Care and Handling of Library Materials


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Care and Handling of Library Materials

  1. 1. Care and Handling of Library Materials LYRASIS Preservation Services Funded in part by a grant from the National Endowment for Humanities, division of Preservation and Access.
  2. 2. LYRASIS Preservation Services We offer: • Education and training: full-day workshops, live online and self-paced classes • Information and referral: call us with your preservation questions! • Loan services: we have environmental monitoring equipment available for loan. • Publications: all types of preservation publications, downloadable for free. • Disaster assistance: We are available 24/7 to assist you • Consulting: personalized assistance for your specific preservation needs. • For more information:
  3. 3. Welcome • This short class is intended to introduce participants to some the basics when caring for and handling library materials. • LYRASIS has a large variety of classes available on the preservation of library and archival materials. – For more information on LYRASIS Preservation, please visit: – For a list of preservation related classes and more, visit our main class page at:
  4. 4. Class Objectives • Gain basic care and handling of materials in your institution in order to minimize damage. • Identify issues that may be damaging to the library materials so you can correct those issues. • Learn how to begin training staff and users effectively! The more people know how to take care of library materials, the better.
  5. 5. Preservation what does this mean? • Preservation is the sum of the activities a library undertakes to maintain its collections in usable condition for as long as they are needed. – This is not about restricted use, having all ―perfect‖ books, or keeping them forever…but making them useable and accessible for as long as they are needed- and taking good care of them ensures this will happen!
  6. 6. Preservation who is responsible? • Everyone is responsible! – A proactive approach to preservation is the most cost effective and practical means of extending the life of a collection. – All staff can help contribute to the care and preservation of books and library materials.
  7. 7. Preservation Activities These are some of the preservation activities you can do… • Most materials are damaged due to abuse, neglect, and lack of knowledge. Proper care & handling is very inexpensive! • There are simple things you can do to educate your staff and users. Setting up a display, for instance, could identify the main hazards for materials and instruct how to avoid damage. • Proper environmental control prolongs the life of the collections • If book repair is something your library is interested in doing, LYRASIS offers classes in many levels of book repair. • Emergency Preparedness is important because it helps you to plan for a disaster in your institution.
  8. 8. Let’s Begin! • To properly understand the proper care and handling of books, let’s take a look into the anatomy of a book and how it is constructed… • Knowledge of construction is essential to understanding how mishandling affects the physical operation of a book.
  9. 9. • The front and back covers protect the textblock. They are usually made of heavy book board or card stock in the case of ―softbacks‖ (i.e. paperbacks).
  10. 10. • The spine of the book cover protects the spine of the textblock.
  11. 11. • The joint area, (also known as the hinge or groove) is the interior or exterior point on a book where the cover meets the spine. Inside, it's where the flyleaf (front free endpaper) meets the pastedown (the endpaper which is pasted to the inside cover of the book).
  12. 12. Book Structure • The top edge of the boards, spine, and text block when a book is upright on a shelf is the head.
  13. 13. Book Structure • The unbound edge of the book's pages, opposite the spine. Older books and special editions may have gilded (gold) or painted fore-edges. When present, tabs or a thumb index are affixed to the fore-edge.
  14. 14. Book Structure • The bottom edge of the boards, spine, and text block that the book rests on when it is sitting upright on a shelf is the tail.
  15. 15. Book Structure • Endpapers are found at the very front and back of the book. They play a critical part in holding the textblock inside the case.
  16. 16. Book Structure • Pastedown– the part of the endsheet/end paper that is glued to the inside cover.
  17. 17. Book Structure • Fly leaf –the loose part of the endsheet opposite the pastedown connected to the textblock.
  18. 18. Book Structure • Hinge – is the inner margin of the outside joint/groove. This internal area closest to the spine is also called the ―gutter‖ of the book when referring to the inner textblock.
  19. 19. Book Structure • Headcap- the upper portion of the spine.
  20. 20. Book Structure • Headband- a decorative ribbon / cording used at the head and tail of the spine
  21. 21. Before the textblock and case are pasted together, this is what you would see (turn-in) • Turn-in: Book cloth that forms the cover that is wrapped around the inner part of the boards.
  22. 22. Before the textblock and case are pasted together, this is what you would see (turn-in) • The inlay forms the spine of the case can be soft paper or hard cover board material.
