Vocabulary<br />Literary Terminology<br />Abstract: based on general principles or theories rather than on specific instances<br />Active Voice: One of the two “voices” of verbs, when the verb of a sentence is in the active voice, the subject is doing the acting.<br />Ad hominem fallacy: against the man, or person. A claim or argument is rejected on the basis of some irrelevant fact about the author of or the person presenting the claim or argument.<br />Ad misericordiam: argument from pity or misery. When pity or related emotion such as sympathy or compassion is appealed to for the sake of getting a conclusion accepted.<br />Apostrophe: the sign ('), as used: to indicate the omission of one or more letters in a word, whether unpronounced, as in o'er for over, or pronounced, as in gov't for government; to indicate the possessive case, as in man's; or to indicate plurals of abbreviations and symbols<br />Archetype: An original model or type after which other similar things are patterned; a prototype<br />Artistic Unity: all parts are essential to every other part; all aspects of the novel are there because they are necessary parts.<br />Bibliography (works cited list): referencing research found and published by different authors to prevent plagiarism, cite after each quote used directly from source.<br />Catharsis: the purging of the emotions or relieving of emotional tensions, esp. through certain kinds of art, as tragedy or music.<br />Character foil: a character that contrasts the protagonist or main character <br />Citation: the act of citing or quoting a reference to an authority or a precedent<br />Cliché: a worn, stereotyped expression; a sentence or phrase, usually expressing a popular or common thought or idea, that has lost originality, ingenuity, and impact by long overuse<br />Coherence: logical interconnection; overall sense or understandability<br />Colloquialism: using characteristic of or appropriate to ordinary or familiar conversation rather than formal speech or writing; informal<br />Comic relief: an amusing scene, incident, or speech introduced into serious or tragic elements, as in a play, in order to provide temporary relief from tension, or to intensify the dramatic action<br />Critical analysis: an appraisal based on careful analytical evaluation<br />Dues ex machina ending: a plot device in which a person or thing “out of the blue” to help a character overcome a seemingly insolvable difficulty.<br />Didactic: intended for instruction; instructive<br />Documentary: a film that presents factual information, opinions, or historical events. <br />Editorial: an article in a newspaper or other periodical presenting the opinion of the publisher, editor, or editors<br />Elegy: a mournful, melancholy, or plaintive poem, esp. a funeral song or a lament for the dead<br />Essay: a short literary composition on a particular theme or subject, usually in prose and generally analytic, speculative, or interpretative<br />Eulogy: a speech or writing in praise of a person or thing, esp. a set oration in honor of a deceased person<br />Exposition: writing or speech primarily intended to convey information or to explain; a detailed statement or explanation; explanatory treatise<br />Expository: of the nature of exposition; serving to expound, set forth, or explain<br />Extended metaphor: a metaphor that is extended through a stanza or entire poem, often by multiple comparisons of unlike objects or ideas<br />Figurative language: speech or writing that departs from literal meaning in order to achieve a special effect or meaning, speech or writing employing figures of speech<br />Formal essay: has an opening paragraph that tells the reader what you’re going to tell them. It has at least three paragraphs to elaborate on what you said in the opening paragraph. Then it has a closing paragraph which summarizes what you said. And a formal will never have I, me, or you, written in it.<br />Genre: a class or category of artistic endeavor having a particular form, content, technique, or the like<br />High culture: the set of cultural products, mainly in the arts, held in the highest esteem by a culture.<br />Informal essay: a short literary composition just like an essay, but is often more relaxed. It is usually used for employment purposes. <br />Informational essay: an essay that contains research and evidence to supports that information, an essay to inform someone of a certain topic<br />In medias res: in or into the middle of a sequence of events, as in a literary narrative.<br />Language arts: the skills, including reading, composition, speech, spelling, and dramatics, taught in schools to give students a thorough proficiency in using the language<br />Low culture: is a term for some forms of popular culture and is often encountered in discourses on the nature of culture<br />Metacognition: awareness and understanding one's thinking and cognitive processes; thinking about thinking<br />Passive voice: One of the two “voices” of verbs. A verb is in the passive voice when the subject of the sentence is acted on by the verb.<br />Personal essay: a story about you personal life, containing personal ideas and perspectives<br />Post hoc, ergo propter hoc fallacy: derives from a Latin phrase, traditionally interpreted as “After this, therefore because of this."
