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  • Materials deteriorate for three main reasons— Chemical and physical composition, which we can’t do very much about, and storage, care and handling, which we can control. Most family treasures are composed of organic materials, and organic materials are designed to break down over time—For example, many of our materials are on paper—paper made from the mid-nineteen century to the 1970s is generally of poorer quality than paper made earlier, or paper made more recently that follows guidelines for permanent paper. Paper in the last 150 years has been made from wood pulp, which is quite acidic. This lower-quality paper is acidic, with short paper fibers that deteriorate more quickly. Some materials are inherently more stable—stone and ceramic for example, while others are less so, like much paper and textiles. In addition to chemical deterioration, Another reason why materials deteriorate is because of the way that they were put together—poor quality binding and adhesives (like you see in this picture on the screen) also contribute to the deterioration. We can’t control what materials are made of or how they were put together, but we can control how we store the materials, and how we care for them. This is where we can have the greatest impact on the life of our materials.
  • So, how does unsuitable storage and poor care and handling affect our materials? Prolonged exposure to heat and humidity speed up the chemical deterioration processes already occurring in paper, photographs, and audiovisual materials Exposure to light fades inks and pigments in documents and photographs. Use of acidic adhesives and tapes—as a general rule, one should never use tape of any kind—many well-intentioned folks further damaged their valuable treasures by trying to fix a torn photograph or document with tape or glue. Those items that are extremely valuable to us are probably going to be used and handled a lot. For example, family bibles may get candle wax or coffee stains or writing on them—the family china may get chipped. I’m not suggesting that we stop using them, but it’s important to handle fragile materials with care. Another source of damage to our treasures is Poor quality storage materials Alkaline buffered and acid-free papers and boards have only been available for the past 25-30 years. So anything older than that has the potential to be harming your records and treasures. Be suspect of plastics of unknown origin—certain kinds of plastic (like PVC) can be very hard on documents. If you are not sure what kind of plastic you have, err on the side of caution and replace it. (we’ll talk more about appropriate kinds of plastic later in the presentation)
  • So, how does unsuitable storage and poor care and handling affect our materials? Prolonged exposure to heat and humidity speed up the chemical deterioration processes already occurring in paper, photographs, and audiovisual materials Exposure to light fades inks and pigments in documents and photographs. Use of acidic adhesives and tapes—as a general rule, one should never use tape of any kind—many well-intentioned folks further damaged their valuable treasures by trying to fix a torn photograph or document with tape or glue. Those items that are extremely valuable to us are probably going to be used and handled a lot. For example, family bibles may get candle wax or coffee stains or writing on them—the family china may get chipped. I’m not suggesting that we stop using them, but it’s important to handle fragile materials with care. Another source of damage to our treasures is Poor quality storage materials Alkaline buffered and acid-free papers and boards have only been available for the past 25-30 years. So anything older than that has the potential to be harming your records and treasures. Be suspect of plastics of unknown origin—certain kinds of plastic (like PVC) can be very hard on documents. If you are not sure what kind of plastic you have, err on the side of caution and replace it. (we’ll talk more about appropriate kinds of plastic later in the presentation)
  • Those items that are extremely valuable to us are probably going to be used and handled a lot. For example, family bibles may get candle wax or coffee stains or writing on them—the family china may get chipped. I’m not suggesting that we stop using them, but it’s important to handle fragile materials with care. Another source of damage to our treasures is Poor quality storage materials Alkaline buffered and acid-free papers and boards have only been available for the past 25-30 years. So anything older than that has the potential to be harming your records and treasures. Be suspect of plastics of unknown origin—certain kinds of plastic (like PVC) can be very hard on documents. If you are not sure what kind of plastic you have, err on the side of caution and replace it. (we’ll talk more about appropriate kinds of plastic later in the presentation)
  • If you are using plastic sleeves, purchasing plastic containers, or looking for foam padding, look for items made out of inert plastics—polyester, polyethylene, and polypropylene. For object storage, look for black or white Polyethelene foams—other colors may be chemically treated and harm your materials. Polypropelene containers like Rubbermaid or Sterilite ok. Do NOT use PVC or polystyrene peanuts or plastics of unknown origin for long-term storage.
  • If you are using plastic sleeves, purchasing plastic containers, or looking for foam padding, look for items made out of inert plastics—polyester, polyethylene, and polypropylene. For object storage, look for black or white Polyethelene foams—other colors may be chemically treated and harm your materials. Polypropelene containers like Rubbermaid or Sterilite ok. Do NOT use PVC or polystyrene peanuts or plastics of unknown origin for long-term storage.
  • Link to: http://cool-palimpsest.stanford.edu/byorg/abbey/ap/ap03/ap03-5/ap03-508.html
  • Closely related to appropriate storage is careful handling. Some people prefer to store family heirlooms carefully packed away, to be brought out only on special occasions. For others, family treasures are meant to be used—they are part of everyday life. My great grandfather’s baby rocking chair is currently being used by my daughter—it would never occur to me to keep her away from it. Other things, like my wedding dress was cleaned and put rehoused and put away. General guidelines: The current physical state of the item may determine the extent to which it can safely used. With careful handling, many items can be safely used for generations without causing further damage. Wash hands before touching your family treasures—dirt, the natural oils in your skin, and the slice of pizza you had for lunch all can harm your valued treasures. So, at the very least, make sure your hands are clean before touching your materials. If something is heavy, oversized, or awkward, make sure you have enough hands to safely lift the object. Finally, we’ll talk more about this later, but if you are in doubt about the appropriate way to store, handle or use a fragile object, consult with an expert.
  • We’re going to shift gears a bit and look at specific types of materials and how you can best care for them.
  • Fiber Source: Paper has been around for almost 2000 years, and the process hasn’t changed all that much. What has changed is the materials used to make paper. Prior to the mid to late 19 th , paper in the west was made from recycled linen and cotton rags. Early rag-based paper is durable and permanent. But the spread of literacy during the industrial revolution increased the demand for paper, which prompted a search for alternative fibers. A German scientist (Jacob Schaeffer) experimented with making paper from wood, straw, bark, cornhusks, etc in the late 18th century. However, wood developed into the fiber of choice and with it came tremendous problems with durability and permanence. Wood based paper offered high level of yield at a low cost, but ultimately quality suffered. Unpurified wood pulp is a major source of acid . Lignin is a substance present in plant matter that breaks down into acidic components. It causes yellowing and deterioration. The period between 1850 and approximately 1970 is considered the “era of bad paper”. The quality of paper progressively declined primarily as a result of the introduction of acids in the papermaking process. Beating Technology: Paper is made by reducing a fiber source to a pulp. This is accomplished by beating. In early papermaking the beating was done by large stamping mills. The fibers were basically crushed and separated by large hammers. This resulted in long fibers which yields strong paper. As beating became more mechanized and the Hollander Beater was introduced end of 17th cent., fibers were cut instead of crushed. This results in shorter, weaker fibers. Chlorine Bleaching: William J. Barrow, a researcher at the University of Virginia, conducted one of the first studies (in the 1960s) that associated the presence of ground wood with unstable paper. Until very recently most papermaking processes were highly acidic. The wood is cooked in chemicals to break it down. This resulted in a lot of acids being transferred to the finished paper. Today many paper mills are converting over to alkaline processes. This is good news for both pollution and paper quality. Chlorine was added to the process (beginning in mid 19th c.) to whiten paper and reduce lignin. Caused the paper to be acidic and therefore deteriorate quickly. Additives: The acids and other impurities (iron and copper) introduced into the process have the effect of degrading the paper. Sizing Agents were added to improve printability. Alum- potassium and aluminum sulfate, rosin sizing - break down of fatty acids contribute to acidity.
