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LTC, Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 11/04/2010



On November 4, 2010 the Leoanrd Transportation Center hosted the 2010 Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference on the campus of Cal State San Bernardino.

On November 4, 2010 the Leoanrd Transportation Center hosted the 2010 Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference on the campus of Cal State San Bernardino.



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    LTC, Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 11/04/2010 LTC, Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 11/04/2010 Presentation Transcript

    • Inland EmpireClusters of Opportunity Project
    • ACTION PLAN HIGHLIGHTSPriority Opportunities
    • ACTION PLAN HIGHLIGHTSPriority Requirements
    • ACTION PLAN HIGHLIGHTSMeasurable Outcomes
    • ACTION PLAN HIGHLIGHTSPriority Strategies
    • 12
      Current Policy Initiatives and Future Research Needs
      Huasha LiuDirector, Land Use and Environmental Planning
      November 4, 2010
    • 13
      • 1) SCAG Organization and Region Overview
      • 2) Regional Challenges
      • 3) Completed, Current, and Ongoing Research Activities
      • 4) Future Potential Research Initiatives
      • 5) Funding Opportunities
      • 6) How to Conduct Research with SCAG
    • 14
      1) SCAG Organization and Region Overview
    • LargestMetropolitanPlanningOrganization
      190 cities
      19 million residents
      7.2 million jobs
      Southern California
      Association of Governments
    • 17th largest economyin the world
      Shares the characteristics of many nations
    • What is SCAG’s role in the Region?
      Federal and State Government Mandates to Develop Regional Plans:
      Environmental Planning
      -RTP Program EIR
      -Air Quality Planning Program
      -Intergovernmental Review
      Land Use Planning -Regional Housing Needs Assessment
      -SB 375: Sustainable Communities Strategy
      -Compass Blueprint
      Transportation Planning -Regional Transportation Plan -Federal Transportation Improvement Program -Goods Movement
    • We do not have the authority to:
    • We do have the authority to:
    • Highlight of Services to Local Jurisdictions
      • SCAG GIS Services
      • Software training and data assistance for cities and counties to support local planning
      • Compass Blueprint Program
      • 84 Demonstration Projects Completed
      • $7.4 million awarded since 2005
      • $5 million will be awarded per year from this year forward
      • Green Cities Recognition Awards
      • New incentive program promoting GHG reduction
      • $2 million per year in cash awards from this year forward
    • Requires Close Collaboration with Partner Agencies in the Region
      Highway (FHWA)Transit (FTA)Aviation (FAA)Railroad (FRA)Environment (EPA)Housing (HUD)
      Transportation(DOT/CTC/BT&H)Air Quality (CARB)Councils of Government(CALCOG)Housing (BT&H)
      SubregionsGeneral PublicPlanning Orgs.Transportation Orgs.
      Transportation CommissionsAir Quality Management Districts
    • 22
      2) Regional Challenges
    • Regional Challenges
      Traffic Congestion
      Aging Population & Economic Impacts
      Air Quality
      Energy and Resources
      Urban Sprawl
      Public Health
      Housing Affordability
      Shrinking Federal & State Funding
      Anticipated growth of 4 million people and 2.4 million jobs to the region by 2035
      Like adding two cities the size of Chicago between 2000 & 2035
    • Huge Shift in the Age of Population in SCAG Region
      0-20 yrs
      65+ yrs
      21-64 yrs
      5.9 million 31%
      2.0 million 11%
      11.2 million
      0-20 yrs
      21-64 yrs
      65+ yrs
      6.6 million 29%
      12.6 million 55%
      3.8 million 17%
      Percentages do not add to 100% due to rounding
      Source: SCAG, Local Input/General Plan Growth Forecast, March 2010
    • “Traditional” Households on the Wane in the U.S.
      Household Type 1960 2000 2005 2040
      HH with Children 48% 33% 32% 27%
      HH without Children 52% 67% 68% 73%
      Single-Person HH 13% 26% 31% 34%
      Source: Dr. Arthur C. Nelson, Presidential Professor & Director of
      Metropolitan Research, University of Utah.
    • 3) Completed, Current, and Ongoing Research Activities
    • Examples of Completed Research
      Transportation System Research
      Metro Gold Line Corridor Study (UCLA)
      Port and Modal Elasticity Study Phase II (Consultant)
      Socio-Economic Analysis
      Wage and Job Dynamics (Cal Lutheran University)
      Model/Tool Development
      Envision Tomorrow scenario builder (Consultant)
    • Examples of Current Research
      Transportation System Research
      Congestion pricing analysis (Consultant)
      Environmental Planning Research
      Climate & Economic Development Project (Consultant)
      Model/Tool Development
      Activity-based transportation model (UCSB/ASU/UT)
      Land use model (UC Davis, University of Calgary)
      Sustainability tool (Consultant)
      California Land Opportunity Tracking System (UCLA)
    • Ongoing Research
      Socio-Economic Analysis
      Regional demographic trends (In-house)
      Aging/ethnic diversity (In-house)
      City level population projections (In-house)
      Spatial distribution of population and employment (In-house)
      County level population and employment balance (In-house)
      Model/Tool Development
      Parcel data development, improvement, and dissemination (In-house)
    • 4) Future Potential Research Initiatives
    • Transportation Planning Related Research
      Travel Behavior Analysis
      Specifically for elderly people, minority groups, and women
      Regional mode choice analysis
      Inter-regional travel analysis
      Household Travel Survey (HTS) data analysis
      Transportation System Research
      Transit accessibility analysis
      Aviation demand forecast
      Seaport and airport truck demand
      Non-motorized travel demand analysis
      Transportation finance analysis
      Model/Tool Development
      Dynamic Traffic Assignment and its link to emission model
      Travel Demand Management impact analysis tool
      Heavy-duty truck model
    • Economic Analysis
      Subcenter identification
      Regional economic growth strategy
      Model/Tool Development
      Econometric forecast model
      Small area land use, employment, demographic database
      Land Use Planning Related Research
    • Environmental Planning Research
      Environmental Justice
      Air quality and emissions model
      Impact Analysis of Potential Land Use/Transportation Scenarios
      Model/Tool Development
      Greenhouse gas emission / Carbon calculator
    • 34
      5) Funding Opportunities
    • HUD Sustainable Communities Planning Grant Program
      Supports multi-jurisdictional regional efforts that integrate housing, economic development, transportation, resource planning, and sustainability
      $100 million available through competitive application process
      Grant was awarded in October 2010
      California was allocated $5.5 million or 5.5% of the total available funds
      California’s population represents 12% of the national total
    • California’s Strategic Growth Council
      The Council is a cabinet level committee that is coordinating the activities of state agencies to meet the goals of AB 32 and improve California’s
      Air and water quality
      Natural resource protection
      Housing affordability
      Infrastructure systems
      Public health
    • California’s Strategic Growth Council
      Planning Grant Program
      $66 million total over three grant cycles
      First cycle is $22 million
      Funding has three focus areas
      Local Sustainable Planning (minimum 25% of funds)
      Regional SB 375 Planning (minimum 25% of funds)
      Regional Planning Activities (minimum 10% of funds)
      20% funding set aside for projects that target Economically Disadvantaged Communities (EDCs)
      Awards will be announced on November 10th
    • California’s Strategic Growth Council
      Urban Greening Grant Program
      $64 million over three funding cycles
      First cycle is $21.3 million
      Grant Program can fund projects or plans
      Project proposals can be submitted by cities, counties, or non profits
      Proposals for plans can be submitted by cities, counties, nonprofits, COGs, MPOs, JPAs, or special districts.