  23. 23. Before the textblock and case are pasted together, this is what you would see (turn-in) • The board forms the covers of the bookcase- provides stiffness or rigidity for hardcover books.
  24. 24. Before the textblock and case are pasted together, this is what you would see (turn-in) • Textblock- the sewn or glued grouping of pages.
  25. 25. Before the textblock and case are pasted together, this is what you would see (turn-in) • The super is attached to the spine of the book and helps to attach the textblock to the case. The spine lining reinforces the attachment of the super.
  26. 26. • It is important to note that the only thing that holds a textblock in the covers in contemporary books is the pastedown part of the endsheet, and the super- (sometimes very weak and cheap, and sometimes non- existent). These two connections holds the weight of the text block into the case. • This is why proper shelving and care for books is so important. If materials are not cared for properly they can easily break and tear in these areas!
  27. 27. • Bindings Sewn binding Some books are sewn thru the groupings of folded sheets, called signatures. In sewn bindings, you should be able to visibly see the signatures, and you will find thread in the center of each signature.
  28. 28. • Bindings Other books are not sewn and have glued bindings. Commonly referred to as ―double fan‖, a gathering of loose pages are run over a roller ("fanning" the pages) to apply a thin layer of glue to each page edge. This is then done in the opposite direction so a small amount of glue adheres the pages together at the spine. However, certain types of paper do not hold adhesive well, and with wear and tear, the pages can come loose. Glued binding
  29. 29. Threats to Collections chemical and physical composition • Items in collections are complex; composed of organic and inorganic materials that will deteriorate at different rates over time. • Design and construction of an item is vital as well - this could be true for a book as well as cd’s and other media.
  30. 30. Threats to Collections • Environment and storage are critical to collections- such as temperature, RH, light, proper storage furniture, and good housekeeping. How do you ensure you have the correct conditions? • You can monitor the collections’ environment by using environmental monitoring equipment such as hygrothermographs, data loggers, and software such as eClimate Notebook. Below are links to two types of data loggers: • 2-datalogger •
  31. 31. Threats to Collections • Use and handling of a collection is another threat – The frequent use and poor handling of items by staff and patrons can cause damage. Poor repair practices, and poor transportation can also accelerate damage.
  32. 32. Threats to Collections • Some use and handling examples: – High use damage: patrons folding corners of books and magazines instead of using book markers. – Poor repair practices: using pressure sensitive tape (like ―Scotch‖ tape), can stain pages and cause further tearing and breaking. – Poor transportation: moving books and other materials that are not properly supported can cause damage to the paper and the overall structure of the format.
  33. 33. Collection Environment All of these are potential threats to the collections! Lets look at each one in the following slides…. Temperature Relative humidity Insects and Pests Mold control Atmospheric pollutants Light
  34. 34. Collection Environment: Temperature • High temperatures accelerate deterioration by increasing the speed of chemical reactions. • Temperature can also encourage mold and insect growth. • The ideal temperature range for general collections is between 68-72F, with little fluctuation.
  35. 35. Collection Environment Relative Humidity • Definition: total amount of moisture that air at a given temperature is capable of holding. • All organic materials containing moisture respond to the surrounding moisture content by changing shape or size. Rapid RH fluctuations cause physical distortion (i.e. paper, boards and leather to swell), and also encourages mold growth and insect. • Ideal relative humidity (RH) for general collections is between 40-55%
  36. 36. Collection Environment Insects and Pests • Insects such as silverfish, roaches, carpet beetles cause staining and losses. Pests ingest cellulose, glues, & starch filling in cloth. Mice and rats can gnaw on through insulation to electrical wires. • Fact sheets on a variety of insects are available here: • Mold is also a natural food for many booklice and silverfish. The mold attracts these pests to your collections, where they eat paper along with the mold.
  37. 37. Collection Environment Mold Control • Lack of air circulation and high RH (above 65%) are great ingredients for mold growth. It can weaken, stain, disfigure paper and photographic materials. • Mold outbreaks occur in collections whenever environmental conditions are right for dormant spores to bloom, (i.e., dead air, high humidity). • To find out more about mold in collections, read ―Invasion of the Giant Mold Spore‖ from LYRASIS: Fs/Mold%20leaflet%20revisions0905.pdf
  38. 38. Collection Environment Light • Both visible light and ultraviolet (UV) light cause damage, but UV is most damaging. Present in natural and fluorescent light, UV light causes fading & yellowing of dyes and pigments, heat hastens this deterioration. • Remember that damage by light is cumulative and irreversible. This means that damage is done day by day, and there is are no salvage procedures once the damage is done. • Best practice to take preventative measures: keep all original materials away from direct and bright light, and limit brightness and length of time when on display.