  • How many of you have reddish brown or rust spots on your papers? This is a condition known as foxing—it is not clear what these spots are—most likely mold or metals in the paper-making process—appear when the object has been exposed to humid conditions Inks: can fade when exposed to light, Some, like ink from ink jet printers, can bleed when wet or some inks can even eat through the paper (iron gall ink). I’ve included on this screen Papers that are particularly troublesome—these papers will deterioriate or fade rapidly—care must be taken to ensure the survival of the content of these items either through reformatting, or treatment by a conservator.
  • One of the best things you can do to help your paper family treasures last is to limit temperature and humidity fluctuations to a minimum and out of prolonged exposure to light. This will help prevent mold, foxing, fading, and paper deterioration. Since some paper processes fade and become brittle over time, you may want to copy them onto alkaline buffered paper. I have seen collections where this was not done in time and by the image from the thermofax faded so much it was unreadable. Documents should be stored in alkaline buffered folders to help minimize further deterioration. Documents should be covered to pThese folders may be stored in archival document boxes, Alkaline buffered boxes or filing cabinets. Oversized materials
  • Does anyone know what happens to these items over time? Rubber bands— deteriorates and sticks to paper Staples--rust Paper clips--rust Glue (Rubber Cement, Elmer’s, etc.) Cellophane tape— carrier comes off, leaves acidic adhesive that stains Glue and tape are especially harmful.
  • There is no tape out there that is appropriate to use directly on archival materials. Over time, scotch tape and other well-meaning repairs often do more harm than good.
  • There is no tape out there that is appropriate to use directly on archival materials. Over time, scotch tape and other well-meaning repairs often do more harm than good. You can see that the acids from glue that was used to hold this clipping in place has migrated through the paper and is staining the document.
  • The issues and concerns with unbound paper and document also apply to bound materials, but books have additional issues—Often, poor quality bindings and adhesives used in the binding process contribute to your favorite books falling apart. If a book does not want to open completely force, do not force it– that may destroy the spine/binding. Instead, use supports Do not pull on headcap/endtail to remove book from shelve—this too can break spine. Instead carefully hold the front and back cover between thumb and fingers in the center of spine Do not “dog ear” or leave objects in book—bookmarks, flowers, sticky notes, newspaper clippings can cause discoloration, ripped pages or chemical changes in paper Picture of supports or proper way to remove books from shelf (Care and Handling class)
  • Bound volumes do best when they are shelved snugly. Leave a little space between the book and the back of the shelf—this will allow air to circulate better. If books are oversized, however, do not shelve them with their spines up—either shelve them spine down, or preferably, store them flat. Otherwise you risk damaging their binding. If the objects are fragile, consider making or purchasing an enclosure—enclosures create a microenvironment for the object—they keep all the pieces in one place; they protect the object from temperature and humidity fluctuations and light damage. They also send a signal to the user that the object is fragile and should be handled with care. There are a variety of types of enclosures that can be made for fragile volumes—consider the value of the object, how it will be used, and your resources when deciding among them: Custom, drop spine boxes like the one you see at the top of the page are the most expensive because they require a high level of skill to create, but they create a professional look that provides more than adequate support for a fragile volume. Phase boxes or four flap wrappers, like you see in the lower picture, can sometimes be made at home with limited equipment or you can send the measurements to a book binder who can make the boxes for you fairly inexpensively. Adding a polyester dust jacket can protect the book jacket and provide some protection from dust, dirt, and oils. Pamphlets can be stored in pamphlet binders or appropriately sized envelopes.
  • I get lots of people calling me about how to fix their family bibles. In general, bibles are made of very thin paper—I don’t know that any of the ones that I have seen meet the ANSI/NISO standard for permanent paper!, often the bindings are made with poor quality glues, and they often are very heavily used and stored in all sorts of conditions. That makes them VERY expensive to try and “repair”– often the best things to do with bibles that have sentimental value is to store them in a dry cool environment, handle them with care, and create a custom enclosure to help stabilize them.
  • Most of us have a piece or two of special framed artwork in the house—whether it’s something that a child made, or perhaps you splurged and bought a framed print or drawing from a local artist. Should leave repairs to a conservator, Framing,
  • Items that have been framed for more than 20 or 25 years may be framed with materials that are damaging the items inside. If you must frame an original item, re-frame it was alkaline buffered, lignin-free mats and backing board. Matting board should be thick enough to prevent item from coming in direct contact with the glass or acrylic. Do not use tape or permanent adhesives; because light damage is cumulative and can cause significant damage—instead mount with Japanese paper or ____, smaller items can be framed with acid-free paper or polyester photo corners. Hinging your works of art yourself http://www.netnebraska.org/extras/treasures/videos/03_Paper20_HingeMatte.asx , avoid storing object in an area with light; Frame in UV-filtered glass to reduce exposure to the UV light or consider displaying a facsimile instead. Look at layers??? Link to Custom built enclosures from NEDCC leaflet
  • Although there are more preservation quality materials available for framing today than there was 50 years ago, these materials cost more money. So it’s important to specify what kinds of materials you want to use. You may be willing to spend a bit more on artwork done by a professional vs. a child (rework) Ask for recommendations from art museums or conservators Don’t just say you want it archivally framed— Specify how you want object framed—step by step, with specific types of materials If you have the opportunity, look at how they have framed other work—test materials with a pH pen, look at how object was attached and examine quality of work Look for members of the Professional Picture Framers Association < http://www.pmai.org/index.cfm/ci_id/24438/la_id/1.htm—they have training that can lead to folks being certified Become a Certified Picture Framer® (CPF®) or advance to Master Certified Picture Framer® (MCPF®). Both programs identify you as a skilled framer capable of preserving consumers' personal memories. You can find a local member by searching their website Matting & raming…<http://www.nedcc.com/resources/leaflets/4Storage_and_Handling/10MattingAndFraming.php>
  • Although there are more preservation quality materials available for framing today than there was 50 years ago, these materials cost more money. So it’s important to specify what kinds of materials you want to use. You may be willing to spend a bit more on artwork done by a professional vs. a child (rework) Ask for recommendations from art museums or conservators Don’t just say you want it archivally framed— Specify how you want object framed—step by step, with specific types of materials If you have the opportunity, look at how they have framed other work—test materials with a pH pen, look at how object was attached and examine quality of work Look for members of the Professional Picture Framers Association < http://www.pmai.org/index.cfm/ci_id/24438/la_id/1.htm—they have training that can lead to folks being certified Become a Certified Picture Framer® (CPF®) or advance to Master Certified Picture Framer® (MCPF®). Both programs identify you as a skilled framer capable of preserving consumers' personal memories. You can find a local member by searching their website Matting & raming…<http://www.nedcc.com/resources/leaflets/4Storage_and_Handling/10MattingAndFraming.php>
  • Photographs are composite objects. A typical photograph consists of three different parts: Support - The support layer may be glass, plastic film, paper, or resin-coated paper; Baryta layer – A superficial coating of barium sulfate- very chemically stable Binder - The emulsion or binder layer, most commonly gelatin, but also albumen or colloidian, holds the final image material or image-forming substance to the support; Final image material - The final image material, made of silver, color dyes, or pigment particles, is usually suspended in the emulsion or binder layer. Many different final image materials and binders have been used over the years. Today, however, almost all black-and-white photographs are composed of silver suspended in gelatin.
