommunity. This is a new audience which Sri Lankan Tamil directors can make films for.Thus, the government should take initiative to develop the industry in the North. 13 | P a g e
  15. 15. With the positive economic growth (8%) in the country there is clear potential for the filmindustry to grow and prosper. But, it is hard to achieve its potential without funding andsupport from the political arena.When you take the political scenario that is associated with the film industry, people withinthe industry say there has not been significant intervention or any significant politician forthat matter who have done anything for the silver screen for its 64 year history in the island.Some people who come through the film industry as celebrities has used that popularity toenter politics. People like Gamini Fonseka who had an immaculate personality in the silverscreen at one time said that he want enter politics then entered, went on to become thespeaker of the parliament and then had a sad exit.Not many politicians like the cinema industry. But there are some who use the industry as atool for their personal gain and advantage. Actors through their attraction climb on to stagestry to win people‟s hearts and through that try to achieve their political agendas.The governance of the film industry in Sri Lanka is done by the Film Corporation. The filmindustry‟s governing body‟s top management is appointed by the government. Then there isalso the Board of Control for Films Screening as well. Any film to be screened in the countryhas to get the prior approval of this board in order to screen their movie. Actors such as Tenyson Cooray, Ranjan Ramanayake through their funny, jovial acting have tried to point at different aspects of the countries political activities, good as well as the bad. Parliament Jokes, King Hunther are some of the manifestos that the general public liked a lot. In screening such movies there are both the pros and cons. In a way it is also publicly humiliating the politician‟s aswell the parliament where laws are regulated and decisions are made on behalf of the peopleof the country.Producers, Directors and the people involved in the industry say that the government has togive out loans, release the burden of taxes and create policies that are relevant to thebetterment of the industry. They also said that the industry is in need of state of the art 14 | P a g e
  16. 16. studios, Cinema villages, facilities to store filmotography archives and storage facilities forfilms. In the old days, distribution of films was done by the Tamils. Later it was taken over by the government to break the monopoly. However, due to corruption and mismanagement the government had to give back to the private sector. Andcurrently film distribution in Sri Lanka is done by four companies.Latest changes in The Political Environment of Sri Lankan Film industry  Compared to the era of terrorism Sri Lanka experienced a couple of years ago, the current political environment is highly positive to the film industry because, people are in a positive mindset to go and enjoy a film. Also foreign productions are willing to shoot in Sri Lanka because they now have no fears of terrorism.  According to an idea of his Excellency the president Mr Mahinda Rajapakshe the 1st ever fully fledged Tele- Cinema Village in Sri lanka was created and opened recently. 15 | P a g e
  17. 17.  Business typhoon Mr. Jayantha Dharmadhasa appointed as the Chairman of the National Film Corporation.Opportunities in the Political Environment of Sri Lankan Film industryThe opportunities in the industry are immense. Through proper political backing andgovernance, the industry could anticipate a boom.  Sri Lanka has many undiscovered beautiful locations and these can be marketed for foreign productions.  It is also advantageous for foreign films to shoot in Sri Lanka because it is less costly. However, if Sri Lanka intends to earn an income and learn through foreign productions, it is the government‟s responsibility to see that Sri Lanka maintains a good global reputation by maintaining a stabilized political environment.  With the positive economic growth (8%) in the country, there is clear potential for the film industry to grow and prosper. 16 | P a g e
  18. 18.  To manifest to the whole world at large that the fabrications of Sri lanka‟s war crimes are a false thing and that social life inside the country and human right‟s violation‟s are at a low percentage.Threats in Political Environment of Sri Lankan Film industryAnd when you take the treats there aren‟t as such specific instances where you could pinpoint but you can‟t say no as well. The treats are minimal as long as you keep everyonesatisfied.  Politics should not interfere with the screening of films. For example, some movies which are done by people related to politics, screen their films without giving consideration to the lineup of films. Directors and producers can be discouraged by such acts of political powers. Thus government should see that the industry is a fair ground which neither favors the powerful nor discourage other players in the industry.  On the other hand, it was clear that new comers are at lost of how to enter the industry.  May talented young directors, scriptwriters, actors are kept out of the industry because they are unaware of the procedure of the film industry. 17 | P a g e
  19. 19. Recommendations of the Political Environment of Sri Lankan Film industryRecommendations are not enough if there‟s no good political influence to the betterment ofthe film industry of this country. Experience experts and intellectuals may recommend certainthings but until its put into practice it‟s all useless.  The film industry is not seen as a real profession in Sri Lanka, because there is hardly any professional encouragement with regard to acting, direction, camera etc. Government should create policies to encourage youngsters interested in the industry by introducing filming industry aspects in university courses etc.  Thus it has been established that the industry needs a museum, a film institute and many more other things that are relevant to the educational aspects of to develop the industry more professionally.  Using political connections to produce films locally as well as globally. E.g.-: getting permission for certain shooting locations. 18 | P a g e
  20. 20.  Through foreign ministry and ambassador connections marketing and showcasing made in Sri Lanka films which depicts the rich history and grander of the island,culture,social life style,scenaries around the country etc…through this the country could attract tourist,foregin exchange flows into the country and it manifestos the real picture inside the country , because its done in a diplomatic way. By this there‟s more recognition from foreigners. 19 | P a g e
