Ancient Egypt The embodiment, of the characteristics of a successful civilization.
Geography of Ancient Egypt <ul><li>The geography of Egypt played a role in the lifestyles of its earliest settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian civilization was created along the Nile River . </li></ul><ul><li>The Nile flows northward for 4,100 miles, it is the longest river in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt and the Nile are located in desert conditions, it is hot and dry, hence, Egyptian civilization was built along the Nile in narrow areas of land made rich by the water of the Nile. </li></ul><ul><li>The term: from the Black Land to the Red Land refers to the abrupt change from (fertile) soil to desert. </li></ul><ul><li>To the east of Egypt is the Red Sea and Sinai. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mediterranean Sea is located on the north side of the Nile. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nile river flooded regularly unlike the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. It left behind a composite called silt when the floods receded. It fertilized the land, and enabled the Egyptians to grow large amounts of food for surplus. </li></ul>
Upper and lower Egypt <ul><li>The separation of Upper and Lower Egypt along the Nile played a large role in Egyptian leadership </li></ul><ul><li>In 3100 BC Egypt was broken up into Upper and Lower Egypt. They each had their own ruler. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Egypt was on the north part of the Nile. It was placed in the side of the Nile containing the Nile Delta. The Nile Delta is where the Nile opens up and drains to the Mediterranean Sea. Nowadays the Nile Delta is too salty and can no longer make its banks fertile. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: Delta- The triangular opening/ deposit placed at the opening of a river. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Egypt was on the southern part of the Nile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 3100 BC Upper and Lower Egypt united by a pharaoh by the name of Menes (reined for 62 years), he created what is called a Pschent , a double crown which combined the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Crown of Upper Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>On a map it appears that Upper Egypt (south) is below Lower Egypt (north) they are placed like this due to the flow of the Nile River, where the highlands of East Africa is upstream and the Mediterranean Sea is downstream. </li></ul>
Leadership <ul><li>The rulers of Ancient Egypt are called Pharaohs . They were seen as very important and godly. Elaborate tombs were built for them and statues were created in their honor. To the Egyptians Pharaohs were gods sent to earth to oversee them, and even after death they remained gods; hence the tombs made specially for them. </li></ul><ul><li>Advisors helped the pharaoh control and command. </li></ul><ul><li>The first Pharaoh (pictured here) was King Marmer aka Menes, he changed his name for superiority purposes. King Marmer united upper and lower Egypt, created the Pschent crown, ruled for 62 years, and ran based on religious authority. (a Theocracy.) </li></ul><ul><li>Pharaohs had the ability to wage war and begin conquests. They could have their people work for years building their tombs and shines. They created the laws (for their people and for trade), controlled expenses in the economy, and obtained slaves. </li></ul>Different pharaohs ruled differently, even if they ran by the same belief system, they each had their own ideas for the civilization. Left: Menes
Religion and leadership <ul><li>The Egyptians believed in polytheism , in other words they believed in many different gods. </li></ul><ul><li>They believed that different gods controlled and oversaw different elements and forces of nature. For example: the god Ra (one of their most important) is the god of the sun, aka the sun. Isis (another important god to the Egyptians) represents healing. </li></ul><ul><li>The pharaoh Djoser (2667 BC) was the first leader in Ancient Egypt to be seen as a god. </li></ul><ul><li>Some pharaohs such as Menes ruled a theocracy, meaning he ruled by religious values. Other pharaohs such as Snefrue (2613 BC- 2589 BC) used their power to “engineer perfection” and make advances in technology. There were also Pharaohs who believed in militaristic power and conquests such as Sesostris (believed to be a compound of Seti I and Ramesesse II or Sanusret II) who forced nubian captives to fight for him. </li></ul>Ra (Re)- the sun god. Religious beliefs greatly effected how pharaohs were viewed by their people
<ul><li>The step pyramid was designed by the pharaoh, Djoser,(2667-2648 B.C.) </li></ul><ul><li>It took a very long time to build. Every worker would bring a heavy rock that would way about 10 tons. If you didn’t do thinks correctly, you would be whipped eventually. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians developed a more advanced way of written communication called “Hieroglyphics”. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing and reading were critical of high social status created first “paper”. </li></ul><ul><li>There are different symbols in different parts of Egypt. </li></ul>The Step Pyramid Hieroglyphics Records and record keeping
<ul><li>Egyptians were polytheistic, they believed in gods. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians believed in afterlife. </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptians would be judged for their deeds when they died. They believed in reincarnation. </li></ul><ul><li>Reincarnation is when people believe in after life. </li></ul><ul><li>Osiris was the most powerful god of the dead. Many people prayed for Osiris because of the belief of the Reincarnation. </li></ul><ul><li>Kings and queens built great tombs, such as the pyramids, and other Egyptians built smaller tombs. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians preserved a dead person’s body by mummification. This is done by embalming and drying the corpse to prevent it from decaying. </li></ul><ul><li>Men were to be very careful with the organs of the pharaohs. This job was very important and must be done perfectly. </li></ul>Records and record keeping
