Global Pro Poor Fisheries and Aquaculture development


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Global Pro-Poor Fisheries and Aquaculture Development presented by Dr. Ann Gordon at IFAD CoP Workshop on 12-13 January 2009, Rome

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Global Pro Poor Fisheries and Aquaculture development

  1. 1. Global Pro-Poor Fisheries and Aquaculture Development IFAD CoP Workshop 12-13 January 2009, Rome
  2. 2. the MDGs, fisheries & aquaculture <ul><li>Fisheries and aquaculture can help meet the Millennium Development Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fish contributes >50% of protein intake for 400 million people from the poorest African and South Asian countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>employs 135 million worldwide, a quarter of whom work in aquaculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for the World’s 40 least developed countries, fish is the third largest traded commodity </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. small-scale fisheries and aquaculture <ul><ul><li>Challenges: (i) wider changes in the environment – especially water management and climate change; (ii) insecure rights; (iii) social exclusion; (iv) poor access to services </li></ul></ul>Importance: Safety Net <ul><li>Part of diversified livelihood strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to food and nutrition security. </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerable sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often landless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly mobile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marginalised </li></ul></ul>Importance: Economic Driver <ul><li>An important cash generator. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong economic multiplier effects. </li></ul><ul><li>50% of the 80 billion dollar a year global fish trade from LDCs </li></ul><ul><li>Economically resilient (esp compared to industrial fisheries). </li></ul>
  4. 4. small-scale fisheries & aquaculture <ul><li>Over half of global production from small-scale fisheries(37-43 million t) </li></ul><ul><li>Marine catches larger than inland (28-30 million t vs 9-13 million t) </li></ul><ul><li>Participation greater in inland SSF (11-12 million people in marine vs 14-15 million in inland SSF) </li></ul><ul><li>Women ca. 60% of overall participation </li></ul><ul><li>Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production sector (avg 6% per year over the past 5 years). It now accounts for 33% of global fish supply </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental problems can arise if use of ecosystem services not managed properly </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge : increase food production while maintaining ecosystem resilience and reducing poverty </li></ul>Resilience Sustainability
  5. 5. resilient small-scale fisheries… absorb shocks and reorganise themselves following stresses and disturbance while still delivering benefits for poverty reduction Social Resilience Ecological Resilience
  6. 6. sustainable aquaculture… <ul><li>produces fish in ways that do not store up environmental problems for the future </li></ul><ul><li>uses land, water, food and energy wisely and efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>is integrated into national economies in ways that maximize its development impact </li></ul>
  7. 7. multiple dimensions of poverty Social exclusion: inequality and ‘elite capture’ of rights in CBFM, poor access to services (inc. health, education, finance, justice) Vulnerability: insecure rights, uncertain production systems, high physical, economic and regulatory or institutional risks (Bene, Macfadayen, Allison, 2007) Fisherfolk not always the ‘poorest of the poor’ in income terms Physical asset profiles strongly mediated by rights to land, mobility, uncertain production system Vulnerability Income and asset poverty Social exclusion
  8. 8. vulnerability & incentives for resource conservation <ul><li>Risk perception: Fish stock decline may be low in fisherfolk’s risk-hierarchies; aquaculture investment may be seen as too risky </li></ul><ul><li>Social exclusion: fishers and farmers not able to gain the support of external agents to improve rights and access to services </li></ul><ul><li>Overall outcome: fishers lack incentives and means to manage resources, even when granted to them through ‘rights-based fishing’; aquaculture technology uptake low by the poorest </li></ul><ul><li>Policy implications : Incentives to claim and defend aquatic property rights (and to risk investing in aquaculture) may require vulnerability to be reduced and other rights to be strengthened </li></ul>
  9. 9. perceptions of risks to livelihoods <ul><li>From participatory vulnerability mapping exercises with fishers and fish workers in East Africa: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Malaria and other common illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>2. Gear theft and personal insecurity </li></ul><ul><li>3. Insecure rights of access to land and landing sites </li></ul><ul><li>4. Unpredictable seasons/weather (climate change) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rising costs of inputs </li></ul><ul><li>6. Marketing-related insecurities </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>11. Too much fishing; decline of fish stocks .
  10. 10. example: vulnerability of fisheries to climate change impacts Missing data Low Allison et al, in press High
  11. 11. example: vulnerabililty of fisherfolk to HIV/AIDS (Allison & Seeley, 2004; Kissling et al., 2005) 72 000 1.4 0.1 Indonesia 24 000 6.9 1.5 Thailand 45 000 30.5 6.7 Kenya Number of HIV positive fishers Fisherfolk seroprevalence (%) National adult seroprevalence (%)
  12. 12. why addressing poverty, vulnerability, and rights helps fishery governance <ul><li>The more secure people feel, the more they save and invest in the future </li></ul><ul><li>As fishing people become more secure, the risks of fishery decline becomes the most important remaining source of insecurity </li></ul><ul><li>This leads to more incentive to invest in governing fish stocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives and capacity to claim and defend property rights will be clearer and stronger if violations of fisherfolk’s broader human rights are addressed first </li></ul>
  13. 13. investments to reduce vulnerability… Income & Asset Poverty Marginalisation Vulnerability Improve access to health services, secure land rights, aquatic property rights Organisational development, labour rights, migrant’s rights, gender equity Diversification, microfinance, education & skills
  14. 14. How to prevent overfishing while supporting livelihood interests and contributing to poverty reduction and food security? Develop new technologies & markets … in the context of responsible fisheries and ecosystem-based management Reform fisheries governance Assess resource & environmental status to guide fishery management Build assets and capabilities Reduce vulnerability and strengthen rights
  15. 15. an integrated approach to pro-poor fisheries and AQ development Market failure Governance failure Entitlements failure Response Threat Claim human rights – to food, health, decent work, freedom from discrimination etc Strengthen access to infrastructure, Information, higher-value markets Clarify and strengthen aquatic property or user rights
  16. 16. communities of practice can help to maximise our impact A Linear World View A Networked World View Thinking For Thinking With Developing Technologies Technologies plus…..
  17. 17. Dr. Ann Gordon WorldFish Center [email_address]