      Funds will be awarded November 2010
    • SCAG’s University Partnership Program
      Funding opportunity for regional research
      $250,000 will soon be available for academic research related to SCAG’s policy objectives
      Establishes a committee of regional academics
      Helps SCAG receive academic input on projects
      Identifies mutual interests for development of possible joint projects
      Grant program will be initiated in early 2011
    • US Department of Energy’s (DOE)Clean Cities Program
      The Clean Cities Program helps local organizations establish government-industry partnerships to reduce petroleum consumption
      Facilitates information exchange and technology transfer
      Provides tools to local coalitions
      Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Data Center: http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/
    • California Energy Commission
      Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Program (AB 118)
      $100 Million Annual Budget
      The program will support projects that meet any of the following criteria:
      Produce alternative and renewable low-carbon fuels in California
      Decrease, on a full fuel cycle basis, the overall impact and carbon footprint of alternative and renewable fuels and increase sustainability
      Expand fuel infrastructure, fueling stations, and equipment
      Improve light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle technologies
      Retrofit medium- and heavy-duty on-road and non-road vehicle fleets
      Expand infrastructure connected with existing fleets, public transit, and transportation corridors
      Establish workforce training programs, conduct public education and promotion, and create technology centers
    • Eligible recipients include:
      Public agencies
      Private businesses
      Public-private partnerships
      Vehicle and technology consortia
      Workforce training partnerships and collaboratives
      Fleet owners
      Recreational boaters
      Academic institutions
      Proposals are due November 30th, 2010
      California Energy Commission (Con’t)
    • Additional Grant Resources
      bpn.gov (Central Contractor Registration)
      CFDA.gov (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance)
      fedpubseminars.com (Federal Publications Seminar)
      Fdncenter.org (Foundation Finder)
      Gsa.gov (General Services Administration)
      Whitehouse.gov (Office of Management and Budget- OMB)
      Professional Training & Organizations:
      Federal Publications Seminar (fedpubseminars.com)
      Grant Writing USA (GrantwritingUSA.com)
      Management Concepts (managementconcepts.com)
      Grants Professional Organization (www.grantprofessionals.org)
      National Council of University Research Administrators (NCURA) (www.ncura.edu)
      National Grants Management Association (NGMA) (www.ngma.org)
      Society of Research Administrators (SRA) (www.srainternational.org)
    • 6) How to Conduct Research with SCAG
    • How to Conduct Research with SCAG
      SCAG procedure:
      Register as a vendor (http://www.scag.ca.gov/business/index.htm)
      Review RFPs and submit proposal
    • www.scag.ca.gov
      For more information
      please contact
      Huasha Liu
      Director, Land Use and Environmental Planning
    • Mark Sturdevant- Chairperson-
      California Trucking Association,
      San Bernardino/Riverside Unit
      On September 27, 2006, Governor Schwarzenegger signed Assembly Bill 32, the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006.
      AB32 is a law that mandates a reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. This has resulted in the CARB “Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Aerodynamic Efficiency Measure”.
      CARB says that significant progress can be made toward the 2020 goal relying on existing technologies and improving the efficiency of energy use. These requirements mirror the Federal “Smartway” program. The GHG regulation focuses specifically on hardware but we have known for years that that the number one efficiency factor is the driver. And frankly that is being overlooked.
    • (Directly from the EPA website)
      What are the basic specifications for a US EPA Certified SmartWay tractor?
      • Model Year 2007 or later engine;
      • Integrated cab-high roof fairing;
      • Tractor-mounted side fairing gap reducers;
      • Tractor fuel-tank side fairings;
      • Aerodynamic bumper and mirrors;
      Options for reducing periods of extended engine idling(auxiliary power units, generator sets, direct fired heaters, battery powered HVAC system, and automatic engine start/stop system); and
      Options for low-rolling resistance tires (single wide or dual)mounted on aluminum wheels.
      What is missing?
      Driver efficiency training programs.
    • 1988
      19 Years of Federal Truck Engine Emission Changes
      In order to meet EPA 07 emissions regulations, traditional exhaust/muffler systems must be replaced by an Aftertreatment System - (it is not possible to meet EPA 07 emissions regulations by making changes to the engine alone)
      PM (
      Particulate Matter
      Nitrogen Oxides
    • EPA ‘94
      EPA ‘98
      North America EPA 2010
      EPA ‘02
      EPA ‘07
      EPA 2010
      PM [g/hp-hr]
      20 years of Reductions to the 2010 Federal Engine Standard for NOx and PM
      NOx: 0.2 g/hp-hr
      PM: 0.01 g/hp-hr
    • 53
      CARB On-Road Truck and Bus Regulation
      Reefer truck Hay truck Drilling rig
      Tandem Axle Tractor with Sleeper Single Axle Tractor Bus
      CARB has passed the most stringent truck emissions regulations in the history of USA transportation. Between 2011 and 2023 every commercial vehicle #14,001 and greater will have to be retrofitted or replaced with a newer, low emission truck.
      The table to the right shows the number and types of vehicles that would be subject to the proposed regulation. As can be seen, there are almost 400,000 in-state vehicles, and just over 550,000 interstate vehicles that operate in California each year. Less than 5 percent of these vehicles are motor coaches and school buses.
