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LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2
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LYRASIS Mammoth materials unit2

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  • 1. Mammoth Materials How to Preserve Posters, Maps & Drawings LYRASIS Preservation Services Funded in part by a grant from the National National Endowment for the Humanities, Humanities, Division of Preservation and and Access Unit 2
  • 2. Unit 2: • Architectural and map reproductions • Guide to identification • Silver processes
  • 3. Architectural and Map Reproductions… Some Vocabulary • Ground: refers to the area of the print that does not contain any lines— think background. • Negative Print: for architectural materials, negative prints are prints with light lines on a dark ground. • Positive Print: are prints with dark lines on a white ground. Is this a negative or positive print?
  • 4. Vocabulary Question • Is the illustration on the previous slide a positive or a negative print? Answer: It is a Negative Print – a print with a dark ground and light lines.
  • 5. Architectural & Map Photoreproductions Photo courtesy of the Georgia Archives The following slides are a partial list of commonly used techniques for large format copying and dates of use.
  • 6. Architectural & Map Photoreproductions •Blueprint (1842 – present) −Blueprint by far the most common and widely recognized paper or cloth; surface has raised fibers •Pellet Print (1842 – 1920s) −Pellet print or blue lines is the same process BUT two other types on this list produced blue writing on white background
  • 7. Architectural & Map Photoreproductions • Vandyke Print (1889 – 1930s) – Vandyke process is very similar to blueprint – metallic salts solutions were exposed to light and produced a brown tone rather than blue – more than often these are a negative image, a white writing on a colored background.
  • 8. Architectural & Map Photoreproductions •Ferrogallic Print (1861 – 1930s) − Positive prints. Blue-black lines with metallic sheen when created – often faded browns blacks on brittle paper – creating low contrast images. Used most often in Europe in the 1800 – never took off like the blueprint.
  • 9. Architectural & Map Photoreproductions • Anailine Print (1864 – 1890s) – Used a synthetic dye on paper or cloth. Purple, blue or black. Always positive prints. Ground may be flecked but uniform in color (unlike diazo). Usually on degraded support, with a high quality substrate and low contrast.
  • 10. Architectural & Map Photoreproductions • Hectograph (1870 – 1900s) – Not a photoreproduction – hand lettered/drawn, positive, purple-blue color. Similar look to diazo.
  • 11. Architectural & Map Photoreproductions The next slides are further listings of processes used for large format copying. This is not comprehensive, but it will help to illustrate the variety of possibilities within oversized collections.
  • 12. Architectural & Map Photoreproductions •Diazotype (1880 – present) − Diazo processes – positive prints with mottled ground, multiple colors possible, blues mimic pellet prints. Support paper, plastic or cloth. Still in use. Smooth surfaces.
  • 13. Architectural & Map Photoreproductions • Sepia Diazo Print (1920 – present) – Sepia are usually warm brown lines and primarily on transparent substrates, such as plastic film or translucent papers – sometimes impregnated with oils or chemicals – may still have a strong odor. Still in use.
  • 14. Architectural & Map Photoreproductions • Gel-Lithograph (1900 – 1930s) − Trade names- True-to-scale, Ordoveraz, Velograph, Fotol print, Fulgur print, and Guild. Dark line positives. But any color – use printing inks. Paper or cloth. Lines are actually raised and sitting on top of the surface. This can be seen using a magnifying glass.
  • 15. Architectural & Map Photoreproductions • Electrostatic Print (1948 – Present) – Electrostatic large print photocopy, stable toner, still in use.
  • 16. Architectural & Map Photoreproductions • Photostat (1909/1953 – 1970s) – negatives (earlier) or positives (later version in 1953). Usually smaller in size 18 x 24, but larger also produced. Opaque paper only. Distinguished by silver mirroring of dark areas. Brown fixer stains sometimes on reverse.
  • 17. Architectural & Map Photoreproductions • Wash-off Print (1920 – 1960s) − positives with dark, black ink-like lines. All supports. Image in reverse (on back) and read using transmitted light. Called wash off because of the ability to erase the line and correct drawings right on the support. It was the earliest silver process to duplicate architectural plans.
  • 18. Guide to Reproductions • The following slides are general guides to assist in identifying printing techniques. • They are not comprehensive.
