Conducting a Literature Review on gender-based violence (GBV) in Morocco


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The following presentation is an example of how to conduct an initial literature review on a topic in this case Gender-Based Violence in Morocco.

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  • The following presentation is an example of how to conduct an initial literature review on a topic in this case Gender-Based Violence in Morocco. Literature reviews are useful in a number of circumstances: developing policy briefs, developing a thesis or dissertation, grant writing, starting a new job, creating a campaign and program development among others. Please like if you find this presentation useful and provide feedback on how to improve the content further.
  • So I am interested in how Gender-Based Violence is measured and I have identified three major dimensions of its occurrence that could be of importance to my study.
  • So what is Gender-Based Violence exactly? How is it defined? Are there any laws concerning gender-based violence that have been adopted at the International or Regional level that may affect/impact gender-based violence in Morocco specifically?
  • Are there any easily available estimates of the burden of gender-based violence? In this case I looked at the World Health Organization’s website to get some quick stats. There are many other organizations that provide global statistics on a diverse array of topics and you will have to decide what information is the most**Heise, L., Ellsberg, M., Gottemoeller, A. (1999) Ending Violence Against Women. Population Reports**Garcia-Moreno, C., Jansen, H., Ellsberg, M., Heise, L., Watts, C.H. (2006). Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings from the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence. Lancet. Vol.386. Pp. 1260-69
  • When thinking of the context in which you are conducting your research brainstorm some factors that affect gender-based violence outcomes in your population of interest.Here are some factors I hypothesis may have an effect on the occurrence of GBV in Morocco in specific. These factors will not be consistent across or even within countries and producing quality research means considering diversity.
  • Since I am interested in how gender-based violence is being researched globally and what studies have been conducted in Morocco in specific I begin the meaty portion of my literature review by identifying which databases to review.There are many databases that provide article and research citations that can be used. The ones listed above are a mix of both public and private options. Contacting your companies knowledge manager or your local/school librarian is a good starting point to identify relevant databases that may be of assistance which you have access to.
  • So because I am interested in three primary things with respect to Gender-Based Violence: 1- Risk Factors 2- Burden of Disease 3- Attitudes & BeliefsI went to each of the databases I selected and performed the following combination of keyword searchers. The results are listed in the slides above. What do these findings show? Well for one there is a ton of research on gender-based violence out there but not a great deal on Morocco in specific. **Note**When Including Morocco:Only two (2) studies relevant from all phrasing of VAW + [RF + M] -Olayanju (2013) -Boufetal, H. (2012)Only three (3) studies useful from all phrasing of VAW + [A&B + M] -Studies useful for general background  not immediately relevant for the purposes of this presentationNo studies relevant from all phrasing of VAW + [BoD + M] -Outcome  Need to find better “outcome” keyword phase that allows capture of health, economic & social cost
  • So what measurements or scales are used to measure gender-based violence? Using the same primary keywords we can identify six (6) different tools that are relevant for our research.Stuck with CTS because familiar and only one applied widely outside of Western countries
  • The Conchrane Library is an evidence based resource for public health interventions. To get an idea of what evaluations have been conducted I also ran my keyword searches here.I found only a couple of directly relevant articles, but decide to save them and review the references that the articles drew. This may provide me with insight into important linkages between measuring GBV and identifying attitudes & beliefs that contribute to its occurrence as well as how intervention and prevention work has incorporated these factors when designing programming. Returned 1 RelevantPV = 2. [Taft, 2009]WB = 1. [O’Neal, et al., (1998)Effects of time and an educational presentation on student attitudes toward wife‐beatingDV = 8. [Jahanfar, 2013]DA = 5. [Jahanfar, 2013]Non-RelevantSV = 2.GBV = 1.When adding AND risk factors to query additional studies identified  possible area of further exploration
