LTC, Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, Going to San Bernardino A Symposium on Intermodal Transit Stations and Transit-Oriented Design, 11/06/2009, Cornelius Nuworsoo
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LTC, Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, Going to San Bernardino A Symposium on Intermodal Transit Stations and Transit-Oriented Design, 11/06/2009, Cornelius Nuworsoo



Cornelius Nuworsoo, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo

Cornelius Nuworsoo, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo



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LTC, Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, Going to San Bernardino A Symposium on Intermodal Transit Stations and Transit-Oriented Design, 11/06/2009, Cornelius Nuworsoo Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Lessons for Transforming PlannedCalifornia High-speed Rail Stations to Major Activity Hubs Authors: Cornelius Kofi Nuworsoo (Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo) Elizabeth Deakin (University of California, Berkeley) Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference California State University – San Bernardino CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 1
  • 2. Outline Background to the Study Potential Impacts of High Speed Rail Key Lessons for California Application Concepts CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 2
  • 3. Background: California High Speed Rail (HSR) Proposal 1996 - the California High-Speed Rail Authority established. Charge: . . .  plan, design, construct and operate a state-of-the-art high-speed train system across the state 2006-2007 state budget included $14.3 million to allow the Authority “to begin project implementation” … origin of study November 4, 2008 – California voters approved bond measure with passage of Proposition 1A authorizing US$9.95 billion for the project CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 3
  • 4. Background: California HSR Connect north and south through Central Valley 800 miles 220 mph 2 ½ hours: Express service from downtown San Francisco to Los Angeles CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 4
  • 5. Background: The Argument High Speed Rail Project:  Is mega public works project  Involves very large capital expenditure ($45b) Public works projects  Can be catalysts for economic development (Forkenbrock, 1990; Boarnet, 1995),  Can be money sinks (Altshuler and Luberoff, 2003; Flyvbjerg et al., 2003) It is therefore desirable to undertake careful planning to maximize benefits CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 5
  • 6. Background: The PropositionA strategy for maximizing benefits is development of station areas Station area developments exist on urban heavy rail, urban light rail, commuter rail, and intercity rail lines in US and abroad  E.g. Union Station, in DC HSR station area development exist in Europe and Asia  E.g. Lyon & Lille (France) CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 6
  • 7. What are Desirable Impacts of HSR? US and international cases suggest that successful station area developments improve . . .  Intermodal connections  Physical appearance  Economic activity  Social interaction CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 7
  • 8. Desirable Impacts: Connections Multi-modal station enables:  Convenient access and ease of transfer between local and regional transport systems and between modes . . E.g. E.g. Union Station, Washington, DC • Intercity rail, Commuter rail, Urban rail (Metro) • Intercity bus, Transit bus, Tour buses and trolleys • Rental Car E.g. Hong Kong International Airport • Air travel • Express trains, buses, tour coaches, • Taxis, limousines and private cars. • Ferry access CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 8
  • 9. Union Station, Washington DC CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 9
  • 10. Desirable Impacts: Physical Physical improvement to create vibrant activity center or hub  Increased and upgraded development within walking distance of the station area for social interaction and entertainment.  Land uses include residential, retail, work and cultural activities . . E.g. E.g. Hong Kong Airport’s Sky City  trade center, an expo center, a 9-hole golf course, and retail spaces  exhibition center, hotels and offices E.g. Orient Station in Portugal CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 10
  • 11. Orient-Station: Lisbon, Portugal CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 11
  • 12. Desirable Impacts: Economic Generation of economic activity and benefit as agglomeration economies take place . . E.g. Lyon, France; DC Metro Stations E.g. Lyon TGV station became a major center of economic activity and cornerstone of economic expansion • Offices relocated from elsewhere in the city to station premises • Agglomeration economies E.g. Major Metro rail stations in Washington D.C. are major employment and activity centers: • exemplary in US (Cervero et al, 2004) CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 12
  • 13. TGV Train Station, Lyon, France CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 13
  • 14. Desirable Impacts: Social Creation of a vibrant activity center or hub for social interaction . . E.g. E.g. Lille, France  TGV Station is a major mixed-use center . . • includes offices, retail center, hotels, public housing, a large conference center and events hall, and a public park  Triggered adaptive reuse of facilities • resulted in major reorganization of land uses and activity locations  Recognition: 2004 European City of Culture CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 14
  • 15. TGV Train Station, Lille, France CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 15
  • 16. Key Lessons for California Major factors in successful station area planning:  Multimodal accessibility • Availability of alternatives including non- motorized modes  Concentration and mixture of land uses • Relative placement of land uses (commercial & residential) Unsuccessful HSR station development sites:  Locations outside the cities served • aimed to be accessible by car and public transit • E.g. Le Creusot and Haute Picardie (TGV line) CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 16
  • 17. Application Concepts California’s Central Valley cities are nothing like Hong Kong or Lyon in size, layout, economy, or outlook Yet the ideas extracted from the cases resonate even in these smaller cities . .  strong intermodal connections can be used as the backbone for urban development that produces economic, social betterment and improved environmental performance CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 17
  • 18. Establishing visual connections Strong pedestrian connection using wide sidewalks and treesHSR Station Potential BRT Urban plazas & corridor parks Application Concepts
  • 19. Multi Block Simulation for Application ConceptsHSR Station High density office & retail along major avenues, with lower density residential neighborhoods within walking distance CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 19
  • 20. ConclusionsThe study and paper suggest:1. Well-planned station-area developments can result in desirable impacts on the communities served including: (a) consolidation of economic activity and overall improvement in economic health (b) improvements to and increased attractiveness of the built environment (c) ridership gains in the use of public transportation and reduction in negative environmental impacts2. Good planning requires creation of activity hubs with coordinated transportation and land use, urban design, and multimodal access and circulation in the station areas in line with the concept of transit- oriented development CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 20
  • 21. ThanksCSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 21
  • 22. Los Angeles Union Station CSUSB – Nov. 6, 2009 22