  • Photographs are composite objects. A typical photograph consists of three different parts: Support - The support layer may be glass, plastic film, paper, or resin-coated paper; Baryta layer – A superficial coating of barium sulfate- very chemically stable Binder - The emulsion or binder layer, most commonly gelatin, but also albumen or colloidian, holds the final image material or image-forming substance to the support; Final image material - The final image material, made of silver, color dyes, or pigment particles, is usually suspended in the emulsion or binder layer. Many different final image materials and binders have been used over the years. Today, however, almost all black-and-white photographs are composed of silver suspended in gelatin.
  • Photographs are composite objects. A typical photograph consists of three different parts: Support - The support layer may be glass, plastic film, paper, or resin-coated paper; Baryta layer – A superficial coating of barium sulfate- very chemically stable Binder - The emulsion or binder layer, most commonly gelatin, but also albumen or colloidian, holds the final image material or image-forming substance to the support; Final image material - The final image material, made of silver, color dyes, or pigment particles, is usually suspended in the emulsion or binder layer. Many different final image materials and binders have been used over the years. Today, however, almost all black-and-white photographs are composed of silver suspended in gelatin.
  • Photographs are composite objects. A typical photograph consists of three different parts: Support - The support layer may be glass, plastic film, paper, or resin-coated paper; Baryta layer – A superficial coating of barium sulfate- very chemically stable Binder - The emulsion or binder layer, most commonly gelatin, but also albumen or colloidian, holds the final image material or image-forming substance to the support; Final image material - The final image material, made of silver, color dyes, or pigment particles, is usually suspended in the emulsion or binder layer. Many different final image materials and binders have been used over the years. Today, however, almost all black-and-white photographs are composed of silver suspended in gelatin.
  • Photograph Deterioration Five principal factors contribute to photographic degradation: Chemical and physical composition—We’ll go into more detail about this as we talk about the various types of photographs. I will mention briefly here the problem that occurs when photographs are not correctly processed and washed—For example, when the fixer (thiosulfate complexes) from black and white photographs are not properly rinsed, o ver time, the chemical causes the image, binder, and support to turn yellow or brown and the silver image to fade. High temperature and humidity speed this process. Photographs that were not well fixed remain light sensitive and may darken when exposed to light. [To prevent this type of damage insist that all photographic chemical processing and development be done to ANSI standards, especially when duplicating negatives, making reference prints from collection negatives, and if feasible, when acquiring new photographs from photographers] All photographic materials are sensitive to high, low, and fluctuating relative humidity (RH), High RH causes a gelatin binder to become soft and sticky, making it vulnerable to mechanical damage and image deterioration. Low RH causes the binder to shrink and crack and the secondary support to curl. High temperature speeds up the rate of deterioration, combined with the damaging effects of air pollution, silver images will oxidize and cause images to fade. Digital prints are especially vulnerable to atmospheric pollutants. High temperature and high humidity conditions may contribute to the growth of microscopic mold spores on the image-containing layer and on primary and secondary paper supports. Unlike paper, once active mold infests photographic materials it is usually impossible to remove without damaging the photograph. Mold develops when the temperature is above 75-80 deg F and the RH is greater than 60%. Poor storage enclosures can cause surface abrasions, and acidic housings can speed up deterioration. Glassine, a common enclosure for negatives, can actually get permanently embedded in the gelatin layer. Poor handling can cause surface abrasions, tears, and dirt and oils from hands can cause further problems Finally, disasters can completely destroy your photographic collections. Certain formats are esp. vulnerable to water damage, and how many of you have had a CD or DVD cease to function, taking with it all of the images from your digital cameras?
  • Cellulose Acetate 1920’s- present, called ‘safety film because it is not flammable deterioration characteristics weak, not as flammable SHOW TEAR vinegar smell bubbles/crystals in emulsion shrinking of substrate SHOW SHRINKING An excellent resource is the IPI (Image Permanence Institute) Storage Guide for Acetate Film— show sample Keep the film as cold and in lowest RH possible. Separate from rest of collection. Use AD strips to determine the presence of vinegar syndrome in your film collections. Some people just smell the film but this could be dangerous to some
  • Remember, with photographs, look for paper supplies that meet the Photograph Activity test Store prints and negatives separately—that way, if you have a disaster, you haven’t lost everything Ideally, you store similar sized prints together so that bigger images don’t get bent around smaller ones. If you have some older formats, like daguerrerotypes, you may want to consider custom housings to protect them. Finally, when working with negatives, wear clean cotton gloves; if you don’t wear gloves, make sure that your hands are clean, and hold from the edges only.
  • May want to interleave between pages of more important items = placing a very thin paper/tissue between album pages. Interleaving is recommended for photos, particularly if images are mounted on the front and back of pages. Also recommended or any other item that might be damaging to adjacent items. Normally not done throughout every collection item – costly and time consuming. (package of 100 sheets of 22x28 @ $35) Can harm bindings if not done judiciously. Interleaving papers are: Acid-free Un-buffered High rag content Passes PAT test Not “glassine” Remember the terms, Acid-free, 100% rag, PAT test. Notice, alkaline buffered not listed. Because it can react with some photo processes, esp. when wet. Can use Alkaline-Buffered tissue, if not photos, artwork, or architectural drawings. Make sure you buy stock that is watermarked buffered or un-buffered for easy identification. (The fiber distribution and formation are excellent with a very smooth finish to prevent damage by abrasion. At the time of manufacture the pH value is between 6.8 and 7.2 since the paper is not buffered, a drop in pH value is to be expected when exposed to normal atmospheric conditions.) Glassine - A translucent paper storage enclosure most often used for photographic negatives. This material can become permanently embedded in gelatin under very humid conditions. ISO has determined glassine inappropriate for use as a photographic storage enclosure. Can also be acidic. Example: Light Impressions, Renaissance tissue, another product called Silver Safe. unbuffered paper. An ideal interleaving paper used for protecting prints and works of art on paper.
  • Link: The title of the class/resource should be listed as the button. IPI: (http://www.imagepermanenceinstitute.org/) NEDCC: (http://www.nedcc.org/resources/leaflets.list.php)
  • In general, scrapbooks are not made from materials meant to last and be used heavily. They are often quite fragile, overstuffed and falling apart. If the spine is damaged or coming apart, do not lie flat—instead use foam blocks or book cradles to support the spine. And store snugly in a box, spine side down or flat, depending upon the size.
  • Avoid magnetic albums—over time the adhesive dries out, and turns yellow, and the plastic is often made out of harmful Polyvinyl chloride, or PVCs, which off-gas and get trapped in the pages of the album, destroying materials. Instead, select albums with inert plastic pages (remember the earlier slide) or low-lignin or lignin-free pages. Instead of adhesives. Most adhesives will ultimately damage your scrapbooks, so use photo corners instead, preferably those made out of inert plastic.
  • Button for link: Caring for your Home Videotape: http://aic.stanford.edu/library/online/brochures/video.html
  • Home Movie day is label for button
  • Button label: Cold Storage of Photographic and Film Materials: http://www.pmai.org/index.cfm/ci_id/24438/la_id/1.htm
  • The way we keep records and document personal and institutional history is changing…—email, electronic banking, digital photography—all of this new technology brings opportunities but perils as well… So, a few lessons in preservation of digital technology. If you are digitizing materials, do not throw out the original object. Digital preservation is expensive and uncertain; it’s a lot easier to redigitize if you have the originals. Lesson number 2: When in doubt, print it out—we know how to properly store paper-based materials. If it’s something you want to be sure to have access to, an email from your daughter after her first week at college or a digital photograph of your granddaughter print it out to be sure you have access to it. Lesson number 3: For those things that are important to preserve in digital format—keep multiple copies in multiple places—don’t just put all of your digital photos of your granddaughter on your home computer; burn them onto a few cds and distribute them to friends and family. That way, if you turn on your computer one day and the “black screen of death” appears, you haven’t lost those memories. And then Lesson Number 4—the hardest and most expensive and most complicated…be prepared to migrate your digital files to another format at least every five years. You may have already done this—for example, how many of you have had to transfer files from Word Perfect to Word? Well, be prepared and be proactive about future migrations—you don’t want to end up with disks that can’t be read or data that your new software program can’t understand.