  • Jewkes, R., et al. (2002). Risk Factors for Domestic Violence: Findings from a South African Cross-Sectional Study. Social Science & Medicine. Vol. 55(9). Pp. 1603-1617.Forward: 167Backward: 66Campbell, J., et al. (2002). Intimate Partner Violence and Physical Health Consequences. Archives of Internal Medicine. Vol. 162(10). Pp. 1157-63.Forward: 306Backward: 47Ellsberg, M., et al. (2008). Intimate Partner Violence and Women’s Physical and Mental Health in the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence: An Observational Study. Lancet. Vol. 371. Pp. 1665-72Forward: 185Backward: 45Buzawa, E., et al. (2012). What Does Research Suggest are the Primary Risk and Protective Factors for Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and What is the Role of Economic Factors?. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. Vol. 32(1). Pp. 128-137Forward: 0Backward: 34Briere, J., et al (2004). Violence Against Women: Outcome Complexity and Implications for Assessment and Treatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Vol. 19(11). Pp. 1252-76Forward: 82Backward: 143
  • Flood, M., et al. (2009). Factors Influencing Attitudes to Violence Against Women. Trauma, Violence & Abuse. Vol. 10(2). Pp. 125-142Forward: 23Backward: 142Lawoko, S. (2008). Predictors of Attitudes Towards Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Men in Zambia and Kenya. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Vol. 23(8). Pp. 1056-1074.Forward: 20Backward: 29Uthman, O., et al. (2009). Factors Associated with Attitudes Towards IPVAW: A Comparative Analysis of 17 SSA Countries. BMC International Health & Human Rights. Vol. 9(14)Forward: 12Backward: 49Uthman, O., et al(2010). Sex Disparities in Attitudes Towards Intimate Partner Violence against Women in SSA: A Socio-ecological analysis. BMC Public Health. Vol. 10(223). Pp. Forward: 4Backward: 40Hindin, M. (2003). Understanding Women’s Attitudes Towards Wife Beating in Zimbabwe. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Vol. 81(7). Pp. 501-508Forward: 43Backward: 24Rani et al (2004) An Empirical Investigation of Attitudes Towards Wife-Beating Among Men and Women in Seven Sub-Saharan African Countries. IRevAfrSanteReprod. Vol. 8(3). Pp. 116-136. Forward: 10Backward: 33
  • Hays, D., et al. (2009). A Content Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence Assessments. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling and Development. Vol. 42(3). Pp.139-153 Forward: Backward: Yount, K., et al., (2011). Response Effects to Attitudinal Questions about DVAW: A Comparative Perspective. Social Science Research. Vol. 40(3). Pp. 873-884.Forward: 1Backward: 58Schraiber, M. (2010). Validity of the WHO VAW Study Instrument for Estimating GBV VAW. Revista de saudepublica. Vol. 44(4) Pp.658-666.Forward: 3Backward: 25Saltzman, L. (2004). Definitional and Methodological Issues Related to Transnational Research on IPV. Violence Against Women. Vol. 10(7). Pp. 812-830.Forward: 11Backward: 37Trabold, et al. (2007). Screening for IPV within a Health Care Setting: A Systematic Review of the Literature (Provisional Abstract). Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Vol. 45(1). 1-18Forward: 5Backward: 45
  • When conducting a literature review you will want to look for an identify existing data sources that can assist you in developing your research. Here are some examples of the data I found that is currently available to researchers interested in gender-based violence in Morocco. Douki, S. (2003). Violence Against Women in Arab Countries. Arch of Womens Mental Health. Vol. 6. Pp. 165-171 Forward: Backward:
  • In my literature review I found some articles that were cited heavily. This indicates that there are a number of studies that have been conducted which might aid me in developing my project. Something that was interesting to me which I found may also be relevant to Morocco is that there are a limited number of studies from low & middle income countries that explored the role of these risk factors which may be relevant in the Moroccan context. Dowry PriceEarly Exposure to ViolenceControl over spousal choice
  • *Built on the tradition of the Conflict Tactic Scales (CTS) Definitions: -Ever-partnered women: included women who had ever been married or lived with a partner (and therefore have been at risk of intimate partner violence) – varied between countries, in accordance with the local conditions and notions of partners
  • Hopefully this was a helpful presentation to give you an idea of one possible way to conduct a literature review.
  • Conducting a Literature Review on gender-based violence (GBV) in Morocco

    2. 2. DEVELOPING A RESEARCH QUESTION • How are the following dimensions of Gender-Based Violence measured? • Attitudes & Beliefs • Outcomes • Risk Factors Preliminary Field Research • Gender-Based Violence research in Morocco? • Is data currently available?  other constraints • What studies have been/are being conducted? • What is a feasible and testable question?