This fallacy is committed when it is concluded that one event causes another simply because the proposed cause occurred before the proposed effect.<br />Rhetorical device: a use of language that creates a literary effect (but often without regard for literal significance) <br />Rhetorical question: a question asked as to prove a point, as if the answer was obvious<br />Sarcasm: a sharply ironical taunt; sneering or cutting remark<br />Sardonic: characterized by bitter or scornful derision; mocking; cynical; sneering<br />Satire: a literary composition, in verse or prose, in which human folly and vice are held up to scorn, derision, or ridicule<br />Stream-of-consciousness story:<br />Tragedy: a dramatic composition, often in verse, dealing with a serious or somber theme, typically that of a great person destined through a flaw of character or conflict with some overpowering force, as fate or society, to downfall or destruction<br />Tragic flaw: the character defect that causes the downfall of the protagonist of a tragedy<br />Tragic hero: a literary character who makes an error of judgment or has a fatal flaw that, combined with fate and external forces, brings on a tragedy<br />Verisimilitude: something that only appears to be true or real, e.g. a statement that is not supported by evidence<br />Weasel words: deliberately misleading or ambiguous language<br />Writer’s handbook: indispensable companion for everyone in the writing profession. Packed with provocative articles, useful advice, key contacts, hints and discussion.<br />Writing prompt: may be an open-ended sentence, a question, a topic, or a scenario that generates writing.<br />Dramatic/ Visual Composition/ Film Terminology<br />Art (visual) essay: using visual effects, such as pictures, and as little text possible, creatively expressing your opinion on specific topics<br />Aerial shot: usually done with a crane or with a camera attached to a special helicopter to view large landscapes, this shot would be restricted to exterior locations.<br />Cinematography: refers to the camera work in a film; cinematography, if carefully or brilliantly practiced, can be considered an art in itself.<br />Close-up shot: a shot that brings the subject very close to the camera. Faces are often focused on and so close-ups are usually used for tense or intimate scenes, or to show character reactions.<br />Composition: the organization or grouping of the different parts of a work of art so as to achieve a unified whole<br />Dollying: a shot when the camera rolls toward or away from the subject.<br />Director: the person responsible for the interpretive aspects of a stage, film, or television production; the person who supervises the integration of all the elements, as acting, staging, and lighting, required to realize the writer's conception<br />Eye-level shot: taken at eye-level of the subject to make them look average, as if the audience were right beside them looking at their point of view.<br />High-angle shot: taken from a higher position, shooting down on a subject, making the subject look small, unimportant, inferior, unheroic, lonely, or vulnerable<br />Long shot: taken at some distance from the subject; it includes the entire bodies of actors and many details of the set or setting.<br />Low-angle shot: taken from a lower position, shooting up at a subject, making the subject look important, heroic, stronger, superior, and larger-than-life. <br />Medium shot: probably the most common camera shot, showing subjects as from a moderate distance from the camera, with the top halves of bodies showing.<br />Panning: a camera movement horizontally from one side to another; it is often used to suggest point of view, what a character sees.<br />Photo essay: a group of photographs, usually with supplementary text, that conveys a unified story and is published as a book or as a feature in a magazine or newspaper.<br />Playwright: a writer of plays; dramatist<br />Screenplay: a motion-picture or television scenario.<br />Script: a description of what is going on in the film: camera shots, sets, as well as all of the characters’ dialogue. <br />Stage directions: an instruction written into the script of a play, indicating stage actions, movements of performers, or production requirements<br />Tracking: a shot taken by a camera moving alongside the actor. The camera usually moves on rails, producing a smooth, seamless effect. This technique is often used in stalking scenes of horror movies.<br />Voice-over: the dubbed-in narration that is added to a soundtrack to give a story-telling or first-person point of view effect. <br />Assessment Terminology<br />Coherence: logical interconnection; overall sense or understandability<br />Controlling idea: indicates the direction, and often the writing strategy, you will adopt.<br />Diction: style of speaking or writing as dependent upon choice of words<br />Implied thesis: indirect and does not directly state a specific thesis<br />Matters of choice: the words and sentences you choose to present your ideas that represent your idea the best.<br />Matters of correctness: the correct sentence structures and punctuality needed in proper grammar.<br />Syntactic: of or pertaining to syntax<br />Thesis: a proposition stated or put forward for consideration, esp. one to be discussed and proved or to be maintained against objections<br />Thesis statement: an explanation of the topic or purpose of a research paper<br />Social Vocabulary<br />Related Issue #1 – Identity <br />Liberalism- a collection of ideologies all committed to the principle of the dignity and freedom of the individual as the foundation for society. Liberalism has faith in human progress and tends to favour decentralized power, both in political and economic affairs, and respect for the sovereignty of the reasoning individual. <br />Individualism- a current of thinking that values the freedom and worth of the individual, sometimes over the security and harmony of the group.<br />Common Good- the good of a community; something that benefits the public health, safety, and/or well-being of society as a whole.<br />Collectivism- a current thinking that values the goals of the group and the common good over the goals of any one individual.