  39. 39. Collection Environment Atmospheric Pollutants • Gaseous pollutants such as sulphur-dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen dioxide, combine with moisture in the air to form acids that attack and damage library materials. • Ozone, which is a product of the combination of sunlight and nitrogen dioxide from vehicles, damage all organic materials. Ozone may also be produced by electrostatic filtering systems used in some HVAC as well as by electrostatic photocopy ―Xerox‖ machines.
  40. 40. Collection Environment Atmospheric Pollutants • Particulate pollutants such as soot and dust abrade, soil, and disfigure materials. Dust is a mixture of fragments of human skin, minute particles of mineral or plant material, salts, etc. Much of dirt is hygroscopic (water attracting), and this has a tendency to encourage mold growth. Particulate pollutants are very damaging to magnetic and optical media.
  41. 41. Low Cost Environmental Practices • Turn off lights when not in use. • Close blinds to prevent unnecessary light and temperature fluctuations. • Improve air circulation with fans. • Practice integrated pest management. The use of fumigants and pesticides is not recommended except as a last resort, because of health and safety issues. • Ensure good housekeeping with regular scheduling. • Keep HVAC functioning and maintained.
  42. 42. Environmental Specifications for General Collections Printed material such as books, journals, newspapers and single documents, recommended temperatures are: • Temperature: 68-72°F • Relative Humidity: 40-50% • Many formats have specific ideal storage requirements: the main issue is consistency with no extreme fluctuations.
  43. 43. Environmental Specifications for General Collections Find out more information on how to maintain proper environmental conditions by reviewing these publications: • Documents/Preservation%20PDFs/environ spec.pdf • resources/preservation-leaflets/overview (Look under ―The Environment‖) • http://cool.conservation-
  44. 44. Collection Storage Furniture: what is best? • Powder coated, baked enamel steel is ideal. • Avoid wood because it can off-gas and potentially harm materials. If you use wood, you may cover it with polyester film, Plexiglas, or glass to prevent possible damage. • Use adjustable shelves to accommodate different sizes. • Make sure your furniture is smooth, with no sharp edges that could catch hands or books.
  45. 45. Collection Storage Furniture • Shelve 4‖-6‖ (minimum) off the floor to reduce the risk of damage from flooding, mop splashing, or just kicks from people passing by. • Use shelving that has a canopy on top because this will deflect water, light and dust- and in case of leaky pipes... Or don’t use the top shelf. • Flat files should be 2‖ deep to allow for easy insertion and removal of materials
  46. 46. Shelving Practices • Shelve materials snugly. The middle example in this photo is appropriate.
  47. 47. Shelving Practices • Consider the top shelf- these materials are too loose and can damage the cases and textblocks, resulting in damage and costly repairs.
  48. 48. Shelving Practices • Looking at the lower shelf in this image, these books are shelved too tight, as evidenced in neighboring books being pulled with the book that is being removed.
  49. 49. Shelving Practices • Separate oversize material- oversize material should not be forced to fit on an inappropriate shelf. • Use step stools. Occasionally, you may see someone stepping on the middle shelf to pull an item on higher shelf.—a no no! • Use appropriate book ends to support materials. If you have a large book on the shelf, do not use the smallest book end you have. It will slide before you get away. Dry bricks wrapped in heavy paper make great, low cost bookends.
  50. 50. Collection Storage: Good Practices • Provide air circulation to avoid mold growth. • Keep materials out of direct sunlight to avoid fading. • Avoid basements & attics. Basements can flood and attics can be hot and humid. These spaces may have pests and rodents. • Keep book cases 2‖ away from the wall – and books another 2‖ away from the back of the book case especially if the cases are positioned against the outside walls of your library building. This is to avoid changes in temperature and humidity that could harm the books. • Carpets may harbor insects, mold. If you must have carpet, keep it clean.
