Air Barrier Paper Air Barrier Paper – an external membrane applied to the sheathing below the veneer which serves as a weather barrier and helps to prevent air infiltration into the home.
Attic Ventilation – Serves to allow water vapor to escape and to allow the hot attic air to escape by providing an intake at the eaves through the soffit vents which allows the warmer air to escape through the roof vents. Attic Ventilation
Attic Ventilation Gable Vent – Allows hotter attic air to escape and prevents buildup of heat conducted through the roof of the structure
Attic Ventilation Ridge Vent – Allows hot attic air to escape through a gap in the ridge decking
Attic Ventilation Roof Turbine – allows the air to escape by drawing it out through the roof like a fan
Attic Ventilation Soffit Vent – Allows air into the attic so that the warmer air can be pushed out through the vents placed higher on the roof
Backhoe – Heavy machinery used for excavation in smaller site clearing projects like tree removal and used to dig footings and some basement excavation. 2’ wide bucket Backhoe
Batter Boards – A temporary frame built just outside the corners of a foundation excavation. They are used to make sure the structure is square and to also carry the lines of a footing from corner to corner.
Brick Arches Radius Arch
Brick Arches Segmented Arch
Brick Arches Arch w / Keystone
Brick Arches Centering
Brick Bonds Common Bond – 5 rows of stretcher then 6 th course a header row
Brick Bonds Running Bond – Continuous row of stretchers
Brick Bonds Rowlocks
Brick Bonds Header
Brick Bonds Soldier
Brick Bonds Shiner
Brick Sizes King Size – 3” w x 2 5/8” h x 9 5/8” l
Brick Sizes Queen Size 3” w x 2 ¾” h x 7 5/8” l
Bulldozer Bulldozer – heavy machinery used during site prep. It is used to level the dirt off by grading with the front blade and pushing dirt around small areas of the construction site.
Cladding Brick Clad & Stone Clad – coursed rubble
Cladding Wood Board Clad
Cladding Wood Shake – small shingle split from a block of wood, which gives a rough texture and uneven depths Wood Shingle – sawn shingle, typically more smooth and uniform; also larger in size
Code Requirements Windows : minimum opening of 5.7 square feet (5.0 if sill is less than 44” AFF) Opening width 20” minimum & opening height 24” minimum. Actual Measurements – 26” h x 32” w x 36” AFF. Total Area : 5.78 sq. ft. The window meets the code requirements
Code Requirements Code requirements – Riser Height 7 ¾” maximum Tread Depth 10” nosing to nosing Actual measurements – Riser Height of 7 5/8 tread depth 11 5/8” (less 1 ½ “ overhang) gives 10 1/8”. Therefore, the stair is in compliance with the code.
Construction Joints Isolation joints - separate concrete from objects or structures, and allow independent movement without any connection that could cause damage to either object.
Concrete Joints Control Joint – a designed cut in concrete to weaken the slab at that point in an attempt to prevent cracking elsewhere in the concrete
Concrete Masonry Unit CMU – a block of hardened concrete designed to be laid up like regular masonry brick. The hollow cores allow for the block walls to be filled with concrete for additional strength. CMU is more economical for foundation walls than cast concrete, and when laid by a proper mason, one course of block is equal to 3 courses of standard brick w/ a 3/8” mortar joint. A typical block is 8” x 8” x 16” with a 3/8” mortar joint. The photo at left shows a poor job w/ a joint less than ¼”.
Decorative CMU Split Block
Decorative CMU Ribbed Block
Doors Flush Door
Doors Top Rail Style Panel Lock Rail Transom Sidelight Bottom Rail Transom – A small window directly over a door Sidelight – A tall, narrow widow running alongside a door
Electrical Components Underground Transformer Box – Steps down the electricity from a few thousand volts to the 110v / 220v service needed for the home
Electrical Components Service Head – Brings the electricity into the meter and isolates that particular residence through an in-line fuse which prevents the house wiring from interfering with other structures on the grid Meter – Measures how much electricity is being used
Electrical Components Service Panel – the point where the electricity enters the home. The panel distributes the electricity throughout the home through individual circuits.
