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TABI input on: Stabilisation and Development of upland rice cropping and villager forestry systems as a crucial component in Upland Development in the LAO PDR

TABI input on: Stabilisation and Development of upland rice cropping and villager forestry systems as a crucial component in Upland Development in the LAO PDR

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  • 18 Nam Tha 1 Bokeo/ Luangnamtha 168 MW PDA Signed 16/6/2010 TBD Gol 25%• China Souther • Grid 75% CA/PPA
  • 18 Nam Tha 1 Bokeo/ Luangnamtha 168 MW PDA Signed 16/6/2010 TBD Gol 25%• China Souther • Grid 75% CA/PPA

Tabi input _upland_strategy_web Tabi input _upland_strategy_web Presentation Transcript

  • Stabilisation and Development of upland rice cropping and villager forestry systems as a crucial component in Upland Development1
  • PROPOSAL: The “upland crop/bush fallow” based farming system must be: 1: Recognized – acknowledged - as an important component of both current and near/medium term future upland livelihoods systems. 2: Stabilised – and this can be done ! 3: Focused on, developed, not ignored2
  • Contents of Presentation 1: Reasons to acknowledge „hai‟ In Upland Development. 2: Neutral Carbon footprint of rotational upland systems. 3: Upland crop/bush fallow system can be “stabilised”. 4: Reasons to focus or “develop” hai as a component of Upland Development 5: Improve strategy for role of forest management in the uplands3
  • 1: Reasons that we must acknowledge „hai‟ in Upland Development 1.1 The “Eradication Policy” has not been fully successful 1.2 Rice growing is - “ipsi facto” – one of the best – and most direct route to “food security” 1.3 Upland Rice is even exported as a “cash crop” 1.4 Bush Fallows are an crucial element4 of multifunctional landscapes
  • Despite > 10 year of SC Eradication Policy, SC remains the main upland agricultural practice Shifting cultivation dominated landscapes between 2001 - 20095 K. Hurni et al, 2013 K. Hurni et al, 2012
  • Data from Agricultural Census 2011 MAF, Lao Ag. Census 2011  The Agricultural Census even suggests an increase of upland area, and a slight reduction of population6 involved in it
  • 1: Reasons to acknowledge „hai‟: 1.1 The “Eradication Policy” has not been successful 1.2 Rice growing is - “ipsi facto” – one of the best – and most direct route to “food security”; and 1.3 Upland Rice is even exported as a “cash crop” 1.4 Bush Fallows are an crucial element7 of multifunctional landscapes
  • Example for 1.3: Rice is “still” the main cash crop in many upland villages N = ~1200 HH Source: TABI survey 20128
  • 9
  • Example for 1.3 : Trucks „exporting‟ upland ricefrom „upland‟ Ponsai District, 2011 Photo of rice exports from Ponsai10
  • 1: Reasons to acknowledge „hai‟: 1.1 The “Eradication Policy” has not been successful 1.2 Rice growing is - “ipsi facto” – one of the best – and most direct route to “food security” 1.3 Upland Rice is even exported as a “cash crop” 1.4 Bush Fallows are an crucial element11 of multifunctional landscapes
  • 1.4: Bush fallows an important source of NTFPs (2nd after forests) Where are NTFP‟ are collected? Based on survey in 100 villages in Phonexay, Chomphet and Phoukoud district Source: TABI survey 201212
  • 13
  • Medicinal plant in upland rice and bush fallow rotational fields14
  • 2: Neutral Carbon footprint of rotational upland systems Carbon in rotational systems needs both a landscape as well as multi-temporal perspective Also for possible REDD PES schemes, this perspective is crucial, else rotational systems can not fit into the REDD systems15
  • There is significant carbon in rotational upland systems ? B.G. carbon 1Y cultivated 5Y fallow Source: Inoue, 2010 • Even if only 5 years fallow there is only a slight decrease of carbon over time (without fallow improvements) ( ~ 55 t/ha) • Ongoing research suggests that below ground carbon (B.C.) may16 even be considerably higher than shown above