  • The way we keep records and document personal and institutional history is changing…—email, electronic banking, digital photography—all of this new technology brings opportunities but perils as well… So, a few lessons in preservation of digital technology. If you are digitizing materials, do not throw out the original object. Digital preservation is expensive and uncertain; it’s a lot easier to redigitize if you have the originals. Lesson number 2: When in doubt, print it out—we know how to properly store paper-based materials. If it’s something you want to be sure to have access to, an email from your daughter after her first week at college or a digital photograph of your granddaughter print it out to be sure you have access to it. Lesson number 3: For those things that are important to preserve in digital format—keep multiple copies in multiple places—don’t just put all of your digital photos of your granddaughter on your home computer; burn them onto a few cds and distribute them to friends and family. That way, if you turn on your computer one day and the “black screen of death” appears, you haven’t lost those memories. And then Lesson Number 4—the hardest and most expensive and most complicated…be prepared to migrate your digital files to another format at least every five years. You may have already done this—for example, how many of you have had to transfer files from Word Perfect to Word? Well, be prepared and be proactive about future migrations—you don’t want to end up with disks that can’t be read or data that your new software program can’t understand.
  • Button label: Should read: Saving Your Treasures: Furniture (http://www.netnebraska.org/extras/ treasures/furniture.htm)
  • Many decorative metals look alike—know what you are dealing with, because appropriate care, handling and storage can differ dramatically depending on what the object is made out of. Never clean/polish without accurate identification. Silver = generic term—Sterling silver = 92.5% pure—how to identify: will say silver. In its pure form it is not stable, it is susceptible to mixing with other minerals— This leads to corrosion (tarnishing), which is the biggest threat to silver Tarnish = silver sulfide, a mixture of silver itself and usually sulfur (but sometimes chlorides, oxygen and hydroxides—any amount from oil on your hands can corrode Removing the tarnish also removes a portion of the silver—over time—lose shape, luster, etc. Especially problematic if silver plated—discoloring Because leading cause of corrosion found in the air, all silver items displayed will get tarnsihed--early stages can remove without polishing/damaging using clean piece of flannel, muslin or other soft cotton Solid pieces can be handwashed with mild detergent; hollow pieces should not be—water can work its way into hollow parts and corrode Do not put silver in dishwasher—handwash and dry quickly For cleaning silver- see Nebraska website Saving Nebraska’s treasures http://www.netnebraska.org/extras/treasures/videos/polish_silver.asx Avoid acidic and foods with sulfur: lemon, tomatoes, eggs Also avoid rubber, fresh flowers, newspaper, wool and salt
  • Silver = generic term—Sterling silver = 92.5% pure—how to identify: will say silver. In its pure form it is not stable, it is susceptible to mixing with other minerals— This leads to corrosion (tarnishing), which is the biggest threat to silver Tarnish = silver sulfide, a mixture of silver itself and usually sulfur (but sometimes chlorides, oxygen and hydroxides—any amount from oil on your hands can corrode Removing the tarnish also removes a portion of the silver—over time—lose shape, luster, etc. Especially problematic if silver plated—discoloring Because leading cause of corrosion found in the air, all silver items displayed will get tarnsihed--early stages can remove without polishing/damaging using clean piece of flannel, muslin or other soft cotton Solid pieces can be handwashed with mild detergent; hollow pieces should not be—water can work its way into hollow parts and corrode Do not put silver in dishwasher—handwash and dry quickly For cleaning silver- see Nebraska website Saving Nebraska’s treasures http://www.netnebraska.org/extras/treasures/videos/polish_silver.asx Avoid acidic and foods with sulfur: lemon, tomatoes, eggs Also avoid rubber, fresh flowers, newspaper, wool and salt
  • Linked button should be labeled: How to Polish Silver: http://www.netnebraska.org/extras/treasures/videos/polish_silver.asx
  • Button Should Read: Saving Your Treasures: Textiles
  • Button Should Read: Saving Your Treasures: Textiles: http://www.netnebraska.org/extras/treasures/textiles.htm
  • Handling:Use clean, bare hands to prevent breaking Don’t pick up by handles or rim—Handles are weakest point and may break with age—rims often are thinner than rest of the piece Pick up by body with two hands Storage and display: Store in dry cupboards—do not overstack or overfill cupboards—want to be able to easily lift in and out Pad individual pieces as necessary—with ethafoam ideally or if you don’t have, with paper—if you are in earthquake-prone areas….shouldn’t hear rattling Best displayed in cabinets with glass panels rather than open shelves—forms an additional layer of protection from prying hands, kids running into, dust, fluctuations in temperature and humidity. If you use glass plate stands, use plastic ones—metal ones might rust. If you use metal hooks to hang on walls, purchase clear vinyl tubing from hardware store to slip over the hangers to protect ceramics from damage Use mats for pieces displayed on furniture—this protects both pieces from damage and limits likelihood that piece will slip—examples of mats: chamois leather or felt?—don’t use adhesive felt because it can stain ceramics Materials in good shape can be used but any with hairline cracks, chipping glazes should not.—Care should be taking displaying cut flowers in ceramics because water may stain ceramics (ask JL) Can be cleaned using warm, not hot water, and ____. Do not ever use bleach… (what about dishwashing liquid?) Do not use scrub pads—only foam sponges Unglazed ceramics should not be washed because they have porous body; instead dry brush Overglaze should not be immersed in water, nor should ceramics with metal elements Painted glass should not be washed, nor should glass that has been repaired because adhesives are often water soluble. Chandliers should be dusted with soft-haired brush Mirrors—do not spray directly on mirror but on cloth (otherwise it could run down the frame and damage…
  • Make sure you understand what events your policy covers and what kind of restitution you will receive. Determine ahead of time what documents you need in order to file a claim. Antique furniture—insure for replacement value— specific riders to general policy for especially valuable items—may need to update the value on yearly basis Document your family treasures using camera and store separate from house in case of theft or loss—Add time/date stamp to photo—that will document condition in case of damage.