  51. 51. The Maze of Terminology It is important to be familiar with terminology especially when buying preservation supplies from commercial vendors. What information do these terms convey? Lets review. • ―Archival quality‖ • ―Acid-free‖ • ―Alkaline buffered‖ • ―Lignin‖ and ―lignin-free‖ • ―Photo-safe‖
  52. 52. The Maze of Terminology • ―Archival quality‖ • This term is often used to refer to materials that are quality and will not damage materials enclosed in them. However, there are no standards for the use of this word. It suggests a material is long lasting or stable, but is often misused by vendors. • Buy your materials from a reputable source, not drugstores or hobby stores. • Where can you find reputable vendors? Look to the LYRASIS Preservation Services and Supplies List IS%20Preservation%20Services%20and%20Supplies.pdf
  53. 53. The Maze of Terminology • ―Acid-free‖ • This term gives a little more information, and implies that the product has a pH of 7.0 or higher. • However, the material could be extremely alkaline, or neutral – there is no way of knowing. • This term is not really specific enough, and does not guarantee product will stay acid free.
  54. 54. The Maze of Terminology • ―Alkaline buffered‖ • Also known as ―buffered‖. • This means an alkaline substance such as calcium carbonate has been added to a paper product to slow the attack of acids, either inherent in the material itself or from other items that it is in contact with. • Buffered material usually has a pH between 7.0 and 9.5.
  55. 55. The Maze of Terminology • ―Lignin‖ and ―lignin-free‖ • Lignin is a a substance found in all plant matter, and when not extracted in the papermaking process, causes deterioration in paper. Unprocessed ground wood paper, like newspapers and cheap store paper, is very high in lignin. • There are some paper and board products that are lignin-free. They have less than 1% lignin content and are a high quality product.
  56. 56. The Maze of Terminology • ―Photo-safe‖ • This is another misleading term, because it is not associated with any standard, it is essentially meaningless. • Look for materials that have passed the PAT test. The PAT (Photographic Activity Test) is a worldwide standard (ISO Standard 18916) for archival quality in photographic enclosures • Find out more about the PAT though the Image Permanence Institute:
  57. 57. Standard for Permanence of Paper The ANSI / NISO Z39.48-2002 standard for permanence of paper is for both coated and uncoated paper. Some key points of this standard are: • pH - neutral to alkaline pH (7.5-10) • Alkaline reserve- minimum of 2% (usually calcium carbonate), i.e. buffered. • Tear resistance - a way of measuring a paper's resistance to tear. • Lignin content - no more than 1% by weight— (need some lignin to keep paper strong}
  58. 58. Book Enclosures • Boxing is an alternative means for providing additional protection. Housing books in protective enclosures offer protection from shelf damage, dirt and dust on the shelf and during transportation, good support for the book itself, and a buffer from rapid temperature and humidity fluctuations. • The following are a few of the variety of enclosures:
  59. 59. Book Enclosures Drop spine box : Usually a custom order, drop spine boxes make materials easy to lift out without damage. These typically are more expensive than other types of enclosures. Phase box : These boxes are custom made and need equipment to fabricate. Not as user friendly (flaps get cumbersome) as the drop-spine box and can only be made so big before the structure starts losing support. Four-flap : Four-flap enclosures are good for smaller items and made out of a thinner board than phase boxes. No large equipment is needed for fabrication.
  60. 60. Book Enclosures Document boxes : Are alkaline or low lignin content boxes. They can be used upright or flat. If under-filled use a spacer board to provide support. If used upright for a book, insert book spine down and use spacer board for support. Envelopes : Can be used for segregating loose items, or items that may easily be damaged on the shelf. Pamphlet binders can also be used for single-signature pamphlets.
  61. 61. Paper and Board Products: what to look for • Standard for permanent paper (Z39.48-2002). • Photographic Activity Test passed (PAT). Specifications for paper and paperboard enclosures that come indirect contact with photographic material should have pH of 7-9 according to ISO. • Non-bleeding products–avoid dyed products. • Cellulose fiber composition with alkaline reserve (buffered). • Contains structural features that do not damage contents– such as internal flaps and internal metal fasteners. Adhesive seams should pass PAT test because many adhesives discolor with age and contain other impurities such as copper, sulfur, plasticizers and solvents.
  62. 62. Housing Specifications: Never use enclosures made from: – Unprocessed wood pulp paper. – Glassine- not recommended because most are acidic and most manufacturers are unable to maintain the recommended acid-free with neutral pH with desirable alkaline buffered stock. – Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to house or store photographs. – Avoid colored papers because they often contain dyes or inks that can migrate or bleed.