    • EPA07 Aftertreatment Device
      In order to meet EPA07 emissions regulations the traditional muffler has been replaced by a new Aftertreatment Device (ATD) or otherwise referred to as a DPF.
      98% of the diesel soot is trapped in the DPF
    • 55
      2010 Engine Operation- Driver Inducements
      In addition to the BlueTec hardware is a new DEF gauge. Just like filling up their diesel tank, drivers will need to remember to watch their DEF gauge and fill it when needed.
      Check Engine Lamp
      25% Engine Derate
      55 MPH Vehicle Speed Limit
      Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL)
    • 56
      Warning Light (Triggers) – EPA07 Engines
    • Summary of Significant Factors Influencing Fuel Economy
      % Penalty
      Drivers: Worst to Best drivers within a fleet/industry- (1.8 Mpg) up to 30%
      Route: Interstate vs Intrastate (Congested roads) up to 1.2 Mpg 20%
      Vehicle Speed: 55 Mph vs 65MPH (.08+ Mpg) Aero dependent 13%
      Aerodynamics: Worst to Best Class 8 Tractors at 60 Mph (.55 Mpg) 9%
      Aerodynamics : Smartway Dry Van/Reefer vs non-Smartway Van/Reefer (.6Mpg) 6%
      Climate: Summer (70F or Higher) vs Winter (25F)- (.75 Mpg) 13%
      Wind / Terrain – (.75 Mpg) 13%
      Idle Time: 1 Gallon Per Hour of Idling (up to 1.5 Mpg) 20%
      Tires: Non -SmartwayvsSmartway Low Rolling Resistance(.25 Mpg) 4%
      As shown above the “driver” has the single greatest effect on fuel efficiency and GHG emissions
    • Garth Hopkins
      Chief, Office of Regional and Interagency Planning
      California Department of Transportation
      HQ Division of Transportation Planning
    • California Department
      of Transportation (Caltrans)
      • Caltrans carries out its mission of improving mobility across California with six primary programs: Aeronautics, Highway Transportation, Mass Transportation, Transportation Planning, Administration and the Equipment Service Center;
      • Manages more than 50,000 miles of California's highway and freeway lanes;
      • Provides inter-city rail services;
      • Permits more than 400 public-use airports and special-use hospital heliports;
      • And work with local/regional agencies.
      • The Caltrans Fiscal Year 2009/10 Highlights Report is available at:
    • The Strategic Research Plan
      • Approved in 2008/2009
      • Driven by research needs and the Caltrans Strategic Plan
      • 38 Strategic Research Questions (SRQs)
      • 9 Priority SRQs
      • Organized the SRQs into five groups
      • Safety
      • SF1 Design and Construction
      • SF4 Proactive Safety
      • Mobility
      • M1 Data
      • M2 ICM
      • M5 TDM Real Time
      • M6 TDM System Elements
      • Goods Movement
      • M8 Goods Movement
      • Climate Change
      • ST6 Climate Change
      • Infrastructure
      • ST9 Transportation Infrastructure
    • Presentation Content
    • Summary of Selected Current Climate Change and Energy Related Research Projects
      • Traffic & Travel Demand Management
      • Alternative Fuels/Vehicles
      • Data, Modeling & Performance Measures
      • Climate Change Adaptation
      • Planning and Policy
      • Materials
    • My View of Needed Climate Change & Alternative Fuel Related Research Topics
      Climate Change
      • How is climate change going to impact our transportation infrastructure over the next 100 years?
      • How should all levels of government and the private sector begin to plan for these changes?
      Alternative Fuels
      • What are some valid estimates of the statewide alternative vehicle fleet, and what types of fuel will they be using?
      • What will be the impacts, and what should Caltrans and the regional planning agencies be doing to prepare for this?
    • Caltrans Research Funds
      • State Planning and Research Funds – available through the Caltrans Division of Research and Innovation – Contact Nancy Chinlund at nancy.chinlund@dot.ca.gov
      • Partnership Planning and State Transit Planning (5304) Funds – Contact LaNae Van Valen at laenae.vanvalen@dot.ca.gov
    • CSU-Wide Transportation Research & Education Programs Group
      Elizabeth Ambos, Ph.D., Assistant Vice Chancellor for Research Initiatives and Partnerships, California State University Office of the Chancellor
      Sheila Thomas, Dean, Extended Education Office of the California State University Office of the Chancellor
    • Performance Evaluation of Bus Lines with Data Envelopment Analysisand Geographic Information Systems
      Yong Lao, Professor
      Division of Social, Behavioral and Global Studies
      California State University Monterey Bay
      November 4, 2010
    • Project Background
      Currently public transit agencies are under increasing pressure to operate more efficiently as the level of government funding reduces, or as a result of changing ownerships or regulations.
      The majority of the existing research focuses on the operations of the public transit system, attempting to evaluate performances from the management perspective.
      The characteristics of local population and commuting pattern largely determine the passenger demand as well as operational scale for the public transit system.
    • The Goal
      To combine Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the performance of the public transit system in Monterey-Salinas area.
      Operational efficiency: measures the productivity of a public transit agency, focusing on the input elements controlled by the management.
      Spatial effectiveness: measures how well the general public is being served, focusing on the environmental elements often beyond the control of the management.
    • Questions Raised
      What are the operational costs and benefits associated with a bus line?
      How to identify and create the service corridor, demographic profile and travel pattern associated with a bus line?
      How to measure and compare the operational efficiency and spatial effectiveness of bus lines?
    • The Use of GIS
      Overlay and analyze demographic variables at census tract level.
      Population density (population per sq miles)
      Population 65 years and over
      Journey to work by bus
      Private vehicle occupancy
      Total disabilities
      Median household income
    • Using the Weighted Linear Combination Method to Model the Level of Demand
    • The Level of Service
      Calculate the number of bus stops per census tract.
      Calculate the level of service by dividing the number of bus stops by the level of demand at each census tract.
    • Data Envelopment Analysis
      Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a widely used optimization technique to evaluate efficiencies of decision making units
      First introduced by Charnes and Cooper in 1978
      Examples: banks, schools, libraries, government agencies, etc.
    • Using DEA to Evaluate MST Bus Lines
      Monterey Salinas Transit (MST)
      Currently the MST transit system serves a 280 square-mile area of Monterey County and Southern Santa Cruz County
      With an annual budget of $20.2 million, MST employs more than 2100 people, operating 86 vehicles and 50 routes.
