Fullpaper laily amin fajariyah

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This is a descriptive qualitative study on Teachers' perspective of ICT use in their teaching and proffesional development.

This paper was presented in ELC conference, may 2013 in Yogyakarta State university

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Fullpaper laily amin fajariyah

  1. 1. EFL TEACHERS’ ATTITUDE OF THE USE OF ICT IN THEIR TEACHING AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Laily Amin Fajariyah Postgraduate student of State University of Yogyakarta (lailyaminf@yahoo.co.id) ABSTRACT Nowadays, the growth of technology increases the need of it in almost every aspects of human lives including education (Dudeney and Hockly, 2007: 5; Roblyer, M.D. 2003: 10-12). In relation to the fact, this study is aimed at revealing the EFL teachers’ attitude of the use of ICT in supporting their teaching and professional development. The research was a qualitative research with interview and observation technique. It is conducted to five English teachers from some areas in Indonesia who are enrolling their Master degree in UNY. They were randomly chosen. The result of this research shows that EFL teachers’ attitude to the needs of ICT is good: (1) the use of ICT is very useful for their teaching and professional development; (2) they use ICT for planning their teaching such as designing the lesson plan, materials and media; (3) they use ICT while teaching e.g for presenting the materials and/or media or giving students assignment; (4) they use ICT for evaluation and (5) they use ICT for improving their professional development through search engines and social medias. Key words: ICT, attitude, teachers’ professional development. Introduction In this globalization era, information and communication technology (ICT) is an important element in every aspect of lives (Dudeney and Hockly, 2007: 5). The spread of ICT use also reached Indonesia. The increase of internet user indicates that ICT is already merged in our environment. In 2012, a survey conducted by APJII (an association of internet service provider) shows that there are 63 million internet users in Indonesia which are equal to 24.23 % of Indonesia total population (www.antaranews.com). That fact shows that some Indonesian citizens are already ICT literate. Considering the fact above, the education are trying to make use of ICT to various purposes. In education especially in ELT practice, the growth of technologies used are influenced by many reasons, some of them are: (1) technologies are every where so they should be in education and (2) many researches showed that computer-based instructions are effective; (3) young learners grow up with technologies; (4) technologies become mobile; (5) ICT tools can expose learners to and practice in all the four skills (Dudeney and Hockly, 2007: 7-8); Roblyer, M.D. 2003: 10-12). Moreover related to language learning, technologies which include ICT have advantages in language learning. The advantages are (1) gaining learners’ attention; (2) focusing learners’ attention and encouraging them to spend more time on learning tasks and (3) engaging learners through production work (Roblyer, M.D. 2003: 1012). In EFL teaching setting, there are various technologies used by teachers. There are some research done to find out the ICT uses in EFL teaching. One of them investigated the teachers’ attitude of technologies use in EFL classroom (Cahyono and Cahyani in TEFLIN journal, 2012: 130: 145). They found out that teachers use either non web-based or webbased for facilitating the language learning. Besides, the presence of technology in language classrooms is a prerequisite for interesting language instruction and success in language learning. Another research done by Ciptaningrum (in 59th TEFLIN International Conference,
  2. 2. 2012 (43-9) shows that Indonesian teacher professional developmenton ICT portrayed in the LPMP website more emphasis on the teacher’s technological knowledge rather than the integrating on all elements of technological pedagogical content knowledge. The first research done by Cahyono and Cahyani focus on the ICT use by EFL teachers in the teaching process, while Ciptaningrum emphasis on the ICT related to proffesional development. In this research I tried to present the teachers’ attitude of ICT use in their teaching and professional development. As stated before, this reseach study on the other hand focuses on the EFL teachers’ attitude of the use of ICT in their teaching and professional development. It employed a descriptive qualitative design which involved 5 English teachers from some areas in Indonesia who are randomly chosen. They teach in Junior High school and are currently enrolling their Master degree in State