  21. 21. Economic Environment of film Industry in Sri Lanka Economic Environment-Definition Markets require buying power as well as people. The economic environment consistsof factors that affect consumer purchasing power and spending patterns. Marketers must payclose attention to major trends and consumer spending patterns both across and within theirworld market. A study of economies can describe all aspects of a country‟s economy. Such as howcountry uses in it. As an example how much time labors devote to work and leisure. Theoutcome of investing in industries, the effect of tax on a population and why businesssucceeded or fail.Economic Environment of Sri Lankan film industryWhen look at the Sri Lankan film industry, that there are influencing external environmentchanges within the industry. We can identify economic threats and opportunities to the filmindustry over here. The future development of the film industry in Sri Lanka depends entirelyon the production of movies that can shatter box office records and make more than 150percent profit. The hackneyed, outdated policy of giving loans to produce trashy Sinhalafilms will never bring any profitability to NFC. Latest changes in Economic Environment of Sri Lankan Film industry  Opportunities came with IIFA in Sri Lanka  IIFA will also create many economic benefits such as attracting an increased amount of foreign exchange and new business ventures. Sri Lanka has the opportunity to promote tourism with the support of the Indian actors, who have a large network of fans all over the world.  The country has much potential for investment opportunities in cinema and a cinema producing destination are one of the major benefits that the country could gain by hosting IIFA in Colombo. 20 | P a g e
  22. 22.  The SLTPB (Sri Lanka Tourism Promotion Board ) has estimated to generate Rs 4, 025 million (US$ 70 million) from hosting this internationally recognized event. During June 3 to 5 there will be many avenues to build business contacts, which leads to trade and investment. IIFA will also support the two countries to strengthen their business relations and friendship.  The Sri Lankan enterprises can be the progenitor to take our cinema to international heights and that is why the President has formulated tax benefits to elevate the national cinema to enter into the global film market. When an enterprise invests on the production of movies that have magical qualities to dazzle the global audience with their magnificent and spectacular attractions which will enthrall, engross, excite and mystify the audience all over the world simultaneously, the investor will be earning more than 150 percent profit. The following privileges will accrue to the entrepreneur when he invests on the production of specific movies which have the international appeal: * The facility of tax relief available for national film production which costs rupees 35 million and above. * The proposed movies will give more than 100 percent profit when it is exhibited in the film circuits in Sri Lanka. * It will give a minimum of US Dollars one and a half million from its sales in the worldwide market place. * It will open the most powerful and pervading opportunity to advertise specific products and the corporate brand name of the enterprise in the all encompassing marketing strategy to be implemented for the exhibition of a movie which will cover the entire Sri Lanka. It will enhance and expand the sales of product by leaps and bounds when the corporate sector invests in the production of movies. * Unlike any other business venture, production of movies is the one and only investment opportunity that will not only recoup the entire investment with more than 100 percent profit within one year from the date of release. 21 | P a g e
  23. 23. * More than what the investor gains in prestige for his name with fame and the enormous publicity, this is the only area of business activity where he will get tremendous honor, goodwill and respect of millions of people as the investor is focused on public limelight. “I personally feel that if the state is more forcefully and positively involved, the Sri Lankan sign in the world cinema can be easily established” - President Mahinda Rajapaks.The country with the restoration of peace  Sri Lanka being selected to host the upcoming International Indian Film Academy (IIFA) awards is one of the major successes of the country with the restoration of peace. India, with the world‟s largest film industry, produces over 1,000 films per annum. This would be an excellent opportunity for Sri Lanka to promote its tourism at an optimal level.  At present our film industry produce around 25 movies a year than past 10 years. With the thundering success of ‘Aba’  The Sinhala film audience will not be the same again. In order to make money it is primarily essential for the NFC itself to produce its in-house movies that are refreshing, attractive and stunningly entertaining. Threats in Economic Environment of Sri Lankan Film industryAll of these factors threat to the local film industry  Suffering from a lack of finances Sri Lankan cinema is quite productive. Filmmakers like Asoka Handagama and Prasanna Vithanage the third generation. Theyre courageous, creative and have amazing talent. But all of film makers suffering from a lack of finances.. As a result can‟t think what our next films will be because if you dont have any kind of finance, it means you cant think about anything. 22 | P a g e
  24. 24.  National Film Corporation did not funded continually Film makers even begin to conceive a new film. Two years ago, the National Film Corporation funded 40 productions but did not continue the following year because they said, "No, we dont have money and we didnt recover the money we had spent." Independent ventures have no chances The state cant come up with money to finance films, especially for this younger generation, and then there is no hope. Sri Lanka, films dont travel much. Film meant family entertainment but now, because of this economic depression, the whole family cant go to the cinema since it will cost a lot of money. Destroyed theaters during the war In 1983, during the anti-Tamil riots, Sinhala hooligans driven by other interested parties, including powerful sections of the government, set fire to about 50 theatres all over. And during the war, theatres in Jaffna and the northern peninsula were destroyed. So now we have a very limited number of cinemas and thats not enough. But even within Sri Lanka, films dont travel much.  There no restored print film center in Sri Lanka Sri Lankan film industry wants to preserve films and find some finances to get them restored. If it be failure to do this that will be a great disaster of film industry.  Most of Local films were not exposed internationally. Because of hasn‟t money for subtitling. The other thing was haven‟t any kind of international connections .that‟s the reason why local films didnt get proper exposure internationally. Unfortunately, the SIFF screenings were in BETA format and were very bad copies. Sri Lankan film producers did not have a single reprint of a film. As an example: Sri Lankan Director Dharmasena Pathiraja said, when I went to UCLA in Los Angeles in 1994 and screened On the Run, the audience there was surprised at its style. The professor of film and television studies asked me, "Why didnt you send out this film at the time you produced it?" I said the simple answer was I didnt have money for subtitling. 23 | P a g e