  • Ok, shifting gears for the last few minutes of my talk— If you want to know how much something is worth, for insurance purposes or otherwise, the person to go to is NOT an archivist. Ethically, we are not allowed to provide appraisals for you. We can tell you, oh, what a great find, or How cool is that, but we cannot place monetary values on your collections. For that, you need an appraiser, and that’s going to cost you money, maybe more money than the collection is actually worth. Good appraisers will charge flat fee which they will tell you up front—do not use an appraiser who offers to charge you a percentage of the collection’s worth. That will just influence them to value your collections higher than they may really be worth. On the screen are two places you can go to find appraisers. http://www.appraisers.org http://abaa.org
  • Although your intentions are good, amateur repair can cause more harm than good. Pressure sensitive tapes cause damage, many adhesives (esp.. rubber cement) are acidic and can harm your materials. If you want to repair an object, that is best left to the experts. Before you start, it is important to define two terms: Restoration - attempt to make an item look as though it were new. Replacing worn or deteriorated parts. Conservation - is as much an art as a science. Focus is stabilization both chemically and physically and primary is the rule of reversibility. Any thing done by a conservator should be able to be undone. “Less is best” We recommend conservation over restoration Conservators should have gone through intensive training or long internships that includes chemistry. However, there is no licensing for conservators so virtually anyone can call themselves a conservator. The American Institute for Conservation is working on a certification program for conservators—as a general rule, those folks who are members are the AIC have agreed to follow a set of ethical guidelines and are a good place to tart. How to identify a conservator? phone book - NO, AIC referral line, some are in private practice, some work for a regional center like CCAHA, NEDCC, Etherington Conservation Center in NC When is it appropriate to consult with a conservator? after a disaster if you see signs of pest infestation if an item has been broken or torn if you notice a rapid change in the condition of an item if you have a mold or mildew outbreak
  • http://www.aic-faic.org/guide/form.html http://aic.stanford.edu/public/select.html
  • Buttons should read: Caring for Your Family Treasures: http://www.heritagepreservation.org/PUBS/treasures.HTM, Saving Nebraska’s Treasures: http://www.netnebraska.org/extras/treasures/
  • link images to facebook page

Transcript

  • 1. Preserving Family TreasuresLYRASIS Preservation ServicesFunded in part by a grant from the National Endowmentfor Humanities, division of Preservation and Access.
  • 2. LYRASIS Preservation ServicesWe offer:• Education and training: full-day workshops, live online andself-paced classes.• Information and referral: call us with your preservationquestions!• Loan services: we have environmental monitoring equipmentavailable for loan.• Publications: all types of preservation publications,downloadable for free.• Disaster assistance: We are available 24/7 to assist you.• Consulting: personalized assistance for your specificpreservation needs.• http://bit.ly/LYRPresHome
  • 3. Welcome• This short class is intended to introduceparticipants to preserving family treasuresand will cover the following topics:– What are family treasures?– Why materials deteriorate– Storage and shelving practices– Supplies and materials– Care of materials by category– Insurance and appraisal– When to seek help from a professional
  • 4. What are Family Treasures?
  • 5. What Would You Save?• If your house was on fire and your family(people and pets) are all safe, what onething would you take out of the housewith you?
  • 6. What Would You Save???• Whatever you said you would save, there is agood chance that it is a personal essentialrecord and/or a “family treasure.”Let’s learn more about personal essentialrecords….
  • 7. Personal essential records arethose items that…•Help you respond to emergencies•Protect health, safety, and rights•Require massive resources toreconstruct•Document the history of community andfamiliesWe will look at each category over the next few slides.
  • 8. Some records are necessary foremergency responseIn your personal life, this means having afamily emergency plan. What kinds ofquestions does a family emergency plancover?---Does your family have an alternate place to meetif you couldn’t get back home?--Do you have emergency supplies like food andwater readily available?--Do you know how to shut off the water or gas inyour house?
  • 9. For more on emergency planning:Federal Emergency Management Agency- Ready America:http://www.ready.gov/america/makeaplan/index.html
  • 10. Other records protect your rights anhelp you function after a disaster:• Mortgages/rental agreements• Birth, marriage, and death certificates• Medical records• Insurance– Medical– Homeowners– Car– Life
  • 11. Some personal essential recordswould be difficult to reconstructBased upon large amounts of dataExamples:• Tax records• Cell phone contacts• Email and physicaladdress books
  • 12. Some records document family history• These are FAMILY TREASURES• They do not need to be made ofpaper, but can be made from avariety of materials—yourgrandmother’s china, a high schoolyearbook, photographs of yourgreat-grandparents, your greataunt’s quilt…
  • 13. Why do materials deteriorate?
  • 14. Why Materials Deteriorate• Chemical and physical NOcomposition• Storage conditions YES• Use and handling YESBrittle scrapbookCan we control?
  • 15. Chemical and Physical Composition• Most family treasures are composed of organicmaterials, and organic materials are designedto break down over time.• Some materials are inherently more stable—stone and ceramic for example, while othersare less so, like most paper and textiles.• Some materials weaken because of the waythey were put together--poor quality bindingscontribute to the deterioration of manyscrapbooks, for example.
  • 16. Sources of Damage• Prolonged exposure to heat and humidity:– Speeds up chemical deterioration processesalready occurring in paper, photographs, andaudiovisual materials• Exposure to light:– Fades inks, pigments, and final image materialin books, documents and photographs– Speeds up chemical deterioration
  • 17. Sources of DamageOne can seewhere anotherbook was storednext to this one—the parts of thecover exposed tolight have faded.
  • 18. Sources of Damage:Tape and Glue• Use of acidic adhesives and tapes does moreharm than good• Results in staining from adhesive and“adhesive creep”• Adhesive creep= adhesive migrates andsticks to other materials• Adhesives are bad for long term preservation
  • 19. Sources of Damage (continued)• Wear from use (china gets chipped, biblesgets ink or coffee stains on them)– Do not stop using them, but beware of theirfragility and handle with careThose items that are extremely valuable to us areprobably going to be used and handled a lot.
  • 20. Sources of Damage (continued)• Poor quality storage materials– Appropriate paper storage materials like alkalinebuffered and acid-free papers and boards haveonly been widely available for 25-30 years.Anything older than that has the potential to beharming your records and treasures.– Be suspect of plastics of unknown origin and notfrom reputable vendors. Certain kinds of plasticslike PVC can very harmful for collections storage.
  • 21. • Cracks in ceramics, wooden objects, andpaintings: …can occur due to physical damage, extremetemperature and humidity conditions, and chemicaldegradation• Books with loose or detached bindings: … canfurther fall apart and cause more severe damage• Adhesives yellowing and failing:… like Elmer’s Glue, isnot made to last for hundreds of years. Over time, the glueyellows and cracks• Water damage and signs of mold: …broken pipes,leaky roofs or basements, have resulted in water damage todocuments. If left unnoticed, mold may develop, puttingboth the document itself, and potentially your health, at risk.Some Signs of Deterioration…Have You Seen Any of These?
  • 22. How Can We PreserveOur Family Treasures?•We can not change the chemicaland physical composition ofmaterials•We can change the way we storeand handle them to help extend theiruseful lives
  • 23. Storage and Supplies
  • 24. Storage Practices: Cool and Dry• Would you want to live in a hot, humidhouse filled with bugs? Neither do yourcollections!Usually, the attic or the basement is theWORST place to store your collections becauseof fluctuations in temperature and humidity,the potential for leaks, and rodents, and thefact that you probably don’t spend a lot of timein those locations, so you are not in tune withyour collection’s environments.
  • 25. Storage Practices:Location, Location, Location!• Avoid basements or attics:--Both places are notorious for waterdamage/mold from leaks--Often these spaces lack insulation• Do not place shelving along exterior walls(temperature and humidity fluctuations)• Avoid prolonged exposure to directsunlight• Keep away from skylights…they leak!
  • 26. Storage Practices: Cool and Dry• In general, your family treasures should bestored in places that are…– Cool– Dry– Well-ventilated– Free from pests– Protected from light– Protected from fire– Protected from leaks
  • 27. Storing Your Family Treasures:Temperature & Relative Humidity Control• Ideal conditions 68-72° F and 30-50%relative humidity• Try to make incremental changes—Moveitems from attic to room with betterconditions for starters…• If you cool with window units, run at lowspeeds to increase dehumidificationcapability
  • 28. Materials Sensitive to High Humidity• Metal• Paper• Textiles• Wood• Inlay• Veneer• Finishes• Parchment• Paper Mache• Baskets• Magnetic mediaThink about where theseitems are located in yourhouse.Are they stored in the attic?The basement? The barn orshed? These are placeswhere you are likely to haveleaks and a potential forhigh humidity, which canlead to swelling and mold.Avoid air conditioning vents,where air tends to be damp.