  • 3: Upland crop/bush fallow system can be “stabilised” 2.1 See TABI FALUPAM (Maps below) for examples of stabilised upland rotational rice cultivation. 2.2 However, “stabilised” as of today means enough land for current number of farmers 2.3 Thus, new generation can, and will, find other livelihood activities such as: (a) Processing and marketing of products – will actually become more feasible due to (i) improved road network and (ii) improved access to electricity. (b) Some of the younger generation will move to17 urban industrial centres.
  • 3.1: Example of stabilised upland cropping:Huay Jia Village, Ponsai District, LuangPrabang Province. Before 2012 After 2012 Data: pre and post FALUP 18
  • Example 3.2: stabilised upland cropping:Donekham Village, Ponsai District, LuangPrabang Province. Before 2012 After 2012 19
  • Example 3.3:stabilised upland cropping: Mien Village, Phoukodt District, Xieng Khouang Province20
  • Example 3.3: stabilised upland cropping:Mien Village, Phoukodt District, Xieng Before 2012Khouang Province 21
  • Example 3.3: stabilised upland cropping:Mien Village, Phoukodt District, Xieng After 2012Khouang Province 22
  • Example 3.4: stabilised upland andlowland cropping: KheungVillage, Phoukodt District, Xieng KhouangProvince, 2012 23
  • 4: Reasons to focus on and develop “hai” as a component of Upland Development 4.1. Difficulties in finding alternatives – and they take a long time to develop - and while developing alternatives, villagers still need rice !! So, resolving the ‘upland rice’ question then provides ‘energy’ and ‘time’ to focus on ‘alternatives’. 4.2. Loss of flat cropping land – loss of wet rice paddy and of aquatic products food/income due to hydropower projects means resettlers have only one option for food-rice sufficiency - to feed their families – and that is upland rice. There are many examples – and this will only increase in the future •See map of villagers planned for relocation in LPB24
  • Nam Tha 1 The over 120 hydropower project at different stages of planning will lead to resettlement of probably more than 400/500 villages (some have already moved)25
  • Villages in pink will have to relocate into the uplands Nam Tha 1 To-be-resettled villages (pink) will loose access to flat and wet rice paddy land in valley and have to move further into – and rely on - the uplands = shifting cultivation !!26
  • 5: Need to Improve the role of forest management and development in the uplands Fact: Forest lands are a very significant component of the uplands. Some even hope they will get to 65 to 70 % of the total Land Area !!! Thus: Forest must be a crucial component of the UDS However: The delineation (in the law) of “national protection forest” is a “drawing board” zoning, is confusing, and has little, often no. basis in realty on the ground. Thus: Must start by improving the legal and administrative definitions of ‘forest categories’27
  • Explanation of the inappropriate National Protection Forest Zones • Lacking spatial planning and incoherent sectoral approaches means that almost 2500 villages are locted in the so-called “national protection forest” (almost 1 mil. people) • Even further to this – as villages are relocated due to hydropower dams (eg here is Nam Seuang 2 dam in LPB ) they will all move further into the „national protected forest‟28
  • Proposed (more relevant and actual) definition of forest categories Management Responsibility Forest Management Category National Provincial/District Village Private Production/Utilization Forest Production Forest Reserve Yes Yes Managed Utilization Forest Yes plant/regenerate Conservation Forest National/Provincial Park Yes Yes (assist) Biodiversity Conservation Park Yes Yes (as above) Watershed Protection Forest Yes Yes Historical/Cultural Forest Yes (as above) ..other Plantation Forest Yes Yes Spirit/Cemetery forest Yes Yes29
  • Current Scenario > Future Vision for UDS Current: „mushrooming‟ of land concessions & leases in Laos the last decade Future Vision: „mushrooming‟ number of villagers with stabilised upland cropping and forest zone plans approved and all granted secure tenure ...and the new generation taking over from30 there !!
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  • Thank you very much for your attention! Contact TABI: chris.flint@tabi.la32