  25. 25.  Government following tuff rules and regulations to Film industry The producers earn income of the film, when it came to the theaters but they have to paid 48%of it to the government .As a result there income is not enough to cover their cost.  Have to pay lot of money to foreign actorsDomestic film makers who use foreign actors in a lead role will have to pay 250,000 rupees(2,400 dollars) for every picture made. A foreign star in a supporting role will cost 150,000rupees (1,400 dollars), under the move aimed mainly at imports from India which is theworld‟s biggest producer of movies. As a result it will be affected to the film industry  Most of people not really interested to watching local movies. Because of it‟s not exceed their satisfaction. As an example: Quality is not enough Comparing with Hollywood and Bollywood movie standards.  Producers should be paid advertising expenses for a film. Its cost is high.  There no film academy‟s in Sri Lanka. As a result talented and experience actors not enough to the film industry.  Wasting lot of money to unbeneficial things. As an example: Ranminithanna-Sri Lanka has more beautiful locations. And Ranminithanna situated at Hambanthota. Recommendations of Economic Environment of Sri Lankan Film industryWith very little effort, we can make significant improvements in the way we use resourceswhile we reduce our waste. And to our surprise we have realized, whilst we make theseimprovements, we are going to save money.  Try to restored prints of films will be available for one day. And get support of the Asian Film Centre, because of this one behind in this venture, wants to preserve these films and planning to find some finances to get them restored.  Scholarships to young filmmakers who have studied cinema at foreign institutions 24 | P a g e
  26. 26. The Sri Lankan film industry has potentials. “Though there is no functioning film instituteand no proper technical support available in Sri Lanka, young filmmakers who have studiedcinema at foreign institutions, are winning awards at prestigious international film festivalslike Cannes and Toronto. As a result Sri Lankan film industry can earn more profits throughit.  Most of film theaters were destroyed and closed during the war and contemporary issues last years. Now it‟s time to repair it, develop facilities and open to the Sri Lankan audience. Provide special offers to them. As an example: Offering free tickets for special events-1st October Specialoffers for school children‟s to watch children‟s movies. 25 | P a g e
  27. 27. Socio-Cultural-Demographic Environment of film Industry in Sri LankaCultural Environment-DefinitionThe Cultural environment is made up of institutions and other forces that affect a society‟sbasic values, perceptions, preferences, and behaviors. People grow up in a particular societythat shapes their basic beliefs and values. They absorb a world view that defines theirrelationships with others. The following cultural characteristics can affect marketing decisionmaking.  Persistence of cultural Values : People in a given society hold many beliefs and values. Their core beliefs and values have a high degree of persistence.  Shift in secondary cultural values: Although core values are fairly persistence, cultural shifts do take place, but much more slowly.  People‟s views of themselves: People vary in their emphasis on serving themselves versus serving others. Some people seek personal pleasure, wanting fun, change and escape. Others seek self-realization through religion, reaction or the avid pursuit of careers or other life goals. People use products, brands and services that match their views of themselves. 26 | P a g e
  28. 28.  People‟s views of others: In past decades, observes have noted several shifts in people‟s attitude towards others.  People‟s views of organizations: Many people today see work not as a source of satisfaction but as a required chore to earn money to enjoy their non-work hours.  People‟s views of society: People vary in their attitudes toward their society. People‟s orientation to their society influences their consumption patterns and attitudes toward the marketplace.  People‟s view of nature: People vary in their attitudes toward the natural world.  People‟s view of the universe: People vary in their beliefs about the origin of the universe and their place in it.Cultural environment in Local film industryLester James Peries has been credited with the establishment of an indigenous Sinhalacinema coinciding with Sri Lankas political, social and Cultural Revolution during the mid-1950s. 27 | P a g e
  29. 29. Latest changes in Cultural Environment of Sri Lankan Film industry  Cultural change in third generation  The overarching influence of great film makers such as Lester James Peris, Satyajit Ray, Kurosawa and pioneer filmmakers of the European schools such as Krzystof Kielowski and Andrei Tarkovsky on prassana‟s application of media, particularly, in a Sri Lankan context tackling sensitive social issues at micro and macro levels, earned his films worldwide acclaim and making them truly cultural ambassadors in the international arena. As an example: Looking at his corpus of cinema commencing with Sisila Gini Gani (Ice of fire), to Akasa Kusum, one does observe his signature diction and the humanist approach towards the subject.  Review of the darkest periods in the contemporary history of Sri Lanka  The significant characteristics of Prassanna vithannage application of cinema is his awareness of the contemporary issues and the sensitive way in which he deals with case. His films dealing with the conflict such as Purahanda Kaluwara and Ira Madiyama (August Sun) cinematically codifies one of the darkest periods in the contemporary history of Sri Lanka.  The situation is fast deteriorating. The main thing is this ethnic war, which has been around for decades.  Some movies stand out as one of the highest grossing movies in the history of Sri Lankan cinema: The uninterrupted flow of the movie perseveres with the differences in the attitudes of the two; the monk and the Huntsman. “Suriya Arana” movie ends with the unification of the two sides; the hunter who hoists his own petard by losing his leg, gives his son to the Buddhist order. This movie captures a beautiful theme nourished by the Buddhist teachings. An emotional 28 | P a g e
  30. 30. tug of war is put forth by this colorful production. This movie stands out as one of the highest grossing movies in the history of Sri Lankan cinema. It has left its signature in the minds of the audience.Threats in Cultural Environment of Sri Lankan Film industry  The situation is fast deteriorating. The main thing is this ethnic war, which has been around for decades. The government has money for its own survival. Prices are going up steeply by the day and the suffering of people, so they have enough resources to spend on cultural activities. The other thing is, the cost of making a film today is very high. Not a single film can recover the costs and if one cannot recover the costs one will be in bad shape.  The Sri Lankan audience for locally made films not that much. But its highly competitive because society has changed rapidly over the last two decades. This did not lead to improved standards in the arts and culture but it did pave the way for other social changes. In 1971 had a youth uprising and people were scared to even go out of their houses.  Short Film culture In the context of Sri-Lankan cinema, this remembrance of the short film could easily be related to its history. Here, the short film has retained its status only as an exercise for the film-makers who rose to fame with the feature film. Dr.Lester James Peries, the realist film-maker, began his career, first, creating a short film titled “Soliloquy”. Another towering figure in country‟s cinema, Dr. Dharmasena Pathiraja, also created a short film titled “Enemies” as his first cinematic experience. The Sate Film Corporation , which was established in the 1971, made the first-hand experience of the short-film making a policy for the aspiring feature film makers by requiring 29 | P a g e