  • 29. Materials Sensitive to Low Humidity• Wood• Rawhide• Leather• Parchment• Animal glues• Tortoise shell• Ivory• Inlaid surfacesFurniture can dry out, woods can crack, veneers can peel. Sinceyou probably have these objects stored in the same place asthe items that are sensitive to high humidity, this can provequite a challenge. Try and control the fluctuations andextremes in either direction. There is more humidity in thesummer. In the winter, the heating system kicks on and driesup the air in your house. Keep materials away from directsource of heat/air vents to minimize the damage• Baskets• Quill• Vellum
  • 30. Storing Your Family Treasures:Air Circulation• Stagnant air often found inattics/basements• Stagnant air = happy mold spores• Fans can increase air circulation andprevent mold growth• If mold already present—take care; fanscould spread spores!
  • 31. Storing Your Family Treasures:Mold• For more information on mold, seeLYRASIS Preservation leaflet, “Invasion ofthe Giant Mold Spore”:– http://bit.ly/LYRPresMold
  • 32. Storing Your Family Treasures:Pests• Types of pests: silverfish, roaches, moths,beetles, rodents…all damage family treasures• Monitor treasures, especially those packedaway• Look for signs of activity (chewing, skins, fecalremains)• Keep areas clean and dry• Seal up windows and doors
  • 33. Shelving Practices• Some treasures are hung or on display• Others stored in boxes on shelves• Steel shelving preferred—does not off-gas• Wood shelving can off-gas volatile organiccompounds (VOCs). Seal with polyurethaneor create a barrier between wood and objectswith glass, Plexiglas, or Marvelseal™• Oversized items should be shelved flat
  • 34. Microclimates• A small environment in which an object isstored, ideally protecting the item fromexternal hazards and slowing the physicaland chemical deterioration.• Microclimates can protect family treasures.• Can be made from paper, plastic, or otherappropriate enclosure.
  • 35. Supplies• Make sure you are using appropriatesupplies for enclosures and storage• Some vendors use terms that have no realmeaning—meant to make you think productsare high quality when they may or may notbe• When in doubt, call up supplier and askquestions
  • 36. Supplies• Beware of vague terms such as “Archivalquality”, “Acid-free”, and “Photo-safe”.– these terms can be used appropriately inassociation with a standard and from a reputablevendor.• Some better terms are:– “Lignin” and “lig-free” paper– Photograph Activity Test (PAT)– ANSI/NISO Z39.48 standard for permanent paper
  • 37. Use Inert PlasticsIf you are purchasing plastic sleeves,containers, or foam padding, look for itemsmade out of inert plastics, such as:•Polyester (Mylar, Melinex, Tyvek)•Polyethylene•Polypropylene
  • 38. Use Inert PlasticsDo NOT use PVC or polystyrenepeanuts or plastics of unknownorigin for long-term storage.
  • 39. Object StorageThese items are safe for object storage:• Black or white polyethylene foams—othercolors may be chemically treated and harmyour materials• Polypropylene containers like Rubbermaid orSterilite
  • 40. No PVC Plastics or PolystyrenePeanuts for Long-Term Storage• PVC = polyvinyl chloride• These objects can off-gas,deteriorate, and damageyour materials• If unsure of plastic’s originconsider replacingImage fromhttp://natmus.dk/index.php?id=356
  • 41. Purchasing Supplies•Order from reputable supplierswhenever possible•Look for appropriate terminology•Never assume “equivalence”–“Acid-free does not mean “lignin-free”–“Photo-safe” does not mean PVC-free–Archival is not necessarily fade-proof
  • 42. Testing Paper Supplies• Use a pH pen to test acidity levels in papersupplies and enclosures• Most common is Abbey pH pen, which useschlorophenol red as the pH indicator agent
  • 43. Testing with Abbey pH Pen• Draw a small line or spot in an unobtrusivearea of the material being tested• If mark is pale yellow,the paper is acidic• If mark is pale purple,the paper is neutral oralkaline• If mark is tan, the paper is somewhat acidic
  • 44. Use and Handling• Careful handling is as important as appropriate storage• Consider condition of the original– Some treasures are only used for special occasions– Others can handle everyday use– Physical state of original may determine amount/kind ofuse• Wash hands before handling: dirt, oils from your skin, andtoday’s lunch can damage materials• Do not lift oversized, awkward, or heavy items alone• When in doubt, consult a conservator for appropriate storageand handling
  • 45. Caring for Treasures: Paper
  • 46. Caring for Treasures by Type: PaperWhat do you have in your collections that are madeout of paper?The kind of paper the material is made of greatly influenceshow long the material will last.
  • 47. Documents and Papers• The “Era of Bad Paper”: 1850-1970Caused by:– Fiber source– Beating technology– Chlorine bleaching– Additives
  • 48. How is Paper Made?• Paper is made of a sheet of cellulose fibers ofvegetable origin reduced to a pulp with waterand formed into a sheet on a screen• Its quality is greatly affected by the fiber source,the pulping process and the additives used• Paper can be made of all sorts of things, notjust wood
  • 49. Fiber Source: Cotton andLinen Rags• Prior to the mid-to-late nineteenth century,paper in the West was made from recycled linenand cotton rags.• Early rag-based paper is durable andpermanent.• The spread of literacy during the industrialrevolution increased the demand for paper,which prompted a search for alternative fibers.
  • 50. Fiber Source: Wood Pulp• Wood developed into the fiber of choice andwith it came tremendous problems withdurability and permanence.• Wood based paper offered high level of yieldat a low cost, but ultimately quality suffered.• Unpurified wood pulp is a major source ofacid.• The quality of paper progressively declinedprimarily as a result of the introduction ofacids in the papermaking process.
  • 51. Beating Technology• Paper is made by reducing a fiber source toa pulp. This is accomplished by beating.• This used to be done with hammers,creating long fibers and strong paper.• Mechanization cuts fibers rather thancrushing them.• This results in shorter, weaker fibers.
  • 52. Chlorine Bleaching and Additives• When chlorine is used to whiten paper andreduce lignin, paper becomes more acidic anddeteriorates more quickly.• When impurities such as iron and copper areintroduced into the process, they furtherdegrade the paper.• Sizing agents—added to improve printability—also contribute to acidity in paper.
  • 53. Some Hope for Papers•More paper mills have converted toalkaline-based processes. This producesbetter quality paper and is better for theenvironment.•ANSI Z39.48 Standard for PermanentPaper– Products that meet this standard will havelonger life than traditional papers– Also look for lignin-free and/or alkaline bufferedproducts
  • 54. Papers with Preservation Problems•Brittle paper•Newsprint•Telegrams•Unstable copy processes(faxes, thermographicpapers)•Onion skin•Tracing paperThese papers will deteriorate or fade rapidly. They mayneed to be reformatted or treated by conservator.
  • 55. Inks• Ink formulas vary widely• Many will fade when exposed to light• Many will bleed when exposed to moisture• Some will even eat through paper (like irongaulle ink)• For long-term preservation, use inks thatare permanent, fade-proof, and water-proof
  • 56. Documents and Papers: Storage• Keep temperature and humidityfluctuations to a minimum.• Copy poor quality papers ontoalkaline buffered paper.• Place documents in appropriatelysized, alkaline buffered folders.• Folders may be stored in documentboxes or file cabinets.