  63. 63. General Handling Guidelines • Keep hands clean during long periods of exposure to materials. Why? Because dust and dirt can easily be transferred from one item to another. Hand cream and lotion are not recommended prior to handling library materials because of residue left on materials. • Keep food and drinks away -lunch, snacks, beverages do not belong in the stacks. Help remind users not to eat in the library. If they have to have drinks, then containers should have lids. • Avoid using metal paper clips and rubber bands
  64. 64. General Handling Guidelines • Use pencils in the Reading Room and supply them for your patrons- this can help to avoid them using pens around library materials. • Be prepared to safely handle materials, like using book trucks and carts. • Avoid forcing bound books to open when copying or reading. • Use book cradles : they support the item without damage. • Do not use pressure sensitive tape – it leaves residue and stains on items. So do metal clips that can rust.
  65. 65. Document Repair • Pressure Sensitive tape is evil. – Over time, it dries, yellows, and falls off leaving stains on the material. • If you must use tape on circulating collections, use: • Tyvek tape: an inert polyester web, acrylic adhesive. • Document repair tape – alkaline buffered tissue, acrylic adhesive • Self adhesive Mylar. • AVOID: cellophane, masking, and ―book‖ tapes. Tape of any kind should not be used on permanent collections
  66. 66. Prevent Damage: Prepare for Disaster • Natural disasters like hurricanes, tornados, etc. can flood libraries causing damages to materials. • …but man-made disasters may be caused by: – Disgruntled patrons and ex-employees…known to cause fires in in book drops and in libraries. – In 1990s, research in Pittsburgh area libraries showed that 28% of library items were damaged in book drops.
  67. 67. Prevent Damage: Prepare for Disaster • Store materials off the floor & away from exterior walls. • Don’t store collections in the attic or basement. • Be familiar with recovery procedures, stage mock recovery exercises. • Be familiar with disaster recovery vendors, e.g.., dehumidification, blast freezing companies, freeze drying. • Have supplies handy at all times – you never know when a disaster (small or large) may strike!
  68. 68. Prevent Damage: Prepare for Disaster • Check out the LYRASIS Disaster Resources for information on disaster prevention, response and recovery: • s/Preservation%20Services/Disaster- Resources.aspx
  69. 69. Prevent Damage During Transport • Use a book truck instead of trying to use your hands and arms-it is damaging to materials and not to mention that you are hurting yourself. Ideally, a book truck should have wide shelves so items are secure in transit. Good book trucks have bumpers on corners to minimize damage from inadvertent collision.
  70. 70. Prevent Damage During Transport • Place items upright just like you would on the shelf. • Do not overload because trucks easily topple over. • No drinks on trucks because they can spill on library materials. • Avoid wobbly trucks- safety first! • Ask for help to maneuver a heavy truck.
  71. 71. Shelving and Handling Tips Do Grasp books in middle of spine • Remove books by grasping both sides of the book about mid-way of the spine with thumb and fingers of one hand, and using the other hand to support the adjacent books. If it is too tight, remove a book or two, place on the shelf below or above, then pull the item you need, then re- shelve the books you just placed on the shelve below or above. Ideally, it is a good idea to have a small stand/table or book truck at the end of the isle so if you need to place items on it so you can pull what you need.
  72. 72. Shelving and Handling Tips Don’t • don’t Pull at the end caps- they are very vulnerable. Patrons and staff tend to pull end caps because it is faster- but it is damaging. • don’t Store books on their foredge- it is damaging to their structure . If they cannot be stored upright, store them spine down. It is less damaging.
  73. 73. Shelving and Handling Tips Do • Store oversized flat or spine down
  74. 74. Shelving and Handling Tips Do • Use a step stool or small ladder to pull materials. Shelves are not designed for human weight.
  75. 75. Identify good and bad practices in this picture
  76. 76. Identify good and bad practices in this picture • Good: • Most upright • Looks clean • Bad: • Books on the floor • Books hanging off the shelf – by the head tail • Books leaning – should be upright
  77. 77. Shelving and Handling Pamphlets/Journals • Pamphlet files are great for keeping newsletters and other flimsy materials together and upright. • Pamphlets could also be sewn into their own binder or placed in a supportive envelope. Instead of sewn-in, these binders can also contain attached envelopes or four flap enclosures inside.