  31. 31. aspiring cinema-artists to make a short film prior to debut as a feature film- maker, and making them entitled to receive public funded production credit. However, problem was not that one made a short film before his long-length film, but the abandonment of the short-film as cinematic-medium thereafter by Anton Wicremesinghe after 1979 by making public funds available to "anyone" with disastrous results. This tradition of short film-making has not persisted longer, in the Sri Lankan context. So, as a distinct form of art, the short film has not been appreciated much and the obsession with the feature film has overshadowed its identity. Therefore, culture of short film has not gained ground so far. The short-film has remained a tendril.Demographic Environment of film Industry in Sri LankaDemographic EnvironmentDemographic environment is the study of human population in terms of size, density,location, age, gender, race, occupation and other statistics. The demographic environment isof major interest to marketers. Because it involves people and people make up markets.Changes in the world demographic environment have major implications for business. Nowlet see this environment how to affect to the local film industry.Latest changes in Demographic Environment in Sri Lankan film industry Increasing population in Sri Lanka affect to increase film halls in island wide- nearest 170  Sri Lankan population increasing in year to year. As an example after year 2005, film halls in Sri Lanka nearly 78, but now it‟s nearly 170. 30 | P a g e
  32. 32.  The demographic environment itself is affected by changes in the mix of age groups in the population.  Last ten years the population becomes older; this will lead to rising demand for “elders‟ only films” producing.  A similar fall in demand for Sinhala children‟s movies by younger people than other productions.  Most of films making regarding to the youth generations.  Now a day‟s populations of woman are increasing continuously. As a result most of film making regarding to their natural life .And troubles of they face in this society. As an example: Prostitution, Abortions, Immigrations and etc. Different Price of tickets on people’s income  Audience income is different. So they can buy tickets on their budget. As an example: ODC-250/=, Gallery-150/=, Balcony-300/=. Film making for different nationals in the country. As an example: screening of Tamil language films Develop different facilities in film halls.  Most of film halls try to provide different facilities to their customers. Because of people has different backgrounds and status. It‟s different from region to region. As an example:Cinemax Cinema in Ja-Ela is one of top end movie cinemasthat are operated by EAP films and Theaters outsideColombo and it is one of the most sought after cinemas bythe patrons living outside Colombo. At present it screensmost of the top end movies including English, Sinhala, andHindi language movies.Facilities Car Parking Snack Shop 31 | P a g e
  33. 33. Liberty Cinema, owned and manage by EAP Films &theaters private Limited, it has for a long period of timebeing the one of the top end movie entertainment centers inColombo, Sri Lanka. Liberty Cinema is known for itsscreening of top end English, Sinhala and Hindi Movies.The cinema currently screens four movies per day. Film makers produce different type of films. As a result they think creatively. As an example: Elders only films making for Adult Kid‟s movies for Children Family movies Romantic films Comedy, Action movies and ect. Most of Sri Lankan film producers try to make 3D animation films for kids. They try to catch children‟s.Threats in Demographic Environment of Sri Lankan Film industry Most of people move to watch Hollywood, Bollywood and Kollywood films because of their technology is superb and quality is excellent. When they compare with international and local films, our industry positioned in down. That why most of people don‟t like to watch local films. That is a big disaster to the local film industry. Tamil people in this country 32 | P a g e
  34. 34. Technological Environment of film Industry in Sri Lanka Technological Environment TECHNOLOGY REVOLUTIONIZING THE MOVIE INDUSTRY The technological environment includes forces that create new technologies, creating new product and market opportunities. 1). Technology is perhaps the most dramatic force shaping our destiny. 2). New technologies create new markets and opportunities. 3). the following trends are worth watching: Faster pace of technological change. Products are being technologically outdated at a rapid pace. There seems to be almost unlimited opportunities being developed daily. Consider the expanding fields of health care, the space shuttle, robotics, and biogenetic industries. The challenge is not only technical but also commercial--to make practical, affordable versions of products. Increased regulation. Marketers should be aware of the regulations concerning product safety, individual privacy, and other areas that affect technological changes. They must also be alert to any possible negative aspects of an innovation that might harm users or arouse opposition. New technology creates new markets and opportunities. However, every new technology replaces an older technology. As an example, CDs hurt phonograph records, and digital photography hurt the film business. 33 | P a g e
  35. 35. Technological environment of Film industry -Digitization The progression of film toward a more fully digital medium seems obvious. Audio production, postproduction and exhibition continue to be largely digital. Visual effects, titles and editing are almost predominantly handled at the computer desktop. Filmless DLP projection systems have proven successful in theaters. Home video continues its progression towards DVD and Internet-delivered film content. As a result, the only major analog component of the filmmaking process is the actual shooting of the film. It is not inconceivable that the film technology of tomorrow will be fully digital.Latest changes in Technological Environment of Sri Lankan Film industryDigital CinemaFilm has come a long way since the Lumiere Brothers projected amoving train on to a Paris silver screen in December 1895. Sound cameto movies with the famous line you aren‟t heard nothing yet in the1920s. The Lights of New York glistened in color in the 1930s. In1977, Star Wars was waged with surround sound.All this time, though, film remained just that - film, a strip of celluloid with pictures andsound. Now, the digital revolution is threatening to send film to the dustbin of history. Theage of filmless film has arrived.Like other segments of the entertainment industry, film could not resist the invasion of digitaltechnology. Filmmakers have been using digital cameras and editing suites for years. Nowthey have taken the ultimate step of replacing film itself with digital media.Filmmakers have been using digital cameras and editing suites for years. Now they havetaken the ultimate step of replacing film itself with digital media. 34 | P a g e