  • 57. Avoid Harmful Adhesives& Fasteners• Rubber bands… deteriorate and stickto paper• Staples…rust• Paper clips…rust• Glue (Rubber Cement, Elmer’s, etc.)…yellow, stain and lose adhesion• Cellophane tape…carrier comes off,leaves acidic adhesive that stains
  • 58. Tape DamageYou should not use any tape on your materials.Over time, they often do more harm than good.
  • 59. The acids from the glue that was used to hold thisclipping in place is now staining the document.Damage from Glue
  • 60. Bound Volumes• Avoid pulling on head/endcap toremove from shelf—hold the frontand back cover between thumb and fingers incenter of spine• Do not force open• Do not “dog ear” or leave objects in book(flowers, sticky notes, newspaper clippings)
  • 61. Bound Volumes: Storage• Shelve items snug forsupport, but not too tight• Store oversize volumesflat• Boxes for fragile volumes– Custom, drop spine boxes– Phase boxes and wrappers– Polyester dust jackets– Binders for pamphlets– Envelopes for lightweight itemsDrop spine boxFour flap, tux boxes, or wrappers
  • 62. Family Bibles have….• Thin paper (often of poor quality)• Poor quality bindings• Been well-used and are• Hard (and expensive torepair)What to do?• Store in dry, cool environment• Create custom enclosure• Handle with care
  • 63. Artwork• Leave repairs to conservator• Where and how you hang artwork canaffect how long it lasts• What materials you use to frame yourartwork can also have a significant impact
  • 64. Framing and Display• Use alkaline buffered mats andbacking board• Item should not come in contactwith glazing• Hinging of item to back mat boardshould be reversible – no tape orpermanent adhesives• Hang in area that receives limitedlight, or display a reproductioninstead.• To protect from light damage, useUV filtering glazing
  • 65. Selecting a Framer• Ask for recommendations• Specify how you want object framed• Look at how object was framed
  • 66. Selecting a Framer• Look for members of the Professional PictureFramers Association– http://www.pmai.org/ppfa/• To learn more, Matting and Framing for Art andArtifacts on Paper– http://www.nedcc.org/free-resources/preservation-leaflets/4.-storage-and-handling/4.10-matting-and-framing-for-art-and-artifacts-on-paper
  • 67. Hanging Artwork• Screw eyes should be attached to thick area of frame• Eyes and ring hangers better than teeth (which put toomuch strain on top portion of frame)• Wire should be strong enough to hang painting• Take care where you hang—make sure hook and wallitself is strong enough• Avoid hanging in direct sunlight to prevent damage fromnatural light/UV• Avoid hanging against outdoor wall—temp/RHfluctuations• Use “bumper” to raise artwork from wall—will allow aircirculation, prevent mold/condensation and preventartwork from scratching wall
  • 68. Caring for Treasures:Photographic Materials andFilms
  • 69. Are composed of three or fourlayers:1. Support2. Binder3. Final Image4. Baryta Layer (optional)Photographs
  • 70. • May be glass, plastic film, paper, or resin-coated paper• Provides the structure and stability for thephotograph to be used/held, etc.Photographs: Support
  • 71. • Holds the image to support• Usually gelatin, but may be albumen orcollodianPhotographs: Binder/Emulsion
  • 72. • Usually suspended in theemulsion/binder• Made of silver, color dyes or pigmentparticles• This is what makes the image you seePhotographs: Final Image (blue dots)
  • 73. Photographs: Baryta Layer• Optional layer• Between base and binder• Provides bright, smooth background forimage to display against
  • 74. Photographs deteriorate due to:Chemical and physical compositionPoor environmental storage conditionsPoor storage enclosures and shelvingconditionsInappropriate use and handlingDisastersNaturalPeople-createdElectronic
  • 75. Cellulose AcetateMost family treasures on this type ofnegative (1920’s- Present)Created in response to nitrate film,which was flammableOften identified by “safety” writtenon the sideVulnerable to vinegar syndromeDeterioration characteristics• Vinegar smell• Bubbles/crystals• ShrinkingVinegarSyndrome
  • 76. Photographic Prints & Negatives:Storage and Handling• All supplies should meet thePAT test• Store prints and negativesseparately• Early formats may needcustom housing• Wear cotton gloves fornegatives and handle fromedges only
  • 77. Avoid Exposure Light and Heat• Chemical processes in different types ofphotographs react with light and heat,especially chromogenic photographs(Kodachrome, Ektachrome processes)• Exposure to light and high temperatures cancause dyes to fade or leftover chemicals tostain.
  • 78. Scrapbooks and Albums– Interleave between pages if necessary– Shelve spine down or flat– Protect from dust and light in a proper sizedenclosure
  • 79. InterleavingWhat to interleave:• Photographs• Highly acidic itemsWhat type of paper to use:• Acid-free• Passes Photograph ActivityTest (PAT)• NO glassine
  • 80. Learn More about Photographs• Check out– Image Permanence Institute•http://www.imagepermanenceinstitute.org– NEDCC resources•http://www.nedcc.org/resources/leaflets.list.php• Sign up for online classes through LYRASIS– Care of Photographic Materials– Understanding Digital Photographshttp://bit.ly/LYRClasses
  • 81. Scrapbooks and AlbumsHandling– Do not open flat– Support fragile volumes with foam blocks or abook cradle– Store snugly in box, spine down or flat (dependingupon size)
  • 82. Modern Scrapbooks and Albums• Use low lignin and acidfree paper• Use photo cornersinstead of adhesives• Avoid “magnetic” albums(see example on right)• Choose albums with inertplastic pockets or paper pages• No PVCs
  • 83. Videotape/Audiotape Storage• Maintain clean storage areas• Keep controlled environment50-60°F, 40-50% RH• Replace acidic cardboard or vinyl boxes• Store vertically• Avoid sources of magnetic fields• To learn more about caring for videos from theAIC…•http://bit.ly/cyWpKP
  • 84. Videotapes: Sticky Shed Syndrome• Occurs most commonly in polyestervideotapes made between 1975-1985• Caused by high relative humidity, hightemperatures, and natural aging• Characteristics: Higher friction, gummy orwaxy residue• If you suspect sticky shed syndrome, take toa professional to inspect/reformat
  • 85. Home Movies•Stored on film, videocassette, and digitalvideo•Keep cool and dry in inert plasticcontainers•Keep original after transfer•Check out Home Movie Day!–http://www.homemovieday.com/
  • 86. Cold Storage for Photographsand FilmCold storage can be used to slow• Fading and deteriorating colorphotographs• Vinegar Syndrome in acetate negatives,films, and reel-to-reel tapes
  • 87. Digital Collections• More and more family treasures are beingcreated electronically or digitized• What kinds of family treasures do you havein electronic format?
  • 88. Digital Collections…A FewExamples• Photos• Video• Emails• Facebook pages• Music• Online scrapbooks and much more!What are you doing to preserve these things?