University of Yogyakarta. The five teachers are from Banjarnegara, Pontianak, Palangka Raya, Jepara and Lampung Tengah. To gather the data related to their attitude of the use of ICT in their teaching and professional development, I interviewed them through informal interview. Besides, undercover interviews were also done to uncover more information from teachers. The information from the interview later was completed by the result of observation. The observation is more related to their attitude of the ICT use in their daily lives as students of master programme as part of their professional development. Literature Review In conducting this research, I reviewed some theories related to ICT Use in ELTand teachers’ professional development. The thoeries are presented below: ICT Use in ELT There are different attitude of people regarding to the growth of ICT. Some people are afraid of the new technology who are called as technophobes. Some are open to the development and very enthusiastic to it, they are called technogeeks. Recently, there are also two terms of technology users: digital native and digital immigrants. Digital native refers to someone who grows up with technologiy and feels comfortable and confident with it. The digital natives are typically today’s children. On the other hand, digital immigrant refers to someone who comes late to the technology world. Nowadays’ teachers can be categorized into digital immigrants and our students are digital natives (Dudeney & Hockly, 2007: 8-9). As teaching majority of digital natives who are technogeeks, teachers need to be familiar to ICT. There are some possible uses of ICT in ELT from planning to the evaluation stage. In the planning, teachers can use word processors and internet to create materials and write administrative stuffs such as lesson plan and syllabus (Dudeney & Hockly, 2007: 15-20, 359). Besides, teachers can make use of internet and visit some important websites providing information and or enrichment for their teaching. Tamotsu Miyagi (2006) in Brown (2007: 206-9) lists some useful web resources for ESL/EFL. Some websites proposed for English language teaching are Randal’s ESL Cyber lab, BBC World Service Learning English, English Trailer, Apple Movie Trailers, Ello, etc. Those websites will provide teachers with abundant of sources for ELT. While in the learning and teaching processes, ICT may be beneficial for: (1) presenting information; (2) quick and automatic completion of routine tasks; (3) accessing and handling information; (4) modelling and control; (5) Interactivity (Muijs and Reynolds, 2005: 222-225). They show the demand of the integration of ICT in the instruction. In doing so, there is a shift of teachers’ role in the instructional process. With the growth of ICT use in the instructions,
  3. 3. they have played three major roles (Chee and Wong, 2003: 33- 41), those are: (1) teachers as presenter; (2) teachers as facilitator; and (3) teachers as designer. As the presenter, teachers can present their materials through computer or a laptop linked to a projection system. While as facilitators, teachers facilitate the learning process through helping the students learn. As a designer, teachers need to design their own IT-based materials or media. The most difficult role is the third role as designer. To play the role, teachers can take some advantages from websites which provide the abundant materials and media ready to download. ICT Use in Teachers’ professional development There are some definitions of teachers’ professional development. The first definition states that teachers’ professional development can be defined as the process of becoming the best teacher that one personally can be (Underhill, 1986:1 in Head & Taylor, 1997: 1). The other experts, Head and Taylor (1997: 1-4) state that teachers’ professional development is closely related to teacher’s own inner resource for change. It focuses on: (1) personal awareness of the possibility for change and factors influencing the change; (2) self reflective process through questioning the experience. While, the result of a survey (OECD, 2004: 49) in European Union (2010: 19) says that teachers’ professional development can be defined as activities that develop an individual’s skills, knowledge, expertise and other characteristics as a teacher. In conclusion, teachers’ professional development can be referred to the process of becoming better teachers trough developing one’s skills, knowledge and expertise as teachers. Further, the European Union (2010: 12) contends that teachers have a responsibility to extend the boundaries of their professional knowledge through a commitment to reflective practice, through research, and through systematic engagement in continuous professional development from