  36. 36. Theatres around the world are installing digital projectors, which use high-definitiondigitally-encoded discs instead of celluloid. This technology used in Sri Lankan film industryalso. The advantages are obvious: Picture quality is superb; there is no loss of quality even if the film is played 1,000 times. Digital media are highly portable; distribution costs are minimal because digital copies cost much less than film reels to print. Sri Lankan movie industry should take the cue from India and go digital to keep costs down and improve overall quality to give moviegoers a better deal. Sri Lankan movie industry take the cue from India Sri Lankan movie industry take the support from India and go digital to keep costs down and improve overall quality to give moviegoers a better deal. Because of lower costs and higher quality alone can justify the shift to digital cinema. Blair Witch Project Prior to shooting, the director and cinematographer must make a technical decision concerning what film stock to use. The film stock will have a significant effect on the look and feel of the film. Blair witch project combined video and grainy 16-mm film to create a realistic, low-budget look. A more traditional approach is to shoot in the Super 35-mm format to reduce grain and capture superior contrast ratios. Lower budget films and documentaries might be shot on Super 16-mm film. 35 | P a g e
  37. 37. Using 3D Technology Today Sri Lankan film producers try to make competition with Hollywood and Bollywood films. And try to attractive local audience. As an example: Ran kewita.Trends in technology of format and Film Stock, Cameras and Lenses, Lighting, Sound,Editing and Visual Effects, Cameras, Audio  Camera technology is that of the “filmless” camera. High-definition cameras are being tested that record images either or digital videodisks (DVDs) or directly to hard drivers. The use of such cameras would allow for instantaneous review and preliminary editing of material while eliminating film and developing costs.  The technology of a feature film centers on the screen format, Sri Lankan film industry start to non definition television (non-HDTV) which is the same aspect ratio as traditional television screens.  As an example: High Definition (HD) technology has been used for the production of the film. 36 | P a g e
  38. 38.  CamerasMost feature films produced in Sri Lanka are shot on 35mm Cinemascope. Almostall commercials are produced on 35mm standard formats if not on Video.Unfortunately Cameras and Lenses are not available off the shelf – like inAmerica or Europe. Individual equipment suppliers in Sri Lanka have a basicCamera set-up with Camera body, 5 or 6 standard PrimeLenses , a couple of Zooms, standard filters in eachCamera Package. There is a wide selection of Arriflex IIIsand Arriflex 435s and Arriflex 535s available from India(some 435 owners have now upgraded to Ultra Primes inIndia). LightsThere are a couple of rental houses in Colombo – Sri Lanka that workpredominantly for foreign crews filming in Sri Lanka.There is a selection of HMIs – PARS, FLICKER FREEAND NORMAL – 16, 12, and 8 KWs from India. 6KWsand below plenty – though Pars & Flicker frees are limited. TUNGSTEN LIGHTS– 10KWs, 5KWs and below – plenty KINOFLOS. Grip EquipmentHigh end Grip packages are usually hired from India. Grip packages come withcrew. In terms of equipment from India, there are Akela Cranes, Panther Dollies,Elemak Cranes, and Phoenix Crane with hot heads and Jimmy Jibs with hot heads.There are also Giraffe Cranes and a Super Panther is available.Sri Lanka is also equipped with most of the above equipment. Hiring locallywould reduce the overall cost on project. 37 | P a g e
  39. 39.  Steady-Cams & Operators There are a handful of Steady-cam Operators in Mumbai and Chennai (India).So Sri Lankan film artists hiring these equipments from India.  Generators Plenty of ordinary generators up to 125KVA. Silent /limped generators up to 125KVA.Now Sri Lankan film artists use this for increased their quality of the movie.  Sound Plenty of Nagras, also quite a few Data with good microphones are available. There are a handful of highly recommended Sound recordists with international exposure working with foreign film crews coming to Sri Lanka as well as live broadcasters like CNN, BBC etc.Opportunities in Technological Environment of Sri Lankan Film industry  Get support from our neighbor country of IndiaTheatres around the world are installing digital projectors, which use high-definitiondigitally-encoded discs instead of celluloid and Sri Lanka also can use thistechnology, lower costs and higher quality alone can justify the shift to digital cinema.Film producers and theatres in neighboring India are turning to digital cinema torevive the fortunes of their movie industry, so we can learn and hire their experience. 38 | P a g e
  40. 40.  The key players on the production team are hired for their expertise in the technical craft of film making. As a result film producers can achieve their goal.During the preproduction stages of a feature film, thescreenwriter, director, production designer, andcinematographer may have widely differing visionsconcerning the ultimate look and sound of the film. Eachscene has a series of variables that must be addressed prior to setup and shooting.Decisions about the technology that is to be used during the principles shootingwill affect what the audience ultimately sees at the multiplex. Through the directoris responsible for the finished product, the key players on the production team arehired for their expertise in the technical craft of film making. Aba’ aims international heights from technology Having seen the trailer, the officials from China who came to Sri Lanka recently were highly impressed with the film‟. The delegation was on a mission to share their knowledge and technology with Sri Lanka. 39 | P a g e
  41. 41. Threats in Technological Environment of Sri Lankan Film industry  Most of Sri Lankan Films were not exposed internationally. UCLA in Los Angeles in 1994 and screened “On the Run”, the audience there was surprised at its style. But Sri Lankan artists haven‟t money for subtitling. The other thing was they haven‟t any kind of international connections. Thats the reason why their films didnt get proper exposure internationally.  Coming up bad copies to the market Unfortunately, the SIFF screenings were in BETA format and were very bad copies. They have not a single reprint of a film. Theatres around the country and world also are installing digital projectors, which use high-definition digitally-encoded discs instead of celluloid. The downside of this Digital prints are a pirates dream because illegal copies can be made easily if they hack the studios encryption codes.  digital cinema at home at near-identical resolution The availability of true high-definition formats like VHS D-Theatre (in the US) and Blue-Ray Disc, the successor to DVD, (in Japan) means that viewers can experience digital cinema at home at near-identical resolution. It is only a matter of time before these formats go on sale around the world.  There are movies on demand over cable TV, compressed digital films, and DVDs in the mail. It‟s been a long time that movies were just available in theaters, but now there are movies on demand over cable TV, compressed digital films, and DVDs in the mail. Technology has changed how one watches movies and can even change what we watch. The effects of computer technology on film making and sales of 40 | P a g e