      Each bus line is treated as a DMU in the DEA model.
      There are 24 fixed bus lines
    • DEA Model Variables
      j: decision making units, j = 1,…,n
      i: input, i = 1,…,m
      r: output, r = 1,…,s
      xij: The i th input for DMU j
      yrj: the r th output for DMU j
      λj: the weight parameter for DMU j
      µ: the level of output
      θ: relative efficiency score, θ = 1/µ
    • The DEA Model
    • Input and Output Variables for the DEA Model
    • The Service Corridor Of A Bus Line
    • DEA Model Results and Recommendations
    • Comparison of Operational Efficiency and Spatial Effectiveness
    • Conclusions
      By combining GIS and DEA, we are able to closely monitor the commuting pattern, demographic information, and performance related to each bus line.
      GIS is mainly used for preparing and analyzing data for the DEA model.
      The DEA approach can help us to better understand the impact of socio-economic environment on business operations.
      The results of the study provide useful information for improving MST operations and services.
    • Thank you
    • SB375 Implementation and Integration of Transportation and Land Use Planning
      Center for GIS Research, Cal Poly Pomona
      Michael Reibel, Geography
      Dohyung Kim, Urban & Regional Planning
    • Currently in final year of a three year project
      Ultimate goal: Help reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GhG) by assisting in newly mandated planning efforts that fight sprawl
      Strategy: First determine, then help meet technical assistance needs for increased geospatial analysis required for compliance with climate change law SB 375
    • SB 375
      The aim of SB375 is to channel land use development into higher-density, more mixed-use and less car dependent patterns to reduce vehicle miles travelled (VMT) and thus greenhouse gas (GhG) emissions
    • SB 375 creates an integrated planning process for regional growth
      Lead agencies are metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs)
      Buy-in from local agencies is essential
      Requires far more integration of land use planning with transportation planning, and far more geospatial analysis than was previously necessary
    • First Year (2008-2009)
      Performed survey of local transportation agencies’ geospatial analysis capabilities
      Performed detailed assessment of necessary steps for SB 375 implementation
      Synthesized previous two steps into a gap assessment of local transportation agencies’ ability to monitor and contribute to SB 375 planning through their respective MPOs
    • Second Year (2009-2010)
      Created custom GIS toolkit to perform optimal growth allocations under the constraints of SB 375
      Substantially automates and simplifies the mandated planning process
      Through extensive research, created tables of default local amenity values and their respective distance decay functions as part of optimal allocation
      Includes “what-if” scenario planning tools
    • Third Year (2010-2011)
      Continuing to refine custom SB 375 GIS Toolkit
      Writing a user manual and training materials
      Developing an intensive day-long training program curriculum for toolkit users
      Working with Cal Poly Pomona College of the Extended University preparing to offer the intensive training curriculum to stakeholders through our extension program
    • Beyond?
      May provide direct technical assistance to local agencies and/or smaller MPOs in preparing the Sustainable Communities Strategies required under SB375
    • CSULA Hydrogen Station and Power, Energy and Transportation Program
      David Blekhman, PhD
      Associate Professor
      Power, Energy and Transportation
      California State University Los Angeles
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
    • 4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
      Hydrogen Facility Introduction
      Research Opportunities
      Power, Energy and Transportation Program
      LTC Funded Projects
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
    • Hydrogen Fueling
      • Establish a Sustainable Hydrogen Fueling Facility at Cal State L.A
      • CARB No. 06-618 $2,700,000
      • DOE Award #DE-09EE0000443 $475,750
      • AQMD, MSRC, Ahmanson Foundation, AAA
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
    • Design Upgrade
      Images are courtesy Leo A Daly
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
    • The Team and Equipment
      Cal State LA
      Project management
      General Physics
      major equipment
      Quantum Technologies-hydrogen dispensing
      Major Equipment
      Electrolyzer Hydrogenics HYSTAT 30—60 kg/day
      350 bar compressor PDC-4-1000/7500—0.044 kg/min
      700 bar compressor Hydro PAC C12-60-10500XL (2) –0.5 kg/min each
      Storage tanks (3) CPI 8x16247—20kg/350 bar each
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
    • Equipment Layout and Hydrogen Flow

      Walking tours
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
    • Research Opportunities
      Performance Optimization, Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Analysis
      Smart Grid: Load Following with Renewable Power Generation
      Off-peak load
      Load shedding
      Workforce, Public and Professional Education
      Intermittent wind exceeds load
      Electrolyzers demonstrate quick start-stop without degradation
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
    • Power, Energy and Transportation Emphasis Department of Technology
      TECH 370  Power, Energy and Transportation
      TECH 405 Advanced Engine Design
      TECH 470  Electric, Hybrid and Alternatively Fueled Vehicles
      TECH 474  Power Generation, Distribution and Utilization (+Smart Grid)
      TECH 476  Electronic and Computer Control Systems
      TECH 478  Fuel Cells, Emerging Technologies
      TECH 478  Photovoltaics, Emerging Technologies
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
    • MH
      Zero Emissions Laboratory
      March 25, 2009 Hydrogen Station Permitting Workshop organized by NREL and hosted by CSULA
      Heliocentris: Nexa Training System Complete, Proton-Hogen GC600 Electrolyzer
      Fuel Cell GM and Toyota SUVs.
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
    • 2010 Hydrogen Design Contest:Designing a Hydrogen Community
      Sponsored and supported by the National Hydrogen Association’s Hydrogen Education Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, Chevron, FuelCellStore, and the California Fuel Cell Partnership. 5 Tech and 2 ME students on the team.
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
    • 2010 Santa Monica Alt Car Expo
      Hydrogen Super Eagle on display and Cal State LA students at 2010 Santa Monica Alt Car Expo
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
    • Synergistic Activities
      Hydrogen and fuel Cell Education at California State University Los Angeles
      Centers of Research Excellence in Science and Technology Center for Energy and Sustainability (CEaS)
      Research Experience for Undergraduates Site in Energy and Sustainability
      Establishing a Demonstration Hydrogen Fueling Station at Cal State L.A.
      Sempra sponsored senior design
      Southern California Edison: $30,000 donation for Power, Energy and Transportation Program
      Leonard Transportation Center at Cal State San Bernardino: “Building Hydrogen Economy One Block at the Time,” $5,000; “Effective Decision Making Starts with an Effective Curriculum,” $5000.