the beginning to the end of their careers. Similarly, Crandall in Celce-Murcia (2001: 535-6) suggests some ways for teachers to keep update as EFL/ ESL teachers, for example: (1) participating in professional associations in TEFL/ TESL and attending conferences; (2) subscribing relevant journals; (3) placing your name on mailing list of ESL/ EFL textbook publishers; (4) participating in electronic discussion group and using internet to access resources; (5) researching issues in your own classroom or participating in research projects; and (6) working collaboratively with professional in other field. Further he lists some website addresses to help teachers in doing those professional update such as www.tesol.org; www.iatefl.org; www.esl-lab.com; www.google.com and etc (Celce-Murcia, 2001: 537-552) Similarly, Richard and Farrel in Brown (2007: 486-7) frame the teacher development process include the following: 1. Skill learning Teachers should develop a range of basic skills those are designing lessons, managing classroom, assesing performance, etc 2. Cognitive process Teachers’ background, knowledge and believes contribute to the cognitive assumption of their instructions. 3. Personal costruction Teachers’ knowledge is actively constructed in an ongoing process of organization and reconstruction as new learning and experience from a personal framework. 4. Reflective practice Reflection and critical examination of their own teaching experience will lead to the improvement of their further development. The above ways proposed by Crandall and Richard and Farrel show that the growth of ICT is also taking part in the process of professional development. To develop one skills and
  4. 4. knowledge, there are some sources to refer to as mentioned in the previous part. Besides, to be able to do a reflective practice, ICT can be used for sharing for example by making use of email and in nowaday’s trend teachers can make use of social medias such as Facebook, Tweeter, Edmodo and so on. More groups in the social media give chance for teachers for an engagement of professional development. Findings and discussion As mentioned in the introduction, this research study tried to investigate EFL teachers’ attitude of the use of ICT in their teaching and professional development. The result of the research is presented below. Teaching Experience and Facilities at School The respondents of this research study are categorized into experienced teacher who have teaching experience more than 10 years. The teachers’ teaching experience can be presented in Table 1 below. Table 1. Teaching Experience No Respondents Start teaching Teaching City in (year) experience 1 Teacher 1 (T1) 2000 13 years Banjarnegara 2 Teacher 2 (T2) 1991 24 years Pontianak 3 Teacher 3 (T3) 1993 20 years Palangka Raya 4 Teacher 4 (T4) 2001 12 years Jepara 5 Teacher 5 (T5) 2000 13 years Lampung Tengah Looking at their teaching experience, they have taught English through many changes. Those are changes of curriculum, changes of teaching methodology and environment. The environment stated above can deal with the facilities available at school. The facilities will be focused on those categorized into information and communication technologies, such as computers, laptop, LCD projectors and internet connection. From the interview, some schools are already provided by internet connection through Wifi and others still have no internet connection. However the schools have already had computer even only one PC and equipped with LCD projector. A teacher from Jepara stated that her school is well facilitated. There is also a language laboratory at school even it is rarely used because of its poor condition. Each classroom has a computer or two and the computer is linked to a permanent LCD projector. Here is how she described the facilities at her school: “.............. Ya hampir sama kayak di sini di kampus ya..jadi kelasnya kecil, sekitar 25 sampai 26 terus lengkap dengan LCD kemudian komputer. Kalau dulu komputernya dua, di depan dan belakang. Tapi sekarang di kelas yang baru hanya satu di depan saja.” “................Ho oh..Cuma suasananya lebih nyaman di kelas kan? Karena di lab itu agak kotor kali ya? Karena jarang dibersihkan terus berdebu terus ininya kan karpetan...jadi pengap gitu lho. Hanya juga nggak terlalu dingin gitu lho. Lebih nyaman di kelas. Kelasnya tertutup to?” In contrast to the school in Jepara which is well-facilitated, there is a school which only has two computers for all students at school. A teacher from Palangka Raya admitted that fact happened in her school: “...........komputernya ada dua, kadang yang satu rusak ya..jadi secara bergantian ya kadang Guru ICT nya itu me..apa..supaya laptopnya dipakai dan kemudian kalau ada siswa yang mempunyai laptop dibawa.”