  42. 42. movies are indeed notable because renting or buying a DVD is now fading with technology hinting at an even greater transformation.  New digital cameras can capture sharper, clearer footage, and technology has made special effects increasingly impressive. Digital technology has also become cheaper and more accessible. The transformation is at least as sweeping as the introduction of sound or color in the early 20th century, and it is changing both the business and art form of cinema. In October of 2003, Disney and Twentieth Century Fox jointly set up a company website to expand the scope of its services to the home audience via high-speed broadband internet access and computer data equipment. This in essence, means that the “home cinema” movie theater image would be more perfect than the online music market. Major issue of camera selection and lens choiceCamera selection may appear to be difficult procedure; however the choice that areavailable to filmmakers are somewhat limited. There are only a handful ofprofessional camera makers. The cinematographer looks at what cameras areavailable. The ultimately decision will be made based primarily on thecinematographer‟s experience and preference. With camera and format in mind, lenschoice is the next major issue. Movie theaters would not exist where virtual reality is the predominant means, and theater owners might not survive the DirecTV and the internet waves. The jump in DVD sales by online streaming was affecting not just the DVD companies but another impact was the extra pressure that was put on studios to get their films on demand, sooner at the expense of movie theaters. The studios pointed out that most of the films earned maximum profits in the first few weeks of release. Leading film makers also opined that theaters are “the most optimum and profitable exhibition area” of the art form. The impact of technology on film making and how films may be viewed in future is perhaps more dramatic than the change witnessed in improving the audience experience. 41 | P a g e
  43. 43.  Most of local audience not likes to watch Sri Lankan movies because of quality are not good and they not satisfied because of they try to compare with international films. The lack of facilities and technology„Sarasavi‟ studio which is in dire straits and showed them theproblems about the lack of facilities and technology. But havingseen certain scenes of Aba, Chinese official complained that we were making filmswith international standards while complaining about the poor facilities‟.Recommendations of Technological Environment of Sri Lankan Film industry  Provide better education about how to use technology in a film. So local film industry can get better output .This can be start from universities.  Sri Lankan government should provide loans to import these technical equipments. Because of these equipments are very expensively .as result films makers can make profits over through their films.  Hiring equipments from other countries in agreements. Because they might be increase their rental fee for hiring very often. When we hiring under these limitations its benefit to us because of low cost.  Introducing new technologies to the local producers, through promotions and conferences. Because of most of film producers don‟t know how to use these for their production .sometimes they use expensive equipments but it‟s not fulfill their expectations. As a solution of new technology for low cost and can get good quality.  Get experience of working with experts. Given scholarships to working with Hollywood and Bollywood film making teams. And they can share their knowledge with who work in local film industry. 42 | P a g e
  44. 44. Natural Environment of film Industry in Sri Lanka Natural Environment-Definition The natural Environment involves the natural resources that are needed as inputs by marketers or that are affected by marketing activities. Some parts of the world are rich in natural resources. Industries cluster in a region based on the availability of natural resources. Natural Environment of film Industry in Sri LankaSri Lanka offers wide variety of locations, the cultural heritage the diverse people and thescenic beauty, draws Film makers to shoot in Sri Lanka and above all the Sri LankanHospitality.Naturalists say Sri Lanka is one of the easiest places in the world to spot whalesbecause whales come very close to the shore.Sri Lanka has many natural locations,Such as, Natural beaches 43 | P a g e
  45. 45. Water fallsMountains & plainsRural villageRiversWild life 44 | P a g e
  46. 46. Sky scrapersLatest changes in Natural Environment of Sri Lankan Film industry Wild Screen visit from Sri Lanka Some of the most prominent wildlife and environmental filmmakers are returning home after a hugely successful educational outreach trip to India and Sri Lanka, organized by UK based conservation charity Windscreen. Supported by the British Council, the Wild screen India and Sri Lanka Film Festival attracted 1,000s of delegates, with its programmed of award-winning film screenings and master classes, touring six cities across the countries in a bid to reach, engage and inspire new audiences to the wonders of the natural world. This latest trip marks the third time Wild screen has visited India and Sri Lanka, with previous programmes having taken place in 2007 and 2009. The 2011 Wild screen India and Sri Lanka Film Festival was held in the Indian cities of Bhubaneswar, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Pune; and in Sri Lanka‟s capital Colombo. 45 | P a g e
  47. 47. What is the wild screen Charity?The Wild screen charity, which sits at the heart of the international natural history mediaindustry, works globally to promote an appreciation of biodiversity and nature throughthe power of wildlife imagery. The Wild screen Festival in the UK has been the world‟sfinest platform to exchange ideas, share best practice and provide training to wildlife andenvironmental filmmakers for almost thirty years. And it is through this work that Wildscreen has helped nurture and shape natural history filmmaking as we know it today.Passionate about conservation communications, Wild screen Outreach encompasseslocal, regional and national initiatives – a particular focus for this work is in developingcountries, where pressure on the environment is most critical.Foreign films used many Sri Lankan locations 46 | P a g e
  48. 48. Ex: Location FilmsKandy locations Indian Jones and the temple of doomColombo locations Emden men, Midnights children, Mother Teresa,Gall locations Emden men, Ghosts can‟t do itDikwella location Emden menPeradeniya The second jungle bookPiliyandala Water Sri Lankan Film producers also make more films regarding these natural locations.Most of local films use these natural locations. As aresult Sri Lanka famous in the world. Ex: Sooriya arana Sinhala movie,Sooriya arana is a 2004 drama film from Sri Lanka, Directed bySomarathne Dissanayaka. Sooriya Arana film winner of 10presidential film awards. 47 | P a g e