    3. 3. FIND A DEFINITION • How is GBV Defined? • Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, adopted by the General Assembly on 20 Dec. 1993, UN Doc. A/RES/48/104. • “physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family and in the general community, including battering, sexual abuse of children, dowry-related violence, rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in education institutions and elsewhere, trafficking in women, forced prostitution, and violence perpetrated or condoned by the state.” United Nations. CEDAW. Definition. • International Statutes/Declarations • Vienna Declaration and Program of Action, adopted by the World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna, 14-25 June 1993, UN Doc. A/CONF. 157/23. • Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, adopted by the 4th World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-15 Sept. 1995, UN Doc. ACONF.177/20 Rev.I (96.IV.13), para. 120. • Security Council Resolution 1325 • Moroccan Context • See UNICEF profile
    4. 4. DETERMINE GLOBAL SCOPE • 1 in 3 women reporting violence in lifetime* • Beaten • Sexually coerced • Otherwise abused • 12% - 25% of women experienced attempted/actual rape at the hands of their spouse* • 15% - 71% lifetime prevalence among ever partnered women**
    5. 5. WHAT ABOUT IN MOROCCO? • 60% of women experienced some sort of violence at some point in their lifetime • 25% have experienced sexual violence • Of Morocco’s 9 million women between the ages of 18-65 a Moroccan High Commission for Planning (HCP) study found that 6.5 million experience some for for violence in 2009. • Wasn’t able to find actual data but here is a press release on the report: here
    6. 6. IDENTIFY: LOCAL FACTORS • Economy: • Growing – tourism, industry & telecom • Labor Markets • Strong with small gender gap • Education • Literacy very low • DHS 2004 – 50% women illiterate • Health • Declining fertility rate • Increased non- communicable disease • Sharia (Islamic Law) • CEDAW & Protocols with reservation • Social Control • Religion • Gender • Sexual taboos • Patriarchy • Traditions • Policy Climate • Constitutional monarchy • Dual legal system
    7. 7. IDENTIFY DATABASES • Databases: Keywords • PubMed • Global Health (OVID Technologies) • PsycINFO • GenderWatch • Citation Mapping • Web of Science (ISI) • Measurement • Mental Measurements Yearbook • Conchrane Library
    8. 8. CONDUCT KEYWORD SEARCHES • Keywords: • Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) = 10,929 +Risk Factors = 1,904 +Morocco AND risk factors = 25 +Burden of disease = 301 +Morocco AND burden of disease = 12 results +Attitudes & beliefs = 940 +Morocco AND attitudes & beliefs = 18 • Gender-Based Violence (GBV) = 11,600 +Risk Factors = 108 +Morocco AND risk factors = 76 +Burden of disease = 797 +Morocco AND burden of disease = 28 results +Attitudes & beliefs = 2,710 +Morocco AND attitudes & beliefs = 68 • Domestic Violence (DV) = 23,494 +Risk Factors = 3,084 +Morocco AND risk factors = 69 +Burden of disease = 680 +Morocco AND burden of disease = 23 results +Attitudes & beliefs = 2,524 +Morocco AND attitudes & beliefs = 56 • Keywords Cont. • Wife Beating (WB) = 2,175 +Risk factors = 2,175 +Morocco AND risk factors = 13 +Burden of disease = 188 +Morocco AND burden of disease = 6 results +Attitudes & beliefs = 529 +Morocco AND attitudes & beliefs = 14 • Sexual Violence (SV) = 47,727 +Risk factors = 4,387 +Morocco AND risk factors = 73 results +Burden of disease = 853 +Morocco AND burden of disease = 26 results +Attitudes & beliefs = 3,272 +Morocco AND attitudes & beliefs =64 • Domestic Abuse (DA) = 13,576 +Risk factors = 3,556 +Morocco AND risk factors = 54 results +Burden of disease = 579 +Morocco AND burden of disease = 22 results +Attitudes & beliefs = 1,664 +Morocco AND attitudes & beliefs = 41
    9. 9. CONDUCT KEYWORD SEARCHES: MENTAL MEASUREMENTS YEARBOOK • Keywords • Domestic Violence (DV) – 4 results • DVI; CTS; MSI-II; SA • Domestic Abuse (DA) – 3 results • CTS; MSI-II; DVI • Sexual Violence (SV)- 4 results • SVR;MSI-II; • Rape (R) – 1 result No Results • Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) • Gender Based Violence (GBV) • Wife Beating (WB) • Conflict Tactic Scales (CTS) • Strauss, Murray et al (2003) – Incl. Revised CTS • 3 Results - DV; SV; DA • Domestic Violence Inventory (DVI) • Risk & Needs Assessment Inc. • 2 Results -DV; DA • Multiphasic Sex Inventory II (MSI-II) • Nichols, H.R. • 3 Results - DV; SV; R • Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide (SA) • Kropp, P. Randall • DV • Sexual Violence Risk – 20 (SVR) • Boer, Douglas P. (1998) • SV • Sexual Adjustment Inventory (SAI) • Risk & Needs Assessment Inc. • SV
    10. 10. CONDUCT KEYWORD SEARCHES: CONCHRANE LIBRARY • Jahanfar, S., et al. Interventions for Preventing or Reducing Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women. Pregnancy and Childbirth Group. 28 Feb 2013. • Taft, A., et al. Screening Women for Intimate Partner Violence in Health Care Settings. Development, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group. 21 Jan 2009. • Ezedunukwe, I., et al. Economic Interventions for Prevention of HIV Risk and HIV Infection. HIV/AIDS Group. 20 Jan 2010. • Wingood GM, et al. (2006) Efficacy of an HIV prevention program among female adolescents experiencing gender ‐based violence. American journal of public health. Vol. 96(6), 1085 • Forward: 31 • Backward: 38