  5. 5. She stated that there are only two computers for all students. This condition gets worse when one of the computer is broken. To overcome the problem, the teacher lends his laptop and also asks students to bring their own gadget to school. Due to the internet connection, her school has already equipped with it started in 2012. The different facilities at school will influence the way teachers making use of ICT in the classroom. Below are some testimonies from teacher during the interview. EFL Teachers’ Attitude of ICT Use in Their Teaching There are some advantages of ICT in the instruction as mentioned in the literature review. In the teaching and learning process, ICT use for EFL teachers can be divided into three stages: (1) preparing teaching; (2) while teaching; and (3) evaluation. In general, EFL teachers’ attitude toward ICT use is good. They are familiar with ICT and make use of it for their daily lives as teachers and also for their personnal needs. Generally, EFL teachers have good attitude toward ICT use in their teaching. They are not technophobe. They think ICT is a helpful technology which is able to attract students’ attention when it is used in the classroom. In her opinion, the ICT use in the classroom will ease students’ boredom and increase the variation in teaching so it will not be monotonous. Below is a testimony from an EFL teacher from Banjarnegara related to ICT use in the classroom: “Kalau menurut saya ya apa... sangat membantu sekali karena kan dengan ICT itu kan kita bisa memberikan sesuatu yang menarik, sesuatu yang lain sehingga anakanak itu tidak bosen begitu..dengan materi pelajaran. Mereka merasa ada variasi nggak monoton...” Besides, during the interview to a teacher from Pontianak, I found a surprising fact that as an EFL teacher who is a purely digital immigrant, she is a technogeek. She is very enthusiastic to the growth of ICT. Here is her testimony which shows her great attitude toward ICT use “ ........ And we know that internet is the source..if before internet is not widely used, we had the terms of the book is the window of the world. It is changed into something more modern...sophisticaated..that is internet so internet is the window of the world. So, of course we need it when we talk about the development coz the time also..he eh..has developed a situation that now we cannot keep our distance away from something named..err internet.” As presented above, she has an interesting quote “internet is the window of the world” which replaces the previous wise word “book is the window of the world”. From the statement we also can conclude that she is a technogeek who make use of internet for her development. Beside gathering the general information of the EFL teachers’ attitude of ICT use, this study also gathered detailed information related to teachers’ attitude of ICT in those above three stages are as follows: ICT in preparing teaching There are some elements to be prepared by teachers before they teach, such as: sylabus, lesson plan and other administrative stuffs, materials, media and worksheet. When I asked one of the teacher whether she used ICT for preparing her lesson plan, she said she used internet by downloading the available lesson plans but she editted them according to her need. Here is her testimony: “iya mendownload hahhaa..tapi nggak 100% copy paste..agar enak mengajar kan harus diubah gitu..”
  6. 6. Her statement shows that she uses the ICT wisely. She does not carelessly implement the other product gathered from internet without considering her own situation. She pays attention to her teaching situation and students’ characteristics. Another finding shows that for preparing materials, google becomes the most frequently visited search engine as admitted by the teacher from Pontianak (T2) below: “.......so anything that is very very contextual will be available in the internet for example when I teach the use of informal language or slang in English, of course the effective way, effective in a matter of time I just google ..or maybe I want to give the students listening related to the popular song, so of course I refer to google..the lyric and anything...” From google or other search engine in the internet, teachers can prepare abundant materials and media in many forms such as song in audio or video which collaborate audio visual and etc. Further use of ICT in preparing teaching is stated by T5 during the undercover interview. He stated that he makes use of ICT to design and develop his own module or students worksheets. He wrote his own books for his students. In writing the book, he usually designs the layout of the book first and then he finds some materials needed through internet for example pictures of flowers, cat or etc and attaches them to his draft. In conclusion, in the preparation of teaching, ICT offers many advantages to EFL teachers starting from sylabus and lesson plan design to materials and media develoment. Here teachers already fulfill their role as designer (Chee and Wong, 2003: 33- 41). ICT in while teaching After used in the preparation of teaching, there are more various ICT used in the learning and teaching process by EFL teachers to present materials and also facilitate students’ learning. After being investigated, the uses are influenced by scholl facilities. Teacher 1 stated that she sometimes uses technologies such as laptop and LCD projector for a certain occasion as copied below: “Ooo kalau ICT itu kan misalkan kami menyampaikan materi langsung didownload dari internet gitu ya..langsung kita sampaikan. Yaa perlengkapannya itu saja LCD sama laptop kami..karena keterbatasan.....” In this context, the teacher plays the role as presenter. As a presenter, she makes use of ICT to present the materials for students. On the other hand, Teacher 4 from Jepara told the advanced uses of ICT during her teaching. She is not the only one who makes uses of ICTin the classroom but she involves her students to the ICT user during the learning and teaching process. Besides making use of internet to get the materials and projected through LCD projector, she also gives assignment to her students to make a presentation in powerpoint and presented in the classroom. She facilitates students to learn English more through ICT. Here is her testimony: “Anaknya juga. Misalnya ada tugas gitu ya diskusi atau apa? Presentasi untuk teks gitu ya mereka disuruh membikin teks, mereka presentasi ke depan bagus-bagus bikinnya lebih bagus dari gurunya. Misalkan power point ya? Lebih canggih jadi mereka cari gambar-gambar yang sesuai, video-video yang mendukung. Hebathebat.” From her testimony we can say that her students belong to the digital natives so that they grows up with technologiy and feels comfortable and confident with it as shown by their product of presentation which were acknowledged as better than the teacher’s work. To