      Hydrogen Station
      HFCT Education
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
    • Building Hydrogen Economy One Block at the Time
      Assess the costs of H2 production using NREL’s H2A model
      Figure 1: H2A Cash Flow Diagram http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/review08/an_6_steward.pdf, august 2009
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
    • Hydrogen Costs From The Model
      60 kg / day
      Figure 1: Price of Hydrogen per kg vs. Analysis Period
      Figure 2: Price of Hydrogen per kg vs. Daily Hydrogen Production Capacity
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
    • TECH 470 Electric, Hybrid and Alternatively Fueled Vehicles
      Lab 1--DC Motors and Generators: Efficiency and Losses
      Lab 2--AC Motors: Efficiency and Losses
      Instructor manual
      Student manual
      Solution manual
      Hampden Electric Motor Testing Station
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
    • 4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
      4th Annual Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
    • What if Crash Data Does Not Mean for Mapping: Lesson Learned from Crash Mapping for Riverside County
      Do Kim, Ph.D.
      Assistant Professor
      Department of Urban and Regional Planning
      California State Polytechnic University - Pomona
    • Project Background
      Improvement of bicyclists and pedestrians safety in Riverside County
      Finding physical environment factors to bicyclists and pedestrian crashes
      Funded by Leonard Transportation Center
    • Crash Mapping
      Converting text or tabular data to spatial data that locates crashes on a roadway map
    • Crash Data Flow
    • Crash Data
      Crash data is important data for measuring safety on highways, but local governments do not often utilize this data.
      The main reason for the limited uses is the inefficiency of crash data and its conflicts with the current crash mapping methodologies.
    • Riverside County Crash Data Analysis
      Collected from California Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS)
      5 year of pedestrian and bicycle crashes (2004 – 2008)
      Total 4,769 crashes were reported during the period (2,230 bicycle and 2,539 pedestrian crashes)
    • Automatic Mapping Using Geocoding
      ArcGIS Geocoding engine is the most well-known address matching function.
      However, it only matched 1,107 out of 4,769 (23%) crashes after intensive data cleaning and pre-processing.
    • Main Issue with Geocoding
      Geocoding engine identifies the locations of property addresses and intersections.
      However, the large portion of location information of crash data is certain distance and direction from intersections
    • Matching with Customized Application
      The application moves crash records from intersections by given distance and direction.
      University Ave.
      1st St.
      500 ft.
      Crash Record = 500 ft South from University Ave. & 1st St.
    • Results with Customized Application
      Matched 2,094 records more (44%)
    • Manual Matching
      Most time consuming and labor intensive works
      Need to review the location information of each individual record one by one using the customized application
      Systemic conflicts + Human errors
    • State Road Names vs. Local Names
      Police officers collect state road numbers, but the street names of roadway network are local names.
    • State Road vs. Local Name Resolution
      A street alias table can resolve this issue.
      629 records (13%) belong to this category.
    • Multiple Candidate Issue
      Multiple possibilities of a matching point
      ArcGIS Geocoding uses zip codes for zonal details, crash records do not have the zip codes
      Crash Record = ORANGE ST & 10TH ST
    • Multiple Candidate Resolution
      Screening with city boundaries
      159 (3%) crashes
      ORANGE ST & 10TH ST at city of Riverside
    • Human Errors on Data Collection
      Incomplete information
      University Ave & 1st (St)
      (W) Palo BLVD & Main St
      Redundant Information
      Chicago Ave & 1981 Chicago Ave
      Misspelled street names
      Using place names instead of street names (e.g. Gateway Plaza)
      And so on…
    • Human Error Resolution
      Review each individual record one by one and correct if mistakes are identified
      587 records (12%) matched
    • Unmatchable Crashes
      Irresolvable humane errors
      Crash Record = CYPRESS AVE & PHILBIN AVE
    • Impacts of The Errors
      Possibly change the crash hotspots by excluding crashes at particular locations from mapping
      W. 4th ST
      W. GRAND AVE
      E. 4th ST
      E. GRAND AVE
      Crash Record = GRAND AVE & 4TH ST
    • Incremental Resolutions
      Reduce human errors by educating police officers and data entry persons
      Construct better quality of roadway network data
      Develop street alias tables
      Adopt crash mapping software
    • MN DOT Case
      Minnesota Crash Mapping Analysis Tool (MnCMAT)
      Crash mapping and analysis software covering entire state
    • FL DOT Case
      Web-based State Crash Record System
      Police officers pinpoint crash locations on a map that displays an aerial photograph of the area pulled up directly from the sever, much like systems such as Google Maps or Yahoo Maps.
    • Impact of Inland Ports on Southern California’s Freight Transportation Network
      Ardavan Asef-Vaziri
      Systems and Operations Management
      College of Business and Economics
      Mansour Rahimi
      Industrial and Systems Engineering
      University of Southern California
      Robert Harrison
      Center of Transportation Research
      University of Texas
    • Container Handling 2007: World Total 450 MTEUs
    • Container Handling SPB Ports: US Total 23 MTEUs
    • Strategic Positioning, Essence of Process Flow, Operational Performance Measures
      Customer expectations

      Customer satisfaction

      Customer Value Proposition

      Process competencies
      Financial performance


      • Flow time reduction is the most important dimension in the customer value proposition.
      • Straightforward capacity increases such as more highways and larger ports, do not work anymore.
      Flow Time
    • US-China Alternative Routes
      Narvik, Norway
      Prince Rupert, Canada
      Vostochny, Russia
      Rotterdam, Netherlands
      New York
      Los Angeles
      New York
      Hong Kong, China
      Ensenada, Mexico
      Colima, Mexico
    • Four Characteristics of Forecasts
      Forecasts are usually (always) inaccurate (wrong).
      Forecasts should be accompanied by a measure of forecast error.
      Aggregate forecasts are more accurate than individual forecasts. Aggregate forecasts reduce the amount of variability – relative to the aggregate mean demand. StdDev of sum of two variables is less than sum of StdDev of the two variables.
      Long-range forecasts are less accurate than short-range forecasts.Forecasts further into the future tends to be less accurate than those of more imminent events. As time passes, we get better information, and make better. prediction.
    • Strategic Positioning and Smooth Flow
      3-4 days
      2-3 days
      31 days
      14 days
      22 days
    • Container Movement in Southern California
    • Current Practice
      220K daily truck VMTs
    • Inland Port Concept
      120K daily truck VMTs
      Zero-emission vehicles
      Clean air locomotive/maglev/etc.
