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Endocrine glands
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  • 1. UNIT 9: ENDOCRINESYSTEM(CHEMICALCOORDINATION)(MADER, 2010: CHAPTER 40 p. 736 –752)
  • 2. ENDOCRINE GLANDS The nervous system and theendocrine system work together To regulate the activities of the othersystems in the body. Both systems use chemical signalswhen they respond to changes. But they have different means ofdelivering the signals
  • 3. Differences between the CNS andthe endocrine systemCentral nervoussystemEndocrine systemTransmits electricalimpulsesTransmits chemicalbiological messengersImpulse send throughneurons throughneurotransmittersTransmits messagethrough bloodstreamby means of hormonesFast reaction Slow reactionReaction doesn’t last along timeReaction lasts a longtime
  • 4. ENDOCRINE GLANDS Endocrine system consist of different endocrineglands in the body. Endocrine glands are ductless . And produce and secrete hormones. That are transported through the blood in the bloodvessels of the body. Towards a specific target organ where it has a specificfunction. The target cells only respond to specific hormonessecreted by specific endocrine glands. If the cell can respond to the hormone, the hormoneand the recepter proteins bind together as a key fits into
  • 5. EXOCRINE GLANDS Exocrine glands have ducts andsecrete chemicals like enzymes intothese ducts which takes it to thelumen of organs or to the outside ofthe body.
  • 6. • Hormones are biological chemical messengersthat help cells, body parts and even individuals tocommunicate with one another.• Most hormones are proteins, but the steroids arefats.• Hormones can inhibit or stimulate a reaction.• Hormones are temperature, pH and substratesensitiveHORMONES (CHEMICALSIGNALS)
  • 7. ENDOCRINE GLANDS1. HYPOPHYSIS2. THYROID3. ADRENAL GLAND4. PINEAL GLAND5. PARATHYROID GLAND6. THYMUS7. PANCREAS8. GONADS
  • 8. ENDOCRINE GLANDS
  • 9. HYPOTHALAMUS ANDPITUITARY GLAND The hypothalamus controls the glandularsecretions of the pituitary gland (hypophysis)
  • 10. HYPOPHYSIS Attached to a stalk onto the hypothalamus. Consist of a posterior- and anterior pituitary. Posterior- produce and secrete the followinghormones: ADH and Oxytocin. Anterior- produce and secete the followinghormones: TSH, ACTH, prolactin, growthhormone, FSH and LH.
  • 11. Posterior pituitary glandhormones: ADH and Oxytocin ADH: Regulate the water reabsorptionthrough the kidneys by changing thepermeability of the renal tubules. Oxytocin: Stimulates the uterus wall tocontract during the process of giving birth andstimulates milk production during pregnancy.
  • 12. How ADH functions
  • 13. Anterior pituitary glandhormones: TSHACTHprolactingrowth hormoneFSHLH.
  • 14. TSH (THYROID STIMULATINGHORMONE) Stimulates the thyroid gland to secretethyroxin. Function by means of a negative feedbackreaction.
  • 15. ACTH (Adrenocorticotropichormone) Stimulates the adrenal cortex to produceglucocorticoid that is released during stress.
  • 16. PROLACTIN Control milk production in females
  • 17. Growth hormone Promotes skeletal and musculargrowth. It stimulates the rate at whichamino acids enter cells andprotein synthesis occurs. It promotes fat metabolism asopposed to glucose metabolism.
  • 18. DISORDERS CAUSED BY THEUNDERSECRETION OFGROWTH HORMONE When a too little GHhas been producedduring childhood. Normal proportionsbut small stature. Low blood pressure. Can be rectified byinjecting the child withgrowth hormonePITUITARY DWARFISM
  • 19. DISORDERS CAUSED BYTHE OVERSECRETION OFGROWTH HORMONE If too much GH havebeen produced duringchildhood. Excessive growth ofmuscles and bones. Usually havediabetes. Much taller thannormalchildren/adults.GIANTISM
  • 20. Disorder of GH :ACROMEGALY Caused byoverproduction ofGH in adults. Enlargement ofbones in the face,fingers and toes asa person ages.
  • 21. FEEDBACK MECHANISMSCAUSED BY HORMONE ACTION NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISM
  • 22. FSH (follicle stimulatinghormone) and LH Stimulates the gonads (testis and ovaries) toproduce sex hormones and gametes.
  • 23. THYROID GLAND Located in the neckaround the trachea. Red – high blood volume 2 lobes connected byisthmus. Uses Iodine to producethe hormone thyroxin Thyroxin production isstimulated by TSHsecreted by theHypophysis Also secretes thehormone calcitoninSTRUCTURE OF THYROIDGLAND
  • 24. FUNCTIONS OF THYROXIN Increase the metabolic rate of a person. No specific target organ, they stimulate allcells of the body to metabolize at a faster rate. Promotes the metabolism of glucose so thatmore energy is released.
