The meaning behind the sabbath


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The meaning behind the sabbath

  1. 1. The meaning behind theSabbath Laindon Bible Class – 23rd January 2013
  2. 2. What we plan to cover (God willing)• Our key note – beginning to get to the meaning• Relevant Hebrew and Greek words• The Sabbath Stage – in Creation [originated] – in the Law [established] – in the Histories [neglected] – in Jesus’ Ministry [wrested]• The Future Sabbath of Rest [fulfilled]• The Lesson of the Sabbath for us
  3. 3. Our key note• Not a day of idleness1...Hebrews 4 v 4, 104 For he spake in a certain place of the seventh day on this wise, And God didrest the seventh day from all his works.10 For he that is entered into his rest, he also hath ceased from his ownworks, as God did from his.• God ordained the Sabbath that man might rest from his own works (doing God’s instead)2• This a fitting parallel to the Creation sequence1 How would this be a glory to God? 2 Giving God both glory and pleasure
  4. 4. Israel’s failure to complyIsaiah 58 v 13-14 NRSV: “If you refrain from trampling the sabbath”13 If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on myholy day; and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, honourable; andshalt honour him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine ownpleasure, nor speaking thine own words:14 Then shalt thou delight thyself in the Lord; and I will cause thee to rideupon the high places of the earth, and feed thee with the heritage of Jacobthy father: for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it.5 Is it such a fast [Day of Atonement] that I have chosen? a day for a man to afflict hissoul? is it to bow down his head as a bulrush, and to spread sackcloth and ashes underhim? wilt thou call this a fast, and an acceptable day to the Lord?6 Is not this the fast that I have chosen? to loose the bands of wickedness, to undo theheavy burdens, and to let the oppressed go free, and that ye break every yoke?7 Is it not to deal thy bread to the hungry, and that thou bring the poor that are castout to thy house? when thou seest the naked, that thou cover him; and that thou hidenot thyself from thine own flesh?
  5. 5. Psalm 92 – for the Sabbath A Psalm or Song for the Sabbath day. it is that they shall be destroyed for ever: 8 But thou, Lord, art most high for evermore.1 It is a good thing to give thanks unto the 9 For, lo, thine enemies, O Lord, for, lo, thineLord, and to sing praises unto thy name, O enemies shall perish; all the workers ofmost High: iniquity shall be scattered.2 To shew forth thy lovingkindness in the 10 But my horn shalt thou exalt like the hornmorning, and thy faithfulness every night, of an unicorn: I shall be anointed with fresh3 Upon an instrument of ten strings, and oil.upon the psaltery; upon the harp with a 11 Mine eye also shall see my desire on minesolemn sound. enemies, and mine ears shall hear my desire4 For thou, Lord, hast made me glad through of the wicked that rise up against me.thy work: I will triumph in the works of thy 12 The righteous shall flourish like the palmhands. tree: he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon.5 O Lord, how great are thy works! and thy 13 Those that be planted in the house of thethoughts are very deep. Lord shall flourish in the courts of our God.6 A brutish man knoweth not; neither doth a 14 They shall still bring forth fruit in old age;fool understand this. they shall be fat and flourishing;7 When the wicked spring as the grass, and 15 To shew that the Lord is upright: he is mywhen all the workers of iniquity do flourish; rock, and there is no unrighteousness in him.