  49. 49. Opportunities of Local Film Industry regarding to natural environment Movie makers eye Sri Lankan locations Highlights Sri Lankan film producers can produce a film in low cost budget. Because of they don‟t want to go abroad to find suitable locations for their movies and they can catch the foreign market also. As an example: Sri Lankan films got many foreign awards. Alimankada film participated Shanghai film festival 2010 Malani Fonseka participated 18th Brisbane international film festival. She nominated for the international critics fipresci award Akasa Ksum got Jury award, ( Asian film festival in France)Many international production companies come to film here because of our naturalenvironment. As a result Sri Lankacan earn more profits through it. The environment is one of our unique selling points. It‟s simple: good environmental management has positive effects on the environment and for our industry. The beauty of our country captured on film is big business. Many international production companies come to film here because of our natural environment. Tourists are inspired to visit Sri Lanka by what they see in our country. 48 | P a g e
  50. 50. Major opportunity of wild screen came to here.As a result:  They provide a two day programme in each city saw a variety of master classes and workshops being delivered into many aspects of wildlife and environmental filmmaking, from industry trends and the art of storytelling, to managing production, script writing and career guidance.  “Wild screen was delighted to have the opportunity to again partner with the British Council, to enable our return to India and Sri Lanka. And their aim with this programme is to encourage local involvement in wildlife and environmental filmmaking and to connect local practitioners with the UK and international industry. This is a best opportunity to Sri Lankan go to international market.  “By bringing some of the world‟s most prestigious industry experts in the field of natural history filmmaking to India and Sri Lanka, Wild screen can further its reach and help aspiring filmmakers in regions most affected and under threat from environmental issues.Threats in natural Environment of Sri Lankan Film industry Movie makers do not care about natural environment This is a high impact industry where there is a perception that film makers don‟t care about the environment. In fact, they do care – they are talented professionals with a passion for their craft and a natural affinity for matters environmental. 49 | P a g e
  51. 51. Every production impacts of the environment.All organizations leave their footprint on the environment and our industry is no exception. Inthe studio and on location, work consumes large amounts of energy and natural resources.They generate waste and sound pollution.As an example: When foreign (Bollywood and Hollywood) Movie producers use hightechnology to their productions, so it‟s harm to our natural environment. Recommendations of Natural Environment of Sri Lankan Film industryWe can start to make a difference, helping to increase the public‟s understanding of thenatural world and the very real need to conserve it. Send this message through community,advertising, and campaigns with famous actors, actresses and film producers.Let’s face it. If we mess up Planet earth too much, it isn’t like making a movie. We don’thave a backup location. Greening the Screen of Sri LankaFilm producers considering caring for the environment on their next production. All of themtry to do bit for the environment. Greening the Screen – an environmental toolkit for filmindustry.Let’s face it, every production impacts of the environment.All movie makers leave their footprint on the environment and our industry is no exception.In the studio and on location, our work consumes large amounts of energy and naturalresources. We generate waste and emissions. We make great use of both natural and builtenvironments and this adds environmental responsibilities to the production schedule. 50 | P a g e
  52. 52. Think smart, work better and add valueIn all types of industries, people are recognizing that it is essential to factor the environmentinto business planning.Good environmental practices bring cost savings, better risk management and reducedliability for any production. But equally important, responsible business managementenhances reputation, increases competitive advantage and provides better access to investorsand funding.There is to be vision of Sri Lanka on film is big businessThe environment is key to the success of our screen production industry.The beauty of our country captured on film is big business. Many international productioncompanies come to film here because of our natural environment. Tourists are inspired tovisit Sri Lanka by what they see in our country.The environment is one of our unique selling points. It‟s simple: good environmentalmanagement has positive effects on the environment and for our industry.Environmental management: setting and achieving transparent and challenging targets forcontinual improvement in environmental performance.An opportunity to demonstrate leadershipAn opportunity to demonstrate leadership in environmental management by: understanding the environmental impacts of their work showing others what they can do to protect and enhance the environment Simply doing the right thing whenever movie makers can. 51 | P a g e
  53. 53. Sri Lanka has a diverse pool of acting talent with a wide range of ethnicities available to theinternational production. There are no restrictions or quotas on bringing international cast tofilm in Sri Lanka. So government should bring rules and regulationsto protect our nature.It’s easy to make a differenceIt‟s not just what happens on screen that matters. Behind the scenes, there are manyopportunities to introduce energy, water and other resourceconservation measures that reduce or eliminate waste.Environmentally responsible practices often mean we cando more with less.Just to give you an idea, think of all these things which we use daily in movie making thathave an environmental impact: paper use for scripts energy use for lighting catering waste materials used to build sets chemicals needed for film processing technical equipment Media and information technology. 52 | P a g e
  54. 54. This is just the tip of the iceberg; there are many more aspects of our work where we canmake a difference.The environmental toolkit is full of ideas and examples intended to help companies andproductions use their creativity to seek win-win solutions for success on the screen and forthe environment.Greening the Screen will: encourage companies to strive to improve environmental performance help protect Sri Lanka‟s natural, historical and cultural heritage and the value of the “clean green Sri Lanka” image contribute to sustainable economic growth in the screen production industry enhance the reputation and competitiveness of the industry support the adoption of environmentally responsible practices Demonstrate sector-wide leadership in corporate environmental responsibility.Sri Lankan government should fund to protect natural resourcesSri Lankan government should bring policies than before to protect the natural environmentbecause of Hollywood and Bollywood films also making here. They use high technologies; itmay be create big disaster to our nature. 53 | P a g e