  • 25. DISORDERS OF THE THYROIDGLAND Disorder caused by thelack of Iodine in the diet. Without iodine the thyroidis unable to producethyroxin and continuedanterior pituitarystimulation causes thegland to enlarge. Retarded growthduring infancy. Body is short andstocky with mentalretardationSIMPLE GOITERCONGENITALHYPOTHYROIDISM
  • 26. Disorder of Thyroid Gland:Exophthalmic goiter This goiter is due to an overactivethyroid gland The eyes of a person protrudesbecause of edema in the eye sockettissue Person is hyperactive, nervous, irritable,suffers from insomnia. Sweat excessively and is heat sensitive. Enlarged thyroid can be surgicallyremoved and treated with radioactiveiodine.
  • 27. FUNCTIONS OF CALCITONIN Regulates the Calcium level in the blood. Calcitonin brings about the deposit of calciumin the bones when the level of calcium in theblood is too high. When the blood calcium level lowers tonormal, the release of calcitonin by the thyroidis inhibited. This lower level of calcium in the blood,stimulates the release of parathyroidhormone (PTH) by the parathyroid glands.
  • 28. PARATHYROID GLAND 4 parathyroid glands are located on the thyroid. Secretes the hormone: Parathyroid Hormone(PTH) PTH corrects a low blood calcium level PTH promotes the release of calcium by thebones PTH promotes the reabsorption of calcium fromthe kidneys PTH brings about the activation of Vitamin D.
  • 29. DISORDERS OF THEPARATHYROID GLAND Insufficient PTHsecreted. Dramatic dropin bloodcalcium levels. The bodyshakes fromcontinuousmusclecontraction The bloodcalcium levelbecomesabnormally high. Bones becomesoft and fragile. Person irritableand prone to getkidney stonesTETANYHYPERPARATHYROIDISM
  • 30. CALCITONIN AND PTH –ANTAGONISTIC HORMONES These 2 hormones (Calcitonin and PTH) areantagonistic. Both hormones work together regulate theblood calcium level. When the blood calcium level is high – thethyroid gland secretes calcitonin. When the blood calcium level is low – theparathyroid gland releases PTH
  • 31. ADRENAL GLAND Located ontop of thekidneys. Consist of an inner partthe adrenal medulla andand outer part called theadrenal cortex. The adrenal medullasecretes 2 hormones:adrenalin and nor-adrenalin.STRUCTURE
  • 32. FUNCTIONS OF ADRENALINAND NOR-ADRENALIN Brings about all the bodily changesthat occur when an individualreacts to an emergency situation. Effect of this hormone is shortterm. Released during fright,anxiousness and anger. Increase heart rate. Increase blood flow and bloodpressure. Muscles absorb glucose for energyto react. More blood (oxygen) to brain. Actions of the digestive systeminhibited. Pupils dilate to observe clearlyADRENALIN and NOR-ADRENALIN
  • 33. MALFUNCTION OF THEADRENAL CORTEX Bronzing of the skin Excess amount ofACTH. This lead to a buildupof melanin. Excess cortisol inblood Sub-cutaneous fatdeposits.ADDISON DISEASE CUSHING SYNDROME
  • 34. PANCREAS The pancreas consist ofexocrine tissue with ductsthat produce and releasedigestive juice (pancreaticsap) into the duodenum,and endocrine tissuewithout ducts that secretehormones directly into thebloodstream. The endocrine tissue isknow as the Islets ofLangerhans and it secretestwo hormones: Insulin andglucagon (antagonistichormones).
  • 35. FUNCTIONS OF INSULIN IN THEPANCREAS If blood sugar (glucose) level is high. Insulin is secreted. Insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose bythe cells (liver, muscle and adipose) In the liver and muscles it is stored asglycogen. Muscle cells break it down for energy. Fat cells convert it to glycerol for the forming offat. Therefore insulin lowers the blood sugar
  • 36. FUNCTIONS OF GLUCAGON When the blood sugarlevel is low. Glucagon is secretedinto the blood. Glucagon stimulatesthe liver cells toconvert glycogen intoglucose for energyproduction. Therefore glucagonraises the blood sugarlevel.
  • 37. DIABETES MELLITUS Type 1 Diabetes: Pancreas is notproducing insulin Islets of Langerhansdamaged. Glucose accumulatein blood. Coma results if nottreated with insulininjections. Treatment ofDiabetes: Self study
  • 38. TESTIS AND OVARIES Testis producetestosterone (male sexhormone) Stimulates theformation of male traitsduring puberty Stimulates oil andsweat glands. Stimulates hairloss(baldness) Ovaries produce estrogenand progesterone (femalesex hormones) Estrogen stimulates growth ofthe uterus and vagina duringpuberty and secondarysexual female traits. Stimulate egg production andpreparation of the uterus forpregnancy. Progesterone prepare theuterus wall for possibleimplantation of an embryo.HORMONES PRODUCED BYTHE TESTISHORMONES PRODUCED BYTHE OVARIES
  • 39. Effects of testosterone onmalesEffects of estrogen andprogesterone in females