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# Tp 1 solids, liquids & gases (shared)

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• Learning outcomes: pupils should 1)
• Learning outcomes: pupils should 1)
• Video clip: BBC Absolute zero, prog 1: 10’10” – 29’15”
• Video clip: BBC Absolute zero, prog 1: 10’10” – 29’15”
• ### Tp 1 solids, liquids & gases (shared)

1. 1. A-level Physics Unit G484: The Newtonian World Solids, liquids & gases (1)Thermal physics
2. 2. Lesson focus • solids, liquids & gases - 1 Learning objectives At the end of the lesson you will be able to: • describe a simple kinetic model for solids, liquids and gases; • describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of atoms or molecules.Thermal physics
3. 3. Learning outcomes All of you should be able to • draw diagrams to show the arrangement of particles in solids, liquids and gases; • describe the motion of particles in solids, liquids and gases Most of you may be able to • explain what is meant by a kinetic model of matter.Thermal physics
4. 4. Solids, liquids and gases: KS2 recall LOs What does this tell What does this Can matter State (or us about the Characteristic property tell us about in this state phase) of spacing of property (KS2) the forces between be matter particles? particles in this compressed? state? Has a fixed solid shape and volume Flows and fills liquid the bottom of a container gas Fills its container Is there a contradiction here? If so, how can it be resolved?Mini prac: compressibility of liquids & gases discussion Thermal physics
5. 5. Solids, liquids and gases: KS2 recall LOs What does this tell What does thisState (or Can matter in us about the Characteristic property tell us aboutphase) of this state be spacing of property (KS2) the forces between matter particles? compressed? particles in this state? Has a fixed shapesolid and volume relatively strong no very close Flows and fills close but slightly weaker than in almostliquid the bottom of a solids incompressible less so than in container solidsgas Fills its container very weak yes far part discussionThermal physics
6. 6. The kinetic theory of matter LOs The kinetic theory of matter states that matter is composed of a very large number of very small particles that are in constant, random motion. To answer (pairs) 1. Why is this a useful model? 2. What observations does it explain? (e.g. the expansion of solids, liquids and gases when heated) The kinetic theory is useful because it explains a wide range of phenomena, including expansion, thermal conduction, diffusion and gas pressure.Thermal physics LO1: describe a simple kinetic model for solids, liquids and gases
7. 7. The kinetic theory of matter LOs To do Make sketches to show particles in solids, liquids and gases. Pay particular attention to the • spacing • ordering of particles You probably drew something like this:Thermal physics LO2: describe s, l & g in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of particles
8. 8. The kinetic theory of matter LOs What evidence is there for this ordering in solids? Many solids are crystalline (crystal = solid with ‘long range’ ordering of its particles). galvanised (zinc plated) surfacesThermal physics LO2: describe s, l & g in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of particles
9. 9. The kinetic theory of matter LOs What evidence is there for this ordering in solids? Many solids are crystalline (crystal = solid with ‘long range’ ordering of its particles). halite (rock salt – sodium chloride)Thermal physics LO2: describe s, l & g in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of particles
10. 10. The kinetic theory of matter LOs Extension Can you think of a solid that is not crystalline? What type of structure does it have?Thermal physics LO2: describe s, l & g in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of particles
11. 11. Lesson focus • solids, liquids & gases - 1 Learning objectives At the end of the lesson you will be able to: • describe a simple kinetic model for solids, liquids and gases; • describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of atoms or molecules.Thermal physics
12. 12. Particle spacing: refining our ideas LOs Do these diagrams show particle spacings correctly? First, some definitions: 1. write an equation to define density; 2. explain the meaning of ‘STP’. STP: a temperature of 0 °C and a pressure of 100 kPa (approx. 1 atmosphere)Thermal physics LO2: describe s, l & g in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of particles
13. 13. Particle spacing: refining our ideas LOs solid / kg m-3 liquid / kg m-3 gas / kg m-3 Density of water 920 1000 0.59 * The mass of a water molecule is 3.0 x 10-26 kg . Calculate the number of molecules in one cubic metre of solid, liquid and gaseous water. 920 kg 1 m of ice contains 3 = 3.1 x 1028 molecules 3.0 x 10-26 kg 1 m3 of water contains 3.3 x 1028 molecules 1 m3 of steam contains 2.0 x 1025 molecules * at boiling pointThermal physics LO2: describe s, l & g in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of particles
14. 14. Particle spacing: refining our ideas LOs 920 kg 1 m3 of ice contains = 3.1 x 1028 molecules 3.0 x 10-26 kg 1 m3 of water contains 3.3 x 1028 molecules 1 m3 of steam contains 2.0 x 1025 molecules Question What can you say about the average spacing of particles in solid, liquid and gaseous water?Thermal physics LO2: describe s, l & g in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of particles
15. 15. Particle spacing: refining our ideas LOs x Now imagine placing the molecules neatly in a box 1m x 1m x 1m. If the molecules are separated by x m, there are 1/x molecules along each side and (1/x)3 molecules in total. Calculate the particle spacing, x, for solid, liquid and gaseous water. Did your particle arrangement diagrams show the relative spacings properly?Thermal physics LO2: describe s, l & g in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of particles
16. 16. Particle spacing: refining our ideas LOs solid / kg m-3 liquid / kg m-3 gas / kg m-3 Density of oxygen 1300 1100 1.43 at STP The mass of an oxygen molecule is 5.3 x 10-26 kg . To do Repeat the previous exercise to find the separations of molecules in solid, liquid and gaseous oxygen.Thermal physics LO2: describe s, l & g in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of particles
17. 17. Particle in solids, liquids and gases LOsSolidsParticles are held in _______ positions by ________ forces. Solids with‘long range’ ordering of their particles are ___________ (those withoutare termed __________). Particles _______ about fixed positions.LiquidsParticles are held together by _______ forces but have sufficientvibrational energy to overcome these forces of attraction, and aretherefore free to _____ against each other. The virtual________________ of liquids shows that their particle spacing is__________ to that in solidsGasesParticles are widely ___________ and move freely. They are attractedto each other very ________ . At STP, the spacing of particles in a gasis about _____ times that of that in the solid or liquid states.Thermal physics LO1: describe a simple kinetic model for solids, liquids and gases
18. 18. Particle in solids, liquids and gases LOsSolidsParticles are held in fixed positions by strong forces. Solids with‘long range’ ordering of their particles are crystalline (those withoutare termed amorphous). Particles vibrate about fixed positions.LiquidsParticles are held together by strong forces but vibrate stronglyenough to overcome forces of attraction and are therefore free tomove against each other. The virtual incompressibility of liquidsshows that their particle spacing is similar to that in solidsGasesParticles are widely separated and move freely. They are attractedto each other very weakly. At STP, the spacing of particles in a gas isabout ten times that of that in the solid or liquid states. Thermal physics LO1: describe a simple kinetic model for solids, liquids and gases
19. 19. Estimating the size of an oil molecule LOs oil oilThermal physics
20. 20. Estimating the size of an oil molecule LOsThermal physics