<ul><li>Egyptians changed from copper tools to bronze tools. They did this because bronze tools were easier to work with. </li></ul><ul><li>By 200 B.C. they changed from bronze tools to iron tools. </li></ul>Bronze surgical knives. Technologic Advances
<ul><li>Egyptians built their pyramid blocks very tight together. Even today, over 4,000 years after they were built, you cannot stick a razor sharp knife in between any two blocks. </li></ul><ul><li>The blocks of the pyramids are so heavy and big that tornadoes or even hurricanes cannot destroy them. </li></ul>pyramid Technologic Advances
<ul><li>There were ten days in a week, three weeks in a month, four months in a season, three seasons in a year, and five holy days. That adds up to a 365-day year. </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptians were the first people to come up with the idea of 365 days per year. </li></ul>Technologic Advances
Specialized Workers <ul><li>Some of the most important workers in ancient Egypt were the pharaohs. only were the pharaohs kings and queens, but they were called the “divine ones”, because they thought themselves as Gods. They felt as though their rule would continue even after they were dead, in the after life. The spirit that ruled on was called the ka . The pharaohs required great elaborate tombs, many of which were pyramids. These pyramid needed a lot of people to build them. They needed: planners, engineers, and many workers. </li></ul><ul><li>To the right is a picture of the great pharaoh Ramesses. He ruled Egypt during the New Kingdom. One of his greatest accomplishments as pharaoh was when he said “peace and brotherhood between us forever” to stop Hittites invasions in Egypt. </li></ul>
Workers <ul><li>The workers for the pyramids had to make huge ramps in order for them to slide the blocks up. They had to align the blocks into the right shape. Not only the outside, the workers also had to build the elaborate maze of a tomb inside the pyramids. The basic pyramid had a king’s chamber, many air shafts, a grand gallery, maybe a queen’s chamber, and some exit chambers. It was up to the workers to do all of this. The working crew was made of mostly everyone that wasn’t royalty. Even if it was just providing the manual workers with food and water, you were still part of the crew. </li></ul><ul><li>To the right is a picture of a re-enactment of workers sliding a block up a ramp, to the top of a pyramid. </li></ul>
Scribes <ul><li>The scribes were very specific workers. Their job was pretty much to take dictation from the pharaohs. They were the professional record keepers in Egypt. Education was a very important factor in ancient Egyptian society. The educated man was valued at higher level then the uneducated man. Men with education became scribes, and that meant they were on their way to success. Scribes did not only cater to the pharaohs, but wherever a learned man could be used. They were very high up on the social class ladder and lead very fortunate lives. Scribes could also become wise men of court, a leader for others or an ambassador. </li></ul><ul><li>To the right is a statue of a scribe, made by an ancient artisan. </li></ul>
Artisans <ul><li>The artisans in ancient Egypt were skilled workers who crafted things by hand, like tools weapons, potter, weaver, or sculpture. The artisans would design great sculptures that decorated the Egyptian landscape. Many of the large statues showed the pharaohs and their queens. These were usually outside of their tombs and pyramids. The artisans also made and designed tools for gardening and building. (so in a way they worked on the pyramids too.) </li></ul>Chief of the artisans, the draftsman Irtysen says: I know the secrets of the hieroglyphs, the way to put together feast offerings. All magic I have prepared . Nothing goes by me unnoticed. Because I am an artisan excellent at my craft, who has become the foremost at what he has learned. I know the ratios of fluids, weigh the amount, reckon, remove, insert the tenon into the mortise so every part will be in its place. I know how to render the posture of a man's statue, the step of a woman's statue, the wing strength of a dozen birds, the bearing of him who strikes a prisoner, the look an eye casts on someone else and also make fearful the face of the sacrificial victim, the arm of him who hits the hippopotamus, the stance of the runner. I know how to make pigments and incrustations without letting the fire burn them, with the water being able to wash them away. This is an excerpt from “Mortuary stela of Irtysen” 2000 B.C, of a man telling a bout his job as an artisan.
Advanced Cities <ul><li>During the time of the new kingdom, Egypt had developed many advanced cities. Such as Memphis, Thebes, and Napata. These were great cities because they helped Egypt thrive as a great empire. Napata was the center for trade between Egyptian and Nubian societies. Another great city was Thebes, now known as Luxor. In ancient times Luxor was the capital city of the new kingdom. Luxor was home of the local god called Amon who was a moon god. Not many cities had their own God, so this made Luxor very important. Luxor played a major role in getting rid of the invading Hyksos and rebuilding the new kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>To the top right is a picture of the ancient Luxor temple </li></ul><ul><li>To the bottom right is a modern day map of where Luxor would be. </li></ul>
<ul><li>www.BBC.com </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid worker information </li></ul><ul><li>www.kingtutshop.com </li></ul><ul><li>pharaoh and scribe in formation </li></ul><ul><li>www.mnsu.edu </li></ul><ul><li>artisan information </li></ul><ul><li>www.nefertiti.edu </li></ul><ul><li>artisan poem excerpt </li></ul><ul><li>www.crystalinks.com </li></ul><ul><li>advanced city information </li></ul><ul><li>world history: patterns of interaction </li></ul><ul><li>textbook </li></ul><ul><li>www.cnn.com </li></ul><ul><li>Luxor map and Luxor temple </li></ul>