<br />Ideology- a set of principles or ideas that explains your world and your place within it, which is based on certain assumptions about human nature and society and provides an interpretation of the past, an explanation of the present, and a vision for the future. <br />Progressivism- a 1920s movement in the United States, usually associated with President Theodore Roosevelt, that reacted to the perceived abuses of laissez-faire capitalism by large corporations. Progressives favoured “a square deal” for average citizens and used legislation and some regulation of the marketplace to achieve this.<br />Individual Rights & Freedoms- a key principle of individualism and an important feature of liberal democracies.<br />Competition- the act or an instance of competitng or contending with others. Competition is seen as an incentive for individuals and groups to work harder and more efficiently.<br />Economic Freedom- the freedom to buy what you want and to sell your labour, idea, or product to whomever you wish.<br />The rule of Law- a key principle in liberal democracies that states that every individual is equal before the law and all citizens are subject to the law.<br />Private Property- something that is owned by an individual, including real estate, other forms or physical possessions, and intellectual property. The right to the protection of private property is a central principle of liberalism and is seen as a natural extension of the concept of the worth of each individual.<br />Public Property- anything not privately owned by individuals. Generally speaking, public property is owned by the state or the community, and managed according to the best interests of the community.<br />Collective Responsibility & Interests- a set of interests that members of a group have in common and holding them responsible for the actions of individuals within the group or collective.<br />Cooperation- working together to the same end; a principle emphasized by collectivist ideologies.<br />Economic Equality- a principle common to collectivist ideologies which can have different meanings depending on the person or the ideology. Governments may try to foster economic equality through tax policies and by ensuring that all people earn equal wages for work of similar value.<br />Collective Norms- The rules of behaviour that are part of the ideology of the group. They tend to reflect the values of the group and specify those actions that are proper and those that are inappropriate, as well as rewards for adherence and the punishment for conformity.<br />Related Issue #2 – Resistance to Liberalism <br />John Locke- advocate for democracy; direct involvement of citizen in government. Believed government action requires public consent.<br />Baron de Montesquieu- Ideological Co-Founder of the American Constitution along with John Locke; advocated constitutionalism, the preservation of civil liberties, the abolition of slavery, gradualism, moderation, peace, internationalism, social and economic justice with due respect to national and local tradition. He believed in justice and the rule of law; detested all forms of extremism and fanaticism; put his faith in the balance of power and the division of authority as a weapon against despotic rule by individuals or groups or majorities; and approved of social equality, but not the point which it threatened individual liberty; and out of liberty, but not to the point where it threatened to disrupt orderly government.<br />Adam Smith- pursuing you own interests/wealth is in the interest of society to further social progress.<br />John Stuart Mill- English philosopher, political theorist, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century whose works on liberty justified freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control.<br />Laissez Faire Capitalism- Non- interference or non-intervention. Laissez-faire economics theory supports free markets and an individual’s rights to own private property.<br />Industrialization- the stage of economic development during which the application of technology results in mass production and mass consumption within a country.<br />The Class System- The division of a society into different classes of people, usually based on income or wealth<br />Limited Government- The principle of little government involvement in the affairs of an economy, in the belief that this results in more efficient self-regulating markets.<br />Classic Conservatism- An ideology that says government should represent the legacy of the past as well as the well-being of the present, and that society should be structured in a hierarchical fashion, that government should be chosen by a limited electorate, that leaders should be humanitarian, and that the stability of society is all important.<br />Marxism- A radical form of socialism, often called scientific socialism or communism to distinguish it from other socialist ideologies.<br />Socialism- Any ideology that contains the belief that resources should be controlled by the public for the benefit of everyone in society, and not by private interests for the benefit of private owners and investors<br />Welfare Capitalism- Initiatives by industrialists to provide workers with non-monetary rewards to head off the growing demand for labour unions; also refers to government programs that would provide social safety networks for workers.<br />Labour Standards- Government-enforced rules and standards aimed at safe, clean working environments, and the protection of workers’ rights to free association, collective bargaining, and freedom from discrimination.<br />Unions- the act of joining together people or things to form a whole.<br />Universal Suffrage- The right of all members of society, once they reach the age of accountability, to fully participate politically. This participation begins with the right vote.