  • 89. Preserving Digital Collections•Unfortunately there are no easy answers…But here are a few things you can do toensure that your digital family treasureslast…
  • 90. Digital Collections•If digitizing, keep the original object–it may be easier to re-digitize from theoriginal•When in doubt, print it out!–We know how to preserve paper, so if youcan create a paper copy, do so
  • 91. Digital Collections• Keep multiple digital copies in multipleplaces– Send copies to friends and family around thecountry. Keep some on cd, some on yourcomputer, buy a back-up hard drive• Be prepared and proactive to migratematerials– Did you ever have to transfer your documentsfrom Word Perfect to Microsoft Word?– Plan to migrate your materials at least every fiveyears onto new media and/or a new format
  • 92. Caring for Treasures: Furnitureand Other Objects
  • 93. Furniture• Often complex components (glass, wood,textiles, nails, stains, adhesives)• Sunlight can affect color and finish• Keep out of direct sunlight• Avoid humid conditions for wood• Vulnerable to pests infestations– Wood: termites/beetles– Textiles: moths/carpet beetlesFor more on furniture, see Saving Your Treasures:Furniturehttp://www.netnebraska.org/basic-page/television/saving-your-treasures-furniture
  • 94. Furniture: Care and Handling• Use pads and coasters to prevent wear andtear– Use mylar backed cork– Don’t use felt because it absorbs moisture• Moving furniture– Move from from the bottom not the top– Do not drag across floor– Make sure you have enough folks to lift– If moving long distances make sure properlypadded and you understand your insurancecoverage
  • 95. Furniture: Cleaning• Clean with lint-free cloth—good bet formost wood• Cloth can be vacuumed with brushattachment wrapped in cheesecloth• Avoid stain-resistant treatments• Use paste wax sparingly• Do not wax damaged areas
  • 96. Decorative Metals• Many decorative metals look alike but needto be stored, handled and cared differently• Never clean/polish without accurateidentification
  • 97. Silver• Generic term• Sterling silver= 92.5% pure and will belabeled “sterling”• Susceptible to mixing with other metals—leads to corrosion (tarnishing)• Tarnish = silver sulfide• Oil on your hands can corrode• Removing tarnish removes portion of thesilver; over time, loses shape, luster, etc.
  • 98. Cleaning and Storing Silver• Early stages of tarnish can be remove without polishingusing a clean piece of flannel, muslin or other soft cotton• Solid pieces can be hand washed with mild detergent;hollow pieces should not be—water can work its way intohollow parts and corrode• Do not put silver in dishwasher—hand wash and dryquickly• For more on cleaning silver, see video, see SavingNebraska’s Treasures website: How to Polish Silver– http://netnebraska.org/interactive-multimedia/culture/saving-your-treasures-how-polish-silver-objects• Avoid storing acidic foods or foods with sulfur: lemon,tomatoes, eggs• Also avoid rubber, fresh flowers, newspaper, wool andsalt
  • 99. Textiles• Deteriorate due to chemical changes,mechanical wear, and mishandling• Light and heat fade colors, break down fibers,and discolor finishes• High relative humidity can lead to mold/mildew• Low relative humidity can lead to drying out• Atmospheric pollutants, acidic wood/paper, orcleaning chemicals damage fabrics• Creases from folds damage over time
  • 100. Textiles: Storage• Keep out of sun and fluorescent light• Display flat or at an angle to minimize stretching orpulling of fabric• Avoid pesticides and mothballs• Store in acid-free boxes with unbuffered tissue orwrapped in clean, with sheets• Avoid creases by padding with unbuffered tissue• Roll rugs or blankets pile outward and wrap in undyedcotton or white sheet
  • 101. Textiles: Cleaning• Blot spills immediately• Sturdy fabrics can be vacuumed with brushattachment covered with cotton cheeseclothon low suction• Do not wash or dry clean fragile textiles• For more on caring for textiles, see Saving YourTreasures: Textiles– http://www.netnebraska.org/basic-page/television/saving-your-treasures-textiles
  • 102. Clothing• Keep use to a minimum if you are concerned withkeeping the item in good shape• Restrict use to those who are the same size orsmaller of the original wearer• Avoid exposure to deodorant and make-up• Fragile items should not be dry-cleaned, bleached,or even washed• Hang on well-padded plastic hanger covered inunbleached cotton cloth that is as wide asgarment’s shoulders to support• Avoid hanging knit, bias-cut or heavy garments
  • 103. Glass and Ceramics:Storage and Handling• Use clean, bare hands when handling• Do not pick up by handles or rim• Store in dry cupboards—do not overstack so you caneasily lift in/out• Pad individual pieces if necessary—ethafoam,flannel, paper towels, or polyethelene. Do not usenewsprint• Don’t use heirloom objects for food storage orflower arrangements
  • 104. Glass and Ceramics:Display• Best displayed in cabinets with glass panels ratherthan open shelves—this forms an additional layer ofprotection from prying hands, kids running into,dust, fluctuations in temperature and humidity• If you use glass plate stands, use plastic ones—metal ones might rust• If you use metal hooks to hang on walls, purchaseclear vinyl tubing from hardware store to slip overthe hangers to protect ceramics from damage• Use mats for pieces displayed on furniture. Thisprotects both pieces from damage and limitslikelihood that piece will slip
  • 105. Glass and Ceramics: Cleaning• Wash glazed and glass objects by hand• Avoid washing unglazed objects or those with objectswith gold edging, hand-painting or repairs. Use drybrush• Do not use dusting sprays, polishes, bleach orcommercial cleaners• Do not use scrub pads—only foam sponges• Chandeliers should be dusted with soft-haired brush• Mirrors—do not spray directly on mirror but on cloth
  • 106. Insurance, Appraisers, andConservation
  • 107. Insurance for Your FamilyTreasures• Do you have renter’s or homeowner’s insurance?• Make sure that you understand what events yourpolicy covers and what kind of restitution you willreceive• If you have particularly valuable family treasures, makesure that you add specific riders on your insurancepolicy for replacement value of these items• Maintain a list of your family treasures, complete withtime/date stamped photographs to documentcondition in case of damage or theft• Store list in multiple places (outside of the house).
  • 108. Appraisers• Appraisers can help you determine value of yourfamily treasures• Good appraiser will charge flat fee that they will tellyou upfront• Do not use appraiser who will charge a percentage ofthe item’s value• American Society of Appraisers– http://www.appraisers.org/ASAHome.aspx• Antiquarian Booksellers Association of America– http://abaa.org
  • 109. Leave Repairs to the ExpertsAmateur repair can causemore harm than good!When in doubt, DONOTHING!
  • 110. Conservation vs. Restoration• Restoration– An attempt to make an item look as though itwere new– Replacing worn or deteriorated parts.• Conservation– Focus is on chemical and physical stabilization– Rule of reversibility: Any thing done by aconservator should be able to be undone.– “Less is best”
  • 111. Seeking ConservationTreatment• Seek treatment to stabilize rather than “restore”.• Choose a conservator according to specialty(i.e., paper, books, paintings, objects, textiles)• A conservator should provide– Proposed treatment estimate– Examination and condition assessment– Written report and before and after photography– Insurance coverage• Contact two or three conservators for estimatesand check their references.
  • 112. How to Find a Conservator• The American Institute for Conservation (AIC)of Historic and Artistic Works maintains a list– http://bit.ly/csPyuF• For more help on selecting a conservatorsee the AIC Guidelines for Selecting aConservator
  • 113. When Should You Contacta Conservator?• After a disaster• If you see signs of pest infestation• If an item has been broken or torn• If you notice a rapid change in thecondition of an item• If you have a mold or mildew outbreak
  • 114. For More Information• Heritage Preservation’s Caring for Your FamilyTreasures– http://www.heritagepreservation.org/PUBS/treasures.HTM• Saving Nebraska’s Treasures– http://netnebraska.org/basic-page/television/saving-your-treasures
  • 115. Follow Us on• http://www.facebook.com/LyrDigPres
  • 116. Thank You!Contact us if you have any questionsLYRASIS Preservation Services1438 W. Peachtree St. NW/Suite 200Atlanta, GA 30309preservation@lyrasis.org1-800-999-8558