    11. 11. IDENTIFY RECURRING THEMES Risk Factors Ecological Issue • Age at marriage • Education • SES/Employment • +type • Witness abuse • History of abuse • Socio-Cultural • Location • Alcohol & drugs Outcomes Multilevel Impacts • Economic cost • DAYLS, etc. • Unintended Pregnancy & Abortion • MMR • Women & Children Nutritional Status • Suicidal Attempts • HIV/AIDS & STIs
    12. 12. ATTITUDES & BELIEFS • Violent-supportive beliefs/values & perpetration of violent behavior • Traditional gender norms & attitudes toward VAW • Includes Gender x Sexual Norms • SES, Race, Ethnicity, Religion, Culture • Community/Peer group & informal social relations • Mass Media & Social Movements • Variation across & within countries • Significance varies by location
    13. 13. MEASUREMENTS & SCALES Limitations • Severity • Definition • Frequency • Screening • Double questions • Vagueness • Bias • Framing • Relevance • Setting Themes • Relationship context • Forms of abuse • Imminent risk indicators • Family dynamics • Degree of support • Assessment structure • Psychometric info • Other contextual factors
    15. 15. IDENTIFY MAJOR DATA • MEASURE – Demographic & Health Survey (DHS) • 2003-2004 – Measured Attitudes and Beliefs about Wife Beating • 5 Questions (women ever-partnered only) • Wife beating justified if she goes out without telling him • Wife beating justified if she neglects the children • Wife beating justified is she argues with him • Wife beating justified if she refuses to have sex with him • Wife beating justifies is she burns the food • Major relevant finding: 64% of women (ever-partnered) justify wife beating (Ministre de la Sante) • 2011 – Not yet released; contains full DVModule to be released………. • Hassan II University • Population-based survey to estimate cost and impact of IPV in Morocco • Major relevant findings • Lifetime Prevalence = 45% • Current Prevalence = 12% • ICRW – Estimating the Costs and Impacts of IPV • Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey
    16. 16. COMPILE EXISTING RESEARCH • WHO Multi-Country Study • Phase One: Bangladesh, Brazil, Japan, Namibia, Peru, Somoa, Tanzania, & Thailand – • a-Moreno C, Watts C, Jansen H, Ellsberg M, Heise L. Responding to violence against women: WHO's Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence. Health Hum Rights 2003;6(2):112-27. • Devries, Karen A., et al (2011). Violence Against Women is strongly Associated with Suicide Attempts: Evidence from the WHO Multi- Country Study on Women’s Health & Domestic Violence Against Women. Social Sciences & Medicine. Vol. 73. Pp. 79-86. • Phase Two: Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, Japan, Namibia, Peru, Samoa, Serbia and Montenegro, Thailand, and the United Republic of Tanzania. (10 Countries : 15 Sites) • Garcia-Moreno, C., Jansen, H., Ellsberg, M., Heise, L., Watts, C.H. (2005). Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings from the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence. Lancet. Vol.386. Pp. 1260-69 • Pallitto, Christina, C., et al. (2013). Intimate Partner Violence, Abortion, and Unintended Pregnancy: Results from the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Vol. 120. Pp. 3-9.
    17. 17. IDENTIFY SURVEYS Panel: Questions used in the WHO study to document physical and sexual violence and controlling behaviors by an intimate partner* Foundation - Conflict Tactic Scales Physical violence by an intimate partner • Moderate violence: • Was slapped or had something thrown at her that could hurt her • Was pushed or shoved • Severe violence: • Was hit with fist or something else that could hurt • Was kicked, dragged, or beaten up • Was choked or burnt on purpose • Perpetrator threatened to use or actually used a gun, knife or other weapon against her Sexual violence by an intimate partner • Was physically forced to have sexual intercourse when she did not want to • Had sexual intercourse when she did not want to because she was afraid of what partner might do • Was forced to do something sexual that she found degrading or humiliating Controlling behaviors by an intimate partner • Tried to keep her from seeing friends • Tried to restrict contact with her family of birth • Insisted on knowing where she was at all times • Ignored her and treated her indifferently • Got angry if she spoke with another man • Was often suspicious that she was unfaithful • Expected her to ask permission before seeking health care for herself
    18. 18. NEXT STEPS • Continue drawing sources and literature into your database • Write an annotated summary of your major findings • Mapping any key outcomes of interest • Developing your research methodology
    19. 19. A literature review can be used to identify methodologies, develop your understanding of new intervention your organization is planning, when writing a policy review and always when conducting field research. This ensures you aren’t duplicating current or existing work while also providing insight into new areas and questions which have yet be answered. Please download the full presentation here if you would like to view notation and references. Thanks for viewing!