  55. 55. Legal environment in the film industry of Sri LankaLegal environment/factors:These are related to the legal environment in which the film industry operates. In recentyears in Sri Lanka there have been many significant legal changes that have affected theindustry‟s behavior. The introduction of age discrimination and disability discriminationlegislation and an increase in the minimum wage are examples of relatively recent laws thataffect an industrys actions. Legal changes can affect an industrys costs (e.g. if new systemsand procedures have to be developed) and demand (e.g. if the law affects the likelihood ofcustomers buying the good or using the service).  These are the questions someone would have when dealing with issues with the legal aspect of the film industry  Are there any legal problems with using a specific product in my film?  Can I use a song or other copyrighted work in my film if I change ... percent of it?  Can treatments be sold to film studios or production companies to adapt them into screenplays?  Do I need permission to use locations in my city?  Do I need permission to use my actors image in my own films?  Do I need to get my film rated before I can show it to an audience?  Do I need to get the rights to music used in my film if I am not charging people to view it?  How do I copyright my companys name?  How do I check whether my movie name is available?  How do I copyright my script?  How do I get the rights to adapt a book into a screenplay?  How do I get the rights to use a song/music in my film?  How do I prepare a prospectus and/or investor memorandum for my film?  How do I start a film production company? 54 | P a g e
  56. 56.  If I show my character watching TV, do I have to get permission show whatever is on the screen?  If I use fake guns in a public place am I legally obligated to inform the local police?  Is it necessary to obtain a release from everyone whose face appears on camera?  What good legal resources are out there?  What type of insurance should a filmmaker consider?  Whats the deal with referring to copyright/trademarked material in a script?  Why should I copyright my work?Legal environment in the Sri Lankan contextThere‟s a mechanism for censorship.Screening of movies has to obtain prior permission from the board of control for screening inmovies of Sri Lanka.Latest changes in the legal Environment of film industry Minister given powers to intervene and stop screening.Opportunities of the Legal environment High standard good quality productions done ethically. A good legal structure protects the players of film industry and encourages them to pursue their talents without fearing that the industry will fall. A solid legal environment ensures that the industry is stable. Consequently, a sound legal system reflects professionalism in the industry. To silence certain unbiased accusations. 55 | P a g e
  57. 57. To prevent from certain people using the law unnecessary to sabotage the movie. To prevent petitions or motions. To stop piracy. Unauthorized access blocked. Original productions are preserved. Good productions come out because of a strong legal background within the industry.Threats in the legal environment of Sri Lankan Film industrySome films are not allowed to shown in the Sri Lanka because they do not pass through thecensorship test. Legal restriction as such discourages producers and directors to make filmsthat address forbidden yet important issues in the society.Corrupt people try to overpower the legal system through bribes and threats. Theseincidences harm the credibility and stability of the industry.  Privacy policy. E.g. Actresses certain scenes exposed among people and media.  Taking legal action because of copy right issues.  Because of jealousy and to sabotage the film taking unnecessary legal action and depriving the film of screening in Sri Lanka.  Producers and directors going above the law and taking mean advantage of the actors.  Actors not paid and filing cases against producers and directors.  Terms and conditions not stated properly.  No legal entity or board, specific lawyers to look into matters regarding regulations and legal issues. 56 | P a g e
  58. 58. Recommendations of the legal Environment of the Sri Lankan Film industryEstablishing a solid legal entity to look into matters in the film industry.Well conceived regulation can encourage completion and ensure fair productions ,thusgovernments develop public policy to guide commerce sets of laws and regulations that limitbusiness or production to the of society as a whole.Written regulations cannot possibly cover all potential production or marketing of films,beyond written laws and regulations, films are also governed by social codes and rules ofprofessional ethics. Copyright and Intellectual Property: In order to secure meaningful distribution for a film, a producer must be able to prove that he or she owns, or has a license to use, EVERY piece of intellectual property in the film. Screen credit: The copyright owner might ask for screen credit in exchange for the Producer‟s use of the work. It is important to be careful about granting too Many screen credit rights too early in production, especially for general areas Such as “Producer” or “Executive Producer” because distributors and Investors often have specific screen credit requirements. For example, an Investor might require a credit as being the only “Executive Producer.” If a Producer has already agreed to give an executive producer credit to someone Else, this could interfere with the producer‟s ability to close a good investment Deal. Other provisions: An agreement may deal with the right to write the screen play, the right to write any sequels or television versions, or the rights to produce live stage versions, novelizations, and derivative works based on the screenplay. In some instances, rather than actually licensing a screenplay, a producer might “option” a novel or screenplay. An “option” means that the producer has paid an author a fee to “tie up” the story, for a limited period of time so that no one else can produce it while the producer searches for finance or distribution. 57 | P a g e
  59. 59. Legal aspects involved with the Film IndustryCopyright and Intellectual Property:In order to secure meaningful distribution for a film, a producer must be able to prove that heor she owns, or has a license to use, EVERY piece of intellectual property in the film.“Intellectual property” includes many things, such as the right to use the screenplay, the rightto use the music in the soundtrack, the right to use the title of the film, the right to use anybrand names that appear in the film, ownership of the actors‟ performances and many otherissues. It is critical that a producer be very conscious and organized with regard to intellectualproperty.Representations and warranties:This is the part of the agreement where the current copyright owner represents and warrantsthat he or she actually owns the copyrights and can freely transfer over the rights to theproducer. A producer can check on the state of copyright ownership by getting familiar withthe Sri Lanka Library of films database at National Film Corporation.• Price:A producer might pay an up-front fee for the use of copyrighted material, or might grant aroyalty in any proceeds from the film, or even a combination of both.• Screen credit:The copyright owner might ask for screen credit in exchange for the producer‟s use of thework. It is important to be careful about granting too many screen credit rights too early inproduction, especially for general areas such as “Producer” or “Executive Producer” becausedistributors and investors often have specific screen credit requirements. For example, aninvestor might require a credit as being the only “Executive Producer.” If a producer has 58 | P a g e