  7. 7. teach digital natives who are already familiar with ICT, teachers can only play the their role as facilitator. They facilitates them to learn more through ICT. ICT in evaluation After making use of ICT while teaching, teachers also have good attitude of it in the evaluation. Usually the use are related to input the students’ mark to their computer. “Buat nginput nilai sama ya memberikan contoh-contoh sebelum pengambilan nilai.” Further use of ICT in evaluation is for item analysis. A certain programme is run for this process as stated by a teacher as quoted below. “.....untuk assesment kita juga perlu to..untuk mengolah nilai kemudian menganalisis butir item dan sebagainya itu kan sangat perlu kan? Menggunakan IT ya? Bahkan sekolah kami kan ada ini loh..seperti mengumpulkan nilai itu ada program khusus.” The special programme run for evaluation has been designed to make teachers’ work easier. The teacher who has inputted the data to the programme will be able to get information about the final mark and students who pass the standard and who have not. “....... softwarenya itu ada beli mahal itu belinya, setiap guru nanti dikasih kemudian mereka menulis ulangan harian, kemudian tugas-tugas..komplit kemudian nanti terakhir langsung keluar nilai rapot. Nanti ketahuan mana yang harus diremidi mana yang tidak? Itu sangat membantu sekali” As can be seen above, the teacher has positive attitude of ICT use in the evaluation as said in her concluding comment that the software run for evaluation is being helpful. EFL Teachers’ Attitude of ICT Use in Their Professional Development As the first question to find out teachers’ attitude toward their professional development, I delivered a question to them related to their satisfaction of their achievement. When they feel satisfied of what they already achieved then possibly proffessionl develoment is hard to occur. There are two types of answer that I gathered. The first, some teachers admitted that they are satisfied to what they achieved in certain cases but they still feel unsatisfied of other cases. The next answer given by a teacher is that she is absolutely not reaching the satisfaction of what she achieved and still wants to achieve more. However those two types of answers imply the same meaning i.e they are sure that professional development is still needed. Below are the first and second answers delivered by the teachers: “.......when you ask me whether I am satisfied or not so one side I am satisfied when I must compare to some other teachers who haven’t got this opportunity widely open opportunity. But when in a matter of progress will really make us stagnant so ya however I satisfied but I still want to explore” “Ya ndak lah kalau sudah puas ya nggak sekolah lagi..he he” The answers show that teachers have positive attitude toward their own professional development. So, related to the ICT use, I asked them how they make use of ICT for their professional development. Mainly they make use of ICT to upgrade their knowledge of something which they have not known and keep updated with the current trend in EFL. Below is one of the voices of the teacher: “Misalnya untuk mencari informasi? Bisa to? Misalkan yang lagi inn dalam pendidikan apa ya? Kemudian mencari tahu metode atau model yang paling cocok diterapkan di mana gitu kan? Masih perlu lah googling.”
  8. 8. Beside using internet as a resource, the social medias as today’s trend become ways to roffesional development for teachers. Some teachers join a group of EFL teachers and participate in the discussion but some teachers still have a negative attitude of social media use. A teacher who has a negative attitude to the social media thinks that social medias provide more negative value rather than the positive one. So, she still becomes a passive user of them. However, she believes that when one can decrease the negative side then social medias can be used as a source of professional development. Below is the voice of Teacher 1: “Ya e –mail kita manfaatkan bisa ya..skype..terus facebook..itu kan sharing ya..bisa kemampuan kita untuk berbagi kalau bisa memanfaatkan okelah..tapi saya belum bisa mengoptimalkan sih. Jadi masih banyak mudharatnya...” It is in line with my observation result. To my observation,all of the respondents have positive attitude in using ICT for finding information. They like googling to find out information they hardly found in the book. However, certain teachers are still being passive in the social medias. They are rarely connect theirselves to the world through facebook or other social medias. When they are already members of certain groups, they are not actively involved in the discussion of the group. However, some teachers are active in using social medias for supporting their professional development. They join certain groups of EFL teachers in which they can share their practice and get more knowledge of certain thing by asking te other members of the group. This attitude is acknowledged by a teacher as presented below: “O ya I join for example teachers’ voice and another one but I forget the name because as not as active as teachers’ voice so from there I can get information of what is going on related to the professionalism and also a group of other teachers that we like to discuss anything for example now I study in one class and I got the group and in the social network so it will be nice to the place to discuss and get information.” The above testimony shows that the teacher joins “Theachers’ Voice” group which is categorized into an active EFL teachers group and other group. From the groups, she get information and chance to discuss anything about EFL with the other teachers through the social media. It can be concluded that the teachers’ attitude of ICT use for professional development is more to use ICT as source of information. The use of ICT to connect to other EFL teachers through social media has not been optimally used. Conclusion and Suggestion EFL teachers show good attitude of ICT use in their teaching and professional development. They are not technophobes who are afraid of the development of technology. They are open to ICT use and make use of ICT for preparing their teaching, while teaching and evaluation. Google becomes the trend of search engine to consult when they need materials, lesson plan and other information regarding to their practice. Besides, social media such e-mail, skype, and facebook are useful for their professional development bu has not been optomally used. ICT is hoped to be optimally used by EFL teachers without ignoring students’ characteristics and setting of our instructional processes. We should take them into consideration when we make use of ICT. References Antara News. (2012). Pengguna Internet indonesia 2012 Capai 63 Juta Orang. Diunduh dari www.antaranews.com pada tanggal 4 Februari 2013 jam 09.35.