  6. 6. Relevant Hebrew and Greek words ‘intermission’ (Str.) ‘(specifically) the Sabbath’ (Str.) ‘to repose’ (Str.)‘to desist from exertion’ (Str.) Sabbath(s) 110 ‘the Sabbath’ (Str.) ‘to cease’ (BDB) another 1 ‘the seventh day of each ‘to keep or to observe week’ (Thayer) the Sabbath’ (BDB) First appearance: Exodus 16 v 23 Sabbath (day) 59 cease(d)(eth) 47 week 9 ‘a sabbatism’ (Str.) rest(ed) 11 ‘Sabbath observance’ (BDB) various other 13 First appearance: Matthew 12 v 1 First appearance: rest 8 Genesis 2 v 2 a Sabbath 3 First appearance: Exodus 16 v 23
  7. 7. The Sabbath – in CreationGenesis 2 v 1-31 Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.2 And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested onthe seventh day from all his work which he had made.3 And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had restedfrom all his work which God created and made.• Day is “blessed” and “sanctified” Heb. shabath (i.e. made holy or clean)• This the basis of the provisions in the Law• This was the first new day after the creation of man (the culmination of the work)
  8. 8. The Sabbath – in the LawExodus 16 v 23-30 seventh day, which is the sabbath, in it there23 And he said unto them, This is that which shall be none. 27 And it came to pass, that there went outthe Lord hath said, To morrow is the rest of some of the people on the seventh day for tothe holy sabbath unto the Lord: bake that gather, and they found none.which ye will bake to day, and seethe that ye 28 And the Lord said unto Moses, How longwill seethe; and that which remaineth over lay refuse ye to keep my commandments and myup for you to be kept until the morning.24 And they laid it up till the morning, as laws? 29 See, for that the Lord hath given you theMoses bade: and it did not stink, neither was sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixththere any worm therein.25 And Moses said, Eat that to day; for to day is day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of hisa sabbath unto the Lord: to day ye shall not place on the seventh day.find it in the field. 30 So the people rested on the seventh day.26 Six days ye shall gather it; but on theDeuteronomy 8 v 23And he humbled thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with manna, which thouknewest not, neither did thy fathers know; that he might make thee know that man doth not liveby bread only, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord doth man live.
  9. 9. The Sabbath – in the Law (2)Deuteronomy 5 v 12-15 (see also Exodus 20 v 8-11)12 Keep the sabbath day to sanctify it, as the Lord thy God hath commanded thee.13 Six days thou shalt labour, and do all thy work:14 But the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do anywork, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy manservant, nor thymaidservant, nor thine ox, nor thine ass, nor any of thy cattle, nor thy stranger that iswithin thy gates; that thy manservant and thy maidservant may rest as well as thou.15 And remember that thou wast a servant in the land of Egypt, and that the Lord thyGod brought thee out thence through a mighty hand and by a stretched out arm:therefore the Lord thy God commanded thee to keep the sabbath day. Leviticus 23 v 3 3 Six days shall work be done: but the seventh day is the sabbath of rest, an holy convocation; ye shall do no work therein: Heb. asah = ‘to do or make’ (Str.) it is the sabbath of the Lord in all your NET: “observe the Sabbath day” dwellings.GWT: “observe the day of worship” Heb. miqra = ‘something called out’ (Str.) NET: “holy assembly”
  10. 10. The Sabbath – in the Law (3)Leviticus 24 v 5-8 7 And thou shalt put pure frankincense upon each row, that it may be on the5 And thou shalt take fine flour, and bake bread for a memorial, even an offeringtwelve cakes thereof: two tenth deals shall made by fire unto the in one cake. 8 Every sabbath he shall set it in order6 And thou shalt set them in two rows, six before the Lord continually, being takenon a row, upon the pure table before the from the children of Israel by anLord. everlasting covenant.• Also, 2x sacrifices on this day (see Numbers 28 v 9-10) & circumcisions performed on this day (as John 7 v 23)• As Jesus taught, this seeming profaning of the Sabbath was acceptable to God. How so? Because it was doing God’s works!