  78. 78. Handling Tips During Photocopying • Imagine you were a popular book (like a recipe book or crafts), would photocopying feel like torture to you? From the book’s point of view, pages being turned roughly, binding stretched and pressed down and copied could be stressful and damaging to its structure. – Examine material to see if the binding is damaged, are pages are torn? – When you open a book, is there enough margin inside the gutter or does the text run way down inside the crease of the binding? – Is the item oversize, heavy?
  79. 79. Handling Tips During Photocopying • What you can do: – Handle material gently – support the item you are copying to prevent folding of pages. Twisting and flexing a book to open over 180 degrees is damaging. Sometimes opening even lass can damage- depending on the book at hand. – Support the edges of oversize materials. Ask staff for assistance. – Staff can educate patrons to ask for help.
  80. 80. Handling During Photocopying Do not press books down on platen
  81. 81. Binder Minder Copier •Using a drop edge machine can be better for bindings, especially for books that have text running into the gutter. •These copiers have slanted, supportive surface on one side and a photocopying surface which extends into the gutter of the book, enabling photocopying without flattening the volume. •An overhead scanner/copier may be best for fragile materials.
  82. 82. A few other materials commonly found… Photographs Magnetic Media CD’s / DVD’s
  83. 83. Use and Handling Tips for Photographic Materials • Use lint-free cotton gloves or smooth examination gloves. Our fingers have natural oils that can be transferred onto the emulsion side. • Sort by size if possible. It is best if same size materials are housed together to support each other in box, eliminating floppy and exposed edges. • Use acid-free enclosures (PAT tested) get supplies from reputable vendors and must pass PAT test as specified by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). • If you must label the photo, do so on the back using #2 pencil – do not press hard. • Store negatives separately : if you lose prints you can always get copies made from the negatives.
  84. 84. Use and Handling Tips for Magnetic Media • Minimize handling as much as possible. • Avoid touching the surface of any tape. • Do not use commercial products to clean tape. • Return tapes and diskettes to their individual boxes. • Store upright, like books. • Store in clean, cool, dry environment and away from magnetic field. • Recommended temperature: 60°F and 30-40% RH.
  85. 85. Use and Handling Tips for Discs Do • Handle with clean hands by the outer edge You may also handle by the center hole because only the reflective layers contain data. • Use soft cotton cloth to wipe dust. Wipe from center to outside edge, not in a circle There also machines to clean CDs- but be careful as some of them just go round in a circle. • Label with non-damaging pens If you have to label them, use permanent ink pen without dyes like Kaiser pens (non toxic and permanent). • Store in plastic cases upright. Storing in cases protects from light and dust. • Store in clean, cool, dry environment. Recommended temperature: 68°F (Warmer and more humid may lead to oxidation of metallic reflecting layers of disc)
  86. 86. Use and Handling Tips for Discs cont’d Don’t • Handle or touch surface because that may damage the data area. • Write in data area of disc. If you must write- use only the inner clear hub. • Use labels – any kind of labels may unbalance the disc. If a label is already on the disc, do not try to remove it because that would create stress on that at particular area. Such stress causes delamination, especially in writable CDs. • Bend or flex -Bending and flexing deform the substrate, wiping out pits and causing disc to become unreadable. • Expose to extreme heat and humidity. • Clean in a circular direction.
  87. 87. Your Responsibility Now let us look at small steps you can take in your library: • Institute a “care and handling” week in your library for patrons and staff. • Help users who need help - look out for patrons that might need help in pulling materials. Offer to help them! • Avoid irreversible repairs like using scotch tape= spread the word that office supplies such as paper clips, pressure sensitive tapes, post-it notes damage materials. Pressure sensitive tapes and post-it leave adhesive residues on materials.
  88. 88. Your Responsibility • Report damages and mutilation to supervisors. Patrons also damage materials by writing and marking on the materials. Some patrons like to remove a page (instead of photocopying it). • Monitor the environment and do what you can. Report drastic temperature changes. High temperatures damage materials by making them become brittle faster. • Discourage repairs by patrons by having a ―book doctor‖ or someway they can properly report wear and tear damage without fixing it themselves.
  89. 89. User Education There can be many ways to educate users on the proper care of materials: • Issue plastic bags on rainy days. • Give out bookmarkers with messages. • Use posters in the library. • Get creative! What other ways can you think of?
  90. 90. Find Us on Facebook • Be a fan and keep in touch!
  91. 91. Thank You! Contact us if you have any questions LYRASIS Preservation Services 1-800-999-8558
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