  9. 9. Brown, H.D. (2007). Teaching by Principles: an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy (3rd edition). New York: Longman Pearson Cahyono and Cahyani (2012). Teachers’ Attitude and Technology Use in Indonesian EFL Classroom. TEFLIN journal, 23 (2): pp.130-145 Chee, Tan Sen & Wong, Angela.F.L .(2003). Teaching and Learning with Technoloogy: an Asian-Pacific Perspective. Singapore: Pearsom Prentice Hall Ciptaningru, Dyah.S. (2012). The Meaning of ICT-related Teacher Profesional Development as Represented in One of the Indonesian Education Quality Assurance Council (LPMP)’s Wbsites. The 59th TEFLIN International Conference (pp.43-9). Surabaya Crandall, J. (2001). Keeping Up to Date as an ESL or Efl Professional . in Celce-Murcia (eds), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (pp.535-6). Boston: Heinle & Heinle Dudeney,G and Hockly, N. (2007). How to Teach English Using Technology (Series Editor: Jeremy Harmer). Essex: Pearson Education Limited (Longman) European Union. (2010). Teachers’ Professional Development: Europe in International Comparison. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Union Head, K. and Taylor, P. (1997).Readings in Teacher Development. Oxford : Heineman English Language Teaching Muijs, D and Reynolds, D. 2005. Effective Teaching: Evidence and Practice (2nd edition). London: SAGE Publications Ltd. Roblyer, M.D. (2003). Integrating Educational Technology into Teachinhg—3rd edition. New Jersey: Merril Prentice Hall
  10. 10. Brown, H.D. (2007). Teaching by Principles: an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy (3rd edition). New York: Longman Pearson Cahyono and Cahyani (2012). Teachers’ Attitude and Technology Use in Indonesian EFL Classroom. TEFLIN journal, 23 (2): pp.130-145 Chee, Tan Sen & Wong, Angela.F.L .(2003). Teaching and Learning with Technoloogy: an Asian-Pacific Perspective. Singapore: Pearsom Prentice Hall Ciptaningru, Dyah.S. (2012). The Meaning of ICT-related Teacher Profesional Development as Represented in One of the Indonesian Education Quality Assurance Council (LPMP)’s Wbsites. The 59th TEFLIN International Conference (pp.43-9). Surabaya Crandall, J. (2001). Keeping Up to Date as an ESL or Efl Professional . in Celce-Murcia (eds), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (pp.535-6). Boston: Heinle & Heinle Dudeney,G and Hockly, N. (2007). How to Teach English Using Technology (Series Editor: Jeremy Harmer). Essex: Pearson Education Limited (Longman) European Union. (2010). Teachers’ Professional Development: Europe in International Comparison. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Union Head, K. and Taylor, P. (1997).Readings in Teacher Development. Oxford : Heineman English Language Teaching Muijs, D and Reynolds, D. 2005. Effective Teaching: Evidence and Practice (2nd edition). London: SAGE Publications Ltd. Roblyer, M.D. (2003). Integrating Educational Technology into Teachinhg—3rd edition. New Jersey: Merril Prentice Hall

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