  • 19. Guide to Reproductions by Color of Background • Blue − Blueprints • Brown − Negative Vandyke Print • Black or Gray − Negative Photostat or Electrostatic Print • Greenish White − Aniline Prints
  • 20. Guide to Reproductions by Color of Writing Blues • Blue Lines (Positive Blueprint) or Pellet Prints • Diazotypes • Hectographs • Aniline Prints Browns • Kallitypes or Van Dykes • Sepia Diazotypes • Ferrogallic
  • 21. Guide to Reproductions by Color of Writing Black or Grays • Electrostatic (e.g. Xerox) • Photostat • Wash-off Print • Aniline Prints
  • 22. What am I? It’s hard to tell from a picture, but what do you think? What types of processes are in this folder?
  • 23. What am I? •Diazo on top (dated 1969); smooth surface •Blueprint on bottom (no date), raised surface A good rule of thumb when you are unsure of the type of oversized material you have—segregate them by material type so that it won’t harm anything it comes in contact with and limit its exposure to light.
  • 24. Silver Processes • Some of the early copying processes were variations of photographic processes and involve various silver compounds much like photo processes. Like photographs, these have special handling and storage issues. • Vandyke prints • Fixed Line Silver Halide Prints • Photostats
  • 25. Silver Processes • Vandyke prints- found as both negatives and positives. When they are negatives, they appear as white lines on a brown background, and as a positive, they are brown lines on a white ground. Image formed of silver and iron. High contrast images. While the brown color can vary, it is warm – bronze brown. The positive Vandykes look very different from a Sepia Diazo in spite of the fact that both have brown lines on a white ground– Sepia Diazos have low contrast, dirty ground, and a red-brown hue.
  • 26. Silver Processes • Fixed Line Silver Halide prints are positive reproductions—black lines on white ground. Paper or plastic substrate. Not very common. • Photostats copier exposed image onto sensitized paper. Small window of use 1950s – 70s. Large sizes were available, but not as widely used like blueprints. Photostat, United States. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 1928 Courtesy of Richter Library, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida
  • 27. Silver Processes • Silver processes should be segregated from Diazo materials. Diazo reproductions contain residual sulphur products that damage other materials, and are especially damaging to silver-base processes. These should not be stored together without using poly sleeves or some other means of isolation.
  • 28. Silver Processes • All Enclosures Should Pass Photographic Activity Test (PAT) − ANSI Standard IT9.16-1993, developed to test reactions of photographs to chemicals and additives commonly found in paper enclosures: − Tests were done for staining of gelatin and fading of silver. • Limitations − Test for paper enclosures only does not include plastics. − Applies only to photographs that are silver images.
  • 29. Plastic Substrates • Another clue can be found in the substrates—the following processes can have plastic substrates − Wash-off prints − Photo processes − Blue and Sepia Diazo − Electrostatic
  • 30. Architectural and Map Photoreproductions • Blueprint • Pellet Print • Vandyke Print • Ferrogallic Print • Anailine Print • Hectograph • Diazotype • Sepia Diazo Print • Gel-Lithograph • Electrostatic Print • Photostat • Wash-off Print Still not sure…???
  • 31. Architectural Photoreproductions: A Manual for Identification and Care A great book that will answer just about all of your identification preservation questions. In this book, you will find: • Comprehensive identification information • Details on preservation issues by format • Recommended enclosures • Methods for reformatting damaged or unstable formats. by Eleanore Kissel and Erin Vigneau
  • 32. Section 2 Quiz What did you learn?
  • 33. Section 2 Quiz Question 1: • It is important to separate oversized materials by printing process. True or False ?
  • 34. Section 2 Quiz Question 1: • It is important to separate oversized materials by printing process. True or False ? Answer : True Some printing processes may involve chemicals that could be harmful to other print types.
  • 35. Section 2 Quiz Question 2: • It is easy to identify the printing method that has been used. True or False ?
  • 36. Section 2 Quiz Question 2: • It is easy to identify the printing method that has been used. True or False ? Answer : False Even though each printing process has some unique characteristics, they often share traits with other processes. There are resources available to help with print identification.
  • 37. Thank You! To continue Mammoth Materials, View Unit 3 Contact us if you have any questions. LYRASIS Preservation Services preservation@lyrasis.org

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