    • Inland Port’s Primary Functions
      on Train
      Increased Port Capacity
      Truck VMT
      I710, I110
      Modal Change
      Truck to Train
    • Heartland Corridor Route
      • Next Day Service to Columbus
      • Reduce Transit to Chicago by 1 Day
      • Will Shave Approx. 225 Route Miles Off Each Container Move to Chicago
      • Greater Efficiencies
      • High Speed Double Stack
      Current DS Route
      Secondary DS Route
      Current Single Stack Route
      Port-Heartland High Speed Doublestack Corridor
    • 99,000 SF Available
      Free trade
      Value added
      Empty container
    • DC/PCs Locations in Southern California
    • Single Facility Location Model
    • Six Inland Port
    • Location-Allocation Model
      Subject to:
    • DC/PCs Allocated to Each Inland Port
    • Impact of Inland Ports on Daily VMT
      Mira Loma
      E. of LA
      N. of Port
    • A Decision Support Tool
    • ASRS/AGVS Technology at Inland Port
    • Smart Dial-a-Ride for Demand-Responsive Transit
      Sponsor: Leonard Transportation Center (CSUSB)
      Integration of Bicycling and Walking Facilities into Urban Infrastructure
      Sponsor: Mineta Transportation Institute (SJSU)
      Cornelius Nuworsoo, Ph.D.
      Associate Professor
      Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo
    • Smart Dial-A-Ride
    • Lessons from Senior Mobility Study
      • Survey of seniors revealed:
      • (a) seniors in general would prefer on-demand services as much as, if not more than any other public transportation mode
    • Lessons from Senior Mobility Study
      • Survey of seniors revealed:
      • (b) seniors with physical limitations would prefer on-demand as much as, if not more than, any other means of travel; (. . . . group may grow with longevity!)
    • Lessons from Senior Mobility Study
      Why the Preference?
      • Relatively dispersed pattern of land development in metropolitan US on-demand services offer . . .
      • the closest type of public transport service to the overwhelmingly chosen form of personal transportation, the automobile
    • The Problem
      • Demand-response service is expensive to provide (Rosenbloom, 2003):
      • Of all public transit modes in California, dial-a-ride transit was:
      • (a) least-used,
      • (b) least productive
      • (c) most subsidized
      • Subsidy per ride:
      • dial-a-ride: $2.00 to $10.15
      • fixed route: $1.16 to $3.89
      • (Nuworsoo, 2001, unpublished).
    • Ray of Hope!
      • Some on-demand operations exhibit comparable levels of efficiency to standard transit!
      • How do they do it?
    • The Need
      • Need to rethink and revamp operation of on-demand service . . . .if society is to meet future mobility preferences of very large incoming cohorts of seniors
    • Hypothesis
      • An efficient and widely available on-demand system:
      • . . . . may be viewed as an advanced form of car (or vehicle) sharing
      • . . . . can serve the niche between the private automobile and fixed route service while society attempts to change land use patterns to more compact forms that support additional fixed route service
    • Project’s Benefits
      • Develop efficient concept of operations from cases
      • Develop affordable dispatch assistance tool from concept
      • Provide vital senior mobility for expanding cohort
      • Provide opportunity for wider vehicle sharing and connections to fixed-route transit and other terminals
      • Contribute to:
      • Promote cost savings (users and govt.)
      • reduce energy consumption and
      • reduce air pollution
    • Bicycling and Walking Facilities
    • Motivation
      • Many design guidelines and manuals
      • Limited work on user preferences of treatments
      • Bicycling and Walking Facility study . . . .
      • Case study of selected bicycling- & walking-friendly communities in California :
      • Davis
      • Palo Alto
      • San Luis Obispo
    • Key Lessons
      User Preferences:
      • Completenetwork of separated bicycling & walking facilitiesthat serve desired destinations
      • Majority of respondents would prefer to bike . . .
      • 10 to 20 min for work, school,other business
      • < 10 min for shopping
      • > 30 min for recreation
      Implication . . .
      • . . . . . This suggests how far away land use and activities should be placed from residences and work places to promote bicycling
    • Key Lessons
      User Preferences:
      • Ratings of factors in decision to cycle or walk . . .
    • Key Lessons
      World Trend:
      • 3-way separation (autos; bicycles; walkers)
      Santa Barbara
    • Project’s Benefits
      • The product is a guide for local level planning that addresses . . . .
      • transferable policies
      • infrastructure systems
      • public education
      • key user preferences
      • The guide will help local governments plan for transportation alternatives that can . . . .
      • promote healthy living,
      • reduce energy consumption and
      • reduce environmental pollution
    • Thanks!
      Anna Ya Ni
      California State University-San Bernardino
      Jack R. Widmeyer Transportation Research Conference, 2010
      “a contractual arrangement between public and private-sector entities, typically involving a government agency contracting with a business or non-profit entity in order to renovate, construct, operate, maintain, and/or manage a facility or system, in whole or in part, that provides a public service”—GAO/GGD-99-71
      Characteristics of PPP :
      Involves “two or more actors,” at least one of which is a public entity.
      Each of the participating actors can bargain on its own behalf.
      The partnership involves a long-term, “enduring” relationship.
      Each actor must be able to bring either material or symbolic goods to the relationship.
      All actors have a “shared responsibility” for the outcomes (pp. 12-13) –Peters (1998).
      Design-Build (DB)
      Design-Build-Operate (DBO), Design-Build-Maintain (DBM), and Design-Build-Operate-Maintain (DBOM)
      Design-Build-Operate-Turnover (DBOT), Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT), and Design-Build-Warranty (DBW)
      Build-Own-Operate (BOO), Buy-Build-Operate (BBO), and Buy/Lease-Develop-Operate (BDO)
      Maintenance and Operation
      Program Management and Strategic Planning
      Saving Cost
      Sharing Risks
      Expediting Project
      Improving Project Certainty
      Leveraging Expertise
      Encouraging Innovations
      Legal Challenges
      Political Challenges
      Financial Challenges
      Risk-Sharing Challenges
      Partnership Challenges
      Interest Diversion
      Information Asymmetry
      Agent Capture
      Policy Background
      AB 680
      Phase One—Design-Build-Operate
      Phase Two—The Non-Compete Controversy and the Transfer
      The non-compete clause
      AB 1010
      Phase Three—New Operation Contract
      Recent Development
      SB 1316
      *Price (2001)
      Gaining public acceptance is critical to the success of any transport PPP project
      Aligning partners’ interests is fundamental to sustaining a viable, working partnership
      Public agency needs to build up organizational capacity for contractual relationship and for contingencies
      Public officials need to embrace the entrepreneur spirit that actively takes risk and seeks return-on-investment
    • The Clean Truck Program: Implementation of an Environmental Sustainability Initiative
      Christopher B. Clott & Bruce C. Hartman
      ABS School of Maritime Policy and Management
      California Maritime Academy
    • Introduction
      Clean Truck Program is a controversial environmental sustainability initiative adopted by several major North American maritime ports as a means of restricting use of drayage trucks hauling goods to and from port terminal operations.