Electrical Components Duplex Receptacle – where the power is accessed in the home
Subfloor #8 Ceiling joist #7 Top Plate #6 Stud #5 Sole Plate Framing Elements
Framing Elements # 10 Roof Decking #9 Rafter
Farming Elements #11 Sheathing
Framing Elements #12 Stringer
Front End Loader Front End Loader – used for transporting piles of dirt or other material across a jobsite. The hydraulic arms on the bucket allows the ability to place material at a raised elevation – useful for loading dump trucks and backfilling retaining walls. Unlike a bulldozer, a loader has the ability to scoop dirt out of the ground and move it to another location rather than spreading it around an area
Gypsum Board Gypsum Board – An interior finish board made from a gypsum core sandwiched between two paper faces.
Compressor – compresses the refrigerant gas which gives off heat, thus cooling the air as it blows across the cooler coils at the air handler Heat Pump One main disadvantage of the heat pump system is that it is noisy. One must take into account where to place the outside compressors to avoid noise intrusion into the home.
Heat Pump Air Handler – Forces the air through the system with the use of a blower fan. Also, cooler air is blown across a heating element inside the air handler to warm it up before distributing it through the ductwork One advantage of heat pump systems is that it is the most efficient way to heat and cool a home
Insulation Batt Insulation Insulation is used to create the thermal envelope for the house to reduce air infiltration/ heat loss in the home
Insulation Loose Fill
Insulation Foamed Insulation
Insulation Rigid Board Insulation
Lintel Steel Lintel – A beam that carries the load of the wall across a door or window
Mortar Flush Joint – This house used a ½” troweled joint with type ‘N’ mortar
Mortar Rake joint – this law office has a 3/8” tooled mortar joint with type N mortar
Oriented Strand Board OSB – a nonveneered panel made up of long strands of wood particles which are compressed and glued together in several layers, with each layer oriented opposite the direction of the previous layer for strength
Plumbing Lavatory – uses 1 ½” drain pipe
Plumbing Water Closet – uses 3” pipe to drain
Plumbing Vent Through Roof – allows air to enter the plumbing system which lets the water drain from the pipes
Plumbing Undermount kitchen sink
Plywood Plywood – manufactured by gluing thin veneers of wood together, rotating each layer 90 degrees so that the grain in the wood does not run the same in each layer. This provides greater strength and equalizes moisture movement Veneer – a thin layer or facing
Rebar #4 rebar (1/2” thickness) used here to tie the center of this monolithic slab to the footing in an attempt to curb differential settlement
Steep Roof Drainage Gutter Downspout Gutter – a channel which collects rainwater at the eave of a roof Downspout – A vertical pipe for conducting the rainwater from the gutter to a lower level discharge point
Steep Roof Drainage Splashblock – a precast concrete block used to dissipate the water at the downspout’s discharge point
Steep Roof Materials Underlayment – A thin layer of waterproof material laid between the roof deck and roofing. It allows to get the house in the dry so progress will not be held up due to inclement weather and protects the building before the roofing is applied
Steep Roof Materials Clay Tile Roof
Steep Roof Material Shingle – A water resistant material nailed in an overlapping pattern with other like materials to make the roof watertight. Wood Shingle Roof
Steep Roof Materials Metal Panel Roof Copper
Steep Roof Shapes Gable Roof
Steep Roof Shapes Gambrel Roof
Steep Roof Shapes Hip Roof
Steep Roof Shapes Mansard Roof
Steep Roof Terms Ridge – the level intersection of roof planes Valley – the sloping intersection of roof planes when water runs to it Eave – the level, low edge of the roof
Steep Roof Terms Rake – The Sloping edge of a steep roof
Steep Roof Terms Fascia – the exposed vertical face of the eave Soffit – the undersurface of a roof overhang, installed to enclose the rafter tails
Steep Roof Terms No Fascia – house with exposed rafter tails
Stone Random Rubble Pattern
Stone Coursed Rubble Pattern
Stone Random Ashlar Pattern
Vapor Retarder Vapor Retarder – put in place to reduce the passage of air and water vapor through the building assembly to prevent condensation. It is usually placed to the inside of the building.
Waterproofing Waterproofing – installed to prevent the passage of water through the CMU into a basement or crawlspace. This is an example of liquid applied
Weep Hole Weep hole – a small opening in the brick veneer to allow accumulated water from the building to escape
Welded Wire Fabric WWF – 6” x 6” grid
Windows Double Hung Window Vinyl Clad Both the top & bottom sash open
Windows Casement Window Vinyl Clad The window cranks out from a side hinge
Windows Single Hung Vinyl Only the bottom sash is operable