<br />Welfare State- A state in which the economy is capitalist, but the government uses policies that directly modify the market forces in order to ensure economic stability and a basic standard of living for its citizens. Usually through social programs.<br />Human Rights- The basic rights and freedoms, to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law.<br />Feminism- The belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes. The term also stands for the movement that advocate for these equalities.<br />Communism- A system of society with property vested in the community and each member working for the common benefit according to his or her capacity and receiving according to his or her needs.<br />Fascism- An extreme, right-wing, anti-democratic nationalist movement which led to a totalitarian forms of government in Germany and Italy from the 1920’s to and 1940’s.<br />Expansionism- a country’s foreign policy of acquiring additional territory through the violation of another country’s sovereignty for reasons of defence, resources, markets, national pride, or perceived racial superiority.<br />Containment – the American Cold War foreign policy of containing the spread of communism by establishing strategic allies around the world through trade and military alliances. <br />Truman Doctrine and Domino Theory- The Cold War“containment” notion was born of the Domino Theory, which held that if one country fell under communist influence or control, its neighboring countries would soon follow. Containment was the cornerstone of the Truman Doctrine as defined by a Truman speech on March 12, 1947. The Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, NATO and the United Nations then became the foundation of American foreign policy through the Reagan administration and beyond, for about 50 years.<br />Deterrence- the Cold War foreign policy of both major powers aiming to deter the strategic advances of the other through arms development and arms build up. Deterrence depends on each combatant creating the perception that each is willing to resort to military confrontation.<br />Brinksmanship- international behaviour or foreign policy that takes a country to the brink of war; pushing one’s demands to the point of threatening military action; usually refers to the showdown between the United States and the Soviet Union over Cuba in October 1962.<br />Détente- a period of the Cold War during which the major powers tried to lessen the tensions between them through diplomacy, arms talks and reductions, and cultural exchanges.<br />Non-alignment- the position taken during the Cold War by those countries in the United Nations that did not form an alliance with either United States of the Soviet Union. This group of countries became a third voting bloc with the UN and pushed for more aid for the developing world. <br />Liberation Movements- military and political struggles of people for independence from countries that have colonized or otherwise oppressed them.<br />Neo-Conservatism- an ideology that emerged in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s as a reaction against modern liberal principles. Some aspects of neo-conservatism challenge modern liberal principles and favour a return to particular values of classical liberalism. Other neo-conservative ideas challenge both classical and modern liberal principles and favour values identified as “family values” and traditional values, often resting on a religious foundation. <br />Environmentalism- a political and ethical ideology that focuses on protecting the natural environment and lessening the harmful effects that human activities have on the ecosystem.<br />Post-modernism- a movement of thought, art, and criticism, that raises questions about the faith that moderns have in reason and in progress, and tries to get people to rethink their assumptions about the meaning of modern life.<br />Extremism- a term used by others to describe the beliefs and actions of those perceived to be outside of the accepted norms of political or social behaviour. Extremism mat be a response adopted by those whom ordinary political means of redressing perceived wrongs are deemed ineffective.<br />Related Issue #3 – Contemporary Liberalism<br />Consensus- majority of opinion<br />Direct vs. Representative Democracy- The representatives form more than what it used to be when it was an independent ruling body (for an election period) charged with the responsibility of acting in the people's interest, but not as their proxy representatives; that is, not necessarily always according to their wishes, but with enough authority to exercise swift and resolute initiative in the face of changing circumstances. It is often contrasted with direct democracy, where representatives are absent or are limited in power as proxy representatives.<br />Authoritarianism- a form of government with authority vested un an elite group that may or may not rule in the interests of the people. Authoritarian political systems take many forms, including oligarchies, military dictatorships, ideological one-party states, and monarchies.<br />Command Economies- an economic system based on public (state) ownership of property in which government planners decide which goods to produce, how to produce them, and how they should be distributed; also known as centrally planned economy; usually found in communist states.<br />Free market Economies- a market that operates with limited government intervention. In a free-market economy, questions regarding production and marketing of goods and services are decided through the free interaction of producers and consumers. <br />Traditional Economies- an economic system usually practiced by a pre-industrialized society, where need are met through agriculture, hunting, and fishing, and where there tends to be a division of labour based on custom and tradition.