      The Port of Los Angeles implementation of Clean Truck initiative involves environmental considerations, legal questions, labor and private industry considerations.
      Has national implications for implementation of regulatory policies on interstate commerce.
    • Our study probes the following points:
      The issues and interest groups involved in the effort of seaports to regulate harbor trucking.
      Harbor trucking pollution policies and current litigation surrounding the issue.
      Market concerns and economic decisions of the interest groups involved.
      Individual port decision making.
      Incentive based responses to social policy imperatives.
    • Background
      Containers brought to and from vessels by short haul diesel trucks connecting ports with nearby yards, railheads, warehouses, etc.
      Until the Clean Truck initiative rigs primarily operated by independent owner-operators with older model trucks working on per contract or per load basis with low pay and low barriers to entry.
    • Infrastructure and Pollution Issues
      • L.A. Basin regarded as one of most air polluted regions within United States.
      • Growth of trade volume thru LA and LGB in last two decades led to increased congestion and concentrated port truck traffic.
      • Civil suits filed against Ports on behalf of nearby residents suffering health problems.
      • Federal efforts to reduce diesel truck exhaust have been ongoing since 1980’s.
      • State efforts thru CARB to reduce emissions over and above Federal EPA regulations.
    • B. Clean Air Plan
      Progressive goals to ban old trucks from port and require purchase of new trucks or refitting of trucks to meet 2007 emission standards.
      Concession agreement part of plan put into place by POLA would require truckers to operate with employer driver workforce, phase out owner operators.
      Concession arrangement opposed by a multitude of business interests as infringement in violation of trucking deregulation through Congressional action in the 1980’s and 90’s.
    • C. Port Trucking Industry
      Typical port truck driver unable to afford purchase of newer model trucks or retrofitting without significant economic support.
      Federal law under the FAAAA Act of 1986 prohibits states and localities from imposing rules on motor carriers engaged in interstate commerce.
      POLA argued they needed legal authority to enact policies to protect their financial interests under “market participant” doctrine.
      The Ports of Long Beach, Oakland, Seattle, Tacoma and New York/New Jersey have Clean Truck Programs in operation.
    • D. Lawsuit and Court Proceedings
      American Trucking Association (ATA) brought suit against POLA arguing that concession agreement was violation of Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution.
      In Sept. 2008 U.S. District Court ruled against ATA allowing Port to proceed with plan as scheduled.
      FMC first opposed and then supported Clean Truck Program.
    • D. Lawsuit and Court Proceedings (cont.)
      ATA appealed to Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in 2009, won injunction against concession agreement.
      Left unchallenged by ATA were aspects related to older vehicle retirement, truck registry and other efficiencies.
      In Oct. 2009 Port of Long Beach reached separate agreement with ATA requiring drivers to meet environmental guidelines, but no concession agreement.
    • D. Lawsuit and Court Proceedings (cont.)
      A civil trial of ATA lawsuit was argued in April 2010 in the U.S. District Court. A ruling on Sept. 10 upheld the POLA concession agreements. ATA challenged that decision and on Oct. 27 the Judge granted a preliminary injunction blocking implementation.
      Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals will hear the case again in March 2011.
      Case expected to ultimately reach U.S. Supreme Court on primacy of federal law in interstate commerce.
    • E. Labor Involvement?
      Independent owner-operators by law cannot be organized by labor unions.
      If motor carriers are required to have employee-drivers by the Port, drivers could be legally organized.
      Environmental, community and labor groups, including Teamsters support the POLA position.
      ATA argues that Clean Truck program is primarily a Teamster backed initiative to rewrite deregulation of trucking .
    • III. Modeling Port Pollution Control
      Stakeholder interests conflict regarding pollution abatement.
      Legal challenges prevented full implementation of some plans.
      Ports must maintain competitive position and service container traffic while reducing pollution by a target percentage within a particular time frame.
      Should ports set own standards or wait for decisions on global or federal level?
      Insight from a simple game theory model of trucking process.
    • Players
      Port Authorities- set standards and operate with some govt. oversight.
      Port Terminal Operators- choose carriers
      Large Motor Carriers- upgrade trucks.
      Small Motor Carriers- choose operators
      Owner-Operators- upgrade trucks
      Unions/Teamsters- contract with large carriers
      Federal Govt.- set pollution standards
      Regional/City Govt.- set local standards
      Environmental Interests- part. In legal action
      Industry Interests- part. In legal action
      Decisions affect
      competitive position of the port
      investment in pollution control for trucks
      use of trucks in supply chains.
      • Teamsters Union appears in our model only by effect on cost of freight movement through higher wage, therefore higher cost per TEU moved thru a given port.
      • Not considered as lobbyists, influencers, and legal activists, or as organizers of employee operators.
    • Decision Relations
      Port sets the goals, capital support for improvement, participant fees, other rules.
      Each PTO selects motor carriers that are small and large.
      LMC’s responsible for truck upgrades.SMC’s might or might not upgrade truck.
      LMC selects OPS as employee operators (higher wage rate) or owner-operators (lower wage rate)
      SMC selects only OPS-OO’s at lower wage.
      Subsidies can induce more cooperation to reach pollution goals.
      Too low a subsidy may create reluctance to upgrade.
    • VI. Port Competition and Cooperation
      All North American ports must set pollution standards high enough to satisfy regional interest groups but low enough to assure that there will be available trucks to handle volume.
      Lawsuit progression suggests federal standards may be put in place. Individual port negotiations would be null and void.
      Interest in ports to join together in setting common pollution standards.
    • Use of Model
      By examining model’s predictions, we understand how individual PORT positions are affected by changes or proposed changes these entities argue for.