  11. 11. The Strictness of the Sabbath• The man gathering sticks (Numbers 15 v 32-36)• See also Exodus 31 v 12-17 “cut off... put to death”
  12. 12. The Sabbath – in the HistoriesNehemiah 13 v 15-22 19 And it came to pass, that when the gates of15 In those days saw I in Judah some treading Jerusalem began to be dark before the sabbath, I commanded that the gates shouldwine presses on the sabbath, and bringing in be shut, and charged that they should not besheaves, and lading asses; as also opened till after the sabbath: and some of mywine, grapes, and figs, and all manner of servants set I at the gates, that there shouldburdens, which they brought into Jerusalem no burden be brought in on the sabbath day.on the sabbath day: and I testified against 20 So the merchants and sellers of all kind ofthem in the day wherein they sold victuals.16 There dwelt men of Tyre also therein, which ware lodged without Jerusalem once or twice. 21 Then I testified against them, and said untobrought fish, and all manner of ware, and sold them, Why lodge ye about the wall? if ye doon the sabbath unto the children of so again, I will lay hands on you. From thatJudah, and in Jerusalem.17 Then I contended with the nobles of time forth came they no more on the sabbath. 22 And I commanded the Levites that theyJudah, and said unto them, What evil thing is should cleanse themselves, and that theythis that ye do, and profane the sabbath day?18 Did not your fathers thus, and did not our should come and keep the gates, to sanctify the sabbath day. Remember me, O myGod bring all this evil upon us, and upon this God, concerning this also, and spare mecity? yet ye bring more wrath upon Israel by according to the greatness of thy mercy.profaning the sabbath.
  13. 13. The Sabbath – in Jesus’ MinistryMatthew 12 v 1-8 did eat the shewbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were1 At that time Jesus went on the sabbath day with him, but only for the priests?through the corn; and his disciples were an 5 Or have ye not read in the law, how that onhungred, and began to pluck the ears of the sabbath days the priests in the templecorn, and to eat. profane the sabbath, and are blameless?2 But when the Pharisees saw it, they said 6 But I say unto you, That in this place is oneunto him, Behold, thy disciples do that which greater than the not lawful to do upon the sabbath day. 7 But if ye had known what this meaneth, I3 But he said unto them, Have ye not read will have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye wouldwhat David did, when he was an not have condemned the guiltless.hungred, and they that were with him; 8 For the Son of man is Lord even of the4 How he entered into the house of God, and sabbath day. [see addition in Mark 2 v 27]• How “Lord... of the sabbath day”? Because Jesus did God’s works on this and every day (thus fulfilling the Sabbath principle) cp. John 9 v 4. Also see Matt. 5 v 18
  14. 14. The Sabbath – in Jesus’ Ministry (2)• This explains why Jesus did so many acts of healing on the Sabbath day! ( in total) 1. Man with a withered hand Matthew 12 v 10 2. Man with an unclean spirit Mark 1 v 21,23 3. Peter’s mother-in-law’s fever Mark 1 v 29-30 4. Woman with an 18-year infirmity Luke 13 v 10-11 5. Man with dropsy Luke 14 v 1-2 6. Impotent (lame) man at pool of Bethesda John 5 v 9 7. Man born blind John 9 v 14
  15. 15. The Sabbath – in Jesus’ Ministry (3)Mark 1 v 21-2221 And they went into Capernaum; and straightway on the sabbath day he entered intothe synagogue, and taught.22 And they were astonished at his doctrine: for he taught them as one that hadauthority, and not as the scribes.Luke 4 v 31-3231 And came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee, and taught them on the sabbathdays.32 And they were astonished at his doctrine: for his word was with power.Mark 6 v 22And when the sabbath day was come, he began to teach in the synagogue: and manyhearing him were astonished, saying, From whence hath this man these things? andwhat wisdom is this which is given unto him, that even such mighty works are wroughtby his hands?
  16. 16. The Sabbath and Sunday• The first day of the week, when we remember Jesus, was interestingly the first day after the new creation of manMark 16 v 1-21 And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother ofJames, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.2 And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto thesepulchre at the rising of the sun.Acts 20 v 7 (see also 1 Corinthians 16 v 20)7And upon the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to breakbread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow; and continued hisspeech until midnight.
  17. 17. The Future Sabbath of Rest 6 days of 1,000 years labour 1 day of 1,000 years rest “But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one “Therething, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand remaineth therefore a rest years, and a thousand years as one day.” to the people of (2 Peter 3 v 8) God.” (Hebrews 4 v 9)
  18. 18. The (Crucial) Lesson of the Sabbath