<br />Mixed economies- an economic system based on free-market principles but with some government intervention, usually to regulate industry, to moderate the boom-and-bust nature of the free-market business cycle, and to offer social welfare programs. In some mixed economic systems, the government owns some key industries (such as communications, utilities, or transportation). <br />American Bill of Rights- the first 10 amendments to the US Constitution. Ratified by the original 13 states by 1791, it is based primarily on John Locke;s concept of “natural rights” for all individuals, including life, liberty, and the protection of property. <br />Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms- a document entrenched in the Constitutional Act, 1982, that lists and describes the fundamental rights and freedoms guaranteed to Canadians. <br />Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms- a statutory bill of rights and human rights code that was passed by the National Assembly of Quebec in 1975.<br />War Measures Act- a Canadian law that gave the federal cabinet emergency powers for circumstances where it determines that the threat of war, invasion, or insurrection, real or apprehended, exists. It was replaced by the Emergencies Act (1988).<br />Patriot Act- a U.S. law enacted in response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, which gave law-enforcement officials greater ability to tap telephones and track Internet users<br />Debt- an amount of money, a service, or an item of property that is owed to somebody<br />Poverty- the state of not having enough money to take care of basic needs such as food, clothing, and housing<br />Racism- he belief that people of different races have different qualities and abilities, and that some races are inherently superior or inferior<br />Pandemics- outbreaks of disease on a global scale<br /> <br />Terrorism- the policy of various ideological groups to disrupt the affairs of an enemy state or culture by the use of violent acts against non-combatants, in order to create debilitating terror and confusion<br />Censorship- the act of restricting freedom of expression or access to ideas or works, usually by governments, and usually to protect the perceived common good; may be related to speech, writings, works of art, religious practices, or military matters. <br />Illiberalism- ideologies opposed to the values, beliefs, and principles of liberalism; usually refers to undemocratic actions but may be found in democratic countries during times of crisis.<br />Issue #4 – Citizenship <br />The Human Condition- refers to the distinctive features of human existence. As finite and mortal entities, there are series of features that are common to most human lives, and some that are inevitable for all. These features and the human response to them constitute the human condition. However, understanding the precise nature and scope of what is meant by the term "
is itself a philosophical problem.<br />Dissent- the political act of disagreeing the right to disagree. Sometimes dissent takes the form of popularly organized opposition to a tradition or an official policy or statute.<br />Civility- thoughtfulness about how out actions may affect others, based on the recognition that human being live together.<br />Civil Disobedience- the refusal to obey a law because it is considered to be unjust; a form of non-violent political protests. <br />Political Participation- any number of ways a citizen can be involved in the political process, such as voting, running as candidate, supporting a candidate, attending constituency meetings, speaking out, demonstrating, protesting, writing letters to elected representatives. <br />Citizen Advocacy- a movement to strengthen citizen action and motivation to participate in community and civic affairs; often focuses on bringing the marginalized back into the community.<br />Humanitarian Crises- (or "
) is an event or series of events which represents a critical threat to the health, safety, security or wellbeing of a community or other large group of people, usually over a wide area. Armed conflicts, epidemics, famine, natural disasters and other major emergencies may all involve or lead to a humanitarian crisis.<br />Civil rights movements- popular movements, notably in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s, that work to extend rights to marginalized members of society. Often these struggles aim not only for legal and civic rights, but also for respect, dignity, and economic and social equality for all.<br /> <br />Anti-war movements- organized campaigns against war. The Vietnam anti-war movement gained public support during the late 1960s and contributed to the United States ending that war. These movements can be pacifist in general, and aimed at ending or restricting the military policy options, or they can be movements opposing specific military campaigns.<br />McCarthyism (Red Scare)- an anti-communist movement in the United States during the 1950s, led by Republican senator Joseph McCarthy. It was intended to uncover and persecute those with perceived ties to communism within the US government, universities, and entertainment industries.<br />Pro-democracy movements- movements or campaigns in favour of democracy.<br />Collective and Individual action- As an explanation of social movements, an inquiry into collective action involves examining those factors that cause the setting of standards of social integration, as well as those factors which lead to standards of deviance and conflict. An explanation of a collective action in sociology will involve the explanation of those things which are similar or dissimilar to collective actions at different times and in different places.<br />