      All entities below UNION in table do not appear explicitly in model, though…
      …through their activities pollution standards and capital investment levels are set, and contractual agreements are authorized.
      We take the inputs as givens and model effect of choosing values of parameters.
    • Assumption
      Assumption: if an LMC elects 100% participation in an upgrade of trucks to the standard set they will also pay the union wage.
      We found some basis for this assumption from practitioners
    • Upgrading Trucks
      LMC’s,SMC’s have a choice about percentage of their operators they will choose with upgraded trucks.
      If LMC upgrades entire fleet, percentage pD is 100%, and LMC will choose EO’s or will pay high wage rate; translates into higher truck cost per TEU moved. If LMC chooses pD EO’s and (1- pD) OO’s, it will on average pay blended cost per TEU.
      OO has a choice of whether to upgrade her truck at capital expense. OO gets lower wage rate but must cover capital cost. Percent qk is likelihood that OOk chooses to upgrade her truck.
    • Simple Game Model
      Interaction between MC and OO a simultaneous move strategic game; MC chooses strategy pD; OO chooses qk
      Payoff function for each player is income less cost:
      MC associating with OO: flt – cD (pd – qk)
      OO associating with MC: wlt – ck (pd – qk)
      flt, wlt are freight rate and wage/period
      lt are average TEUs/trip, trips/period
      cD , ckare cost per period to upgrade net of subsidy
      Assume reasonable life of upgrade, eg 5 years, linear depreciation
      Some ports may give different subsidies to MC and OO
      Rational play and common knowledge 
      Nash Equilibrium Outcome
    • Strategy Space of MC and OO types
    • Model Results
      Each best response exists only in upper or lower triangle (respectively).
      The Pareto order of each best response from smaller values to larger
      player prefers smallest percent strategy it can.
      Nash Equilibrium strategy profiles for this game are exactly on diagonal p=q.
      Pareto ordered from (0,0) best, to (1,1) worst.
      Certain regions infeasible – cost exceeds income
    • What should Port Do?
      Both MC and OO prefer no upgrade (probability zero).
      In NE each chooses percentage other chooses.
      Port tries to increase percentages. Port should keep percentage same for both D and O.
      Induce parties to jointly play high p = q. Treat MC and OO same.
      Higher subsidies reduce costs c per period.
      Keep c low for MC and OO to increase profit; more likely to play NE with higher p=q, more likely to convert trucks.
    • Players’ Expectations Matter
      If either freight rates f or wages w are too low relative to subsidy, gray infeasible region creeps close to NE line.
      If either f or w are expected to be volatile, player of that type might decide that risk it drops too low means she should not join game.
      Subsidies keep infeasible regions away from NE.
      Different subsidies to OO and MC do not affect NE; simply change feasible regions.
    • Our Suggestions
      Percentages of trucks upgraded should be the same for drayage firms and owner operators.
      Trucking participants will seek the lowest percentage of upgrade possible.
      Subsidies for upgrading should be large enough such that participants will choose to participate or risk losing business for not doing so.
      Relevant in periods like the recent one when freight rates plummeted. Many truckers felt they could not hold on if rates went lower, and chose not to upgrade. Result today is shortages of trucks in some ports; volume cannot be handled without longer waits.
    • Conclusions
      Current legal actions show that many interest groups can hold up implementation of air pollution abatement procedures.
      Legal/legislative decisions can prove counterproductive to ports
      Clean truck policies can be modeled as a strategy for the probability of upgrading, freight rates for operators, wages and the cost of upgrading fleets.
    • Summary
      Harbor Trucking is at an interesting place
      Pollution Control Policies are influenced by legal, lobby, and legislative decisions
      Ports implement the directions with limited tools
      Mandatory percentages of upgrades and subsidies for upgrades need to be chosen so enough players MCs and OOs will stay in game to meet volumes.
    • Final Thought
      Actions must take in account freight rate fluctuations and wages that would cause parties not to generate a profit.
      Risk factor will cause parties not to participate without an expectation of success.
      Upgrade of drayage trucks can be implemented by port management when subsidies are conditioned by an understanding of choices made by participants.
    • A New Method to Identify Hot Spots in roadway Network
      Wen Cheng, Ph.D., PE
      Assistant Professor
      Civil Engineering Department
      Cal Poly Pomona
    • Presentation Outline
      Hotspot Identification (HSID) background
      Description of the new proposed HSID method
      Application of the new method
      Summary and Conclusions
    • Crashes in Real Life: Huge Burden
    • Crashes in the U.S.
      42,116 fatalities (i.e., 115 persons killed/day)
      1.51 fatalities/100M VMT
      14.79 fatalities/100K Population
      231 Billion Economic Cost
      41% alcohol-related fatalities
      29.7% Speed-related fatal crashes
      Source: 2005 NHTSA
    • Crashes in California
      Source: 2005 CA Statistical Abstract
    • How to address safety challenges
      ISTEA legislation (1991) and TEA-21(1998) required each state develop safety management systems.
      SAFETEA-LU (2005) establishes a new core Highway Safety Improvement Program
      structured and funded to make significant progress in reducing highway fatalities
    • Safety Management System Basic Components
    • Current Practice of HSID
      Rank a set of candidate locations in terms of the registered accident counts or expected long-term accident counts
      General assumptions
      accident process can be viewed as a sequence of Bernoulli trials
      Accident counts of the set of locations follow negative binomial distribution
    • State-of-the-art HSID Method: Bayesian
      f (k)= prior pdf of k’s of reference population (similar sites ), it follows gamma distribution whose parameters are obtained based on empirical data.
      f (K|k)= pdf of accident counts on a specific site whose expected safety is k, it is Poisson distribution.
      f (K)= pdf of a group of collected accident counts.
      f ( k|K)= posterior pdf of λ of the site which has x counts.
    • General Process of Diagnosis
    • General Process of Countermeasure Selection
    • Problems of Current Safety Practice
      The safety management components are somewhat isolated
      Much less safety resources are allocated to the first step: HSID
      Much more resources are invested in the subsequent steps.
      Result: the substantial resources invested in the subsequent steps could be wasted on the sites that are wrongly identified in the first step
    • The New HSID Method Proposed
      Streamline the safety improvement process by incorporating the crash type and crash severity into HSID step.
      Crash type recognition: facilitate the crash diagnosis process.
      Crash Severity recognition: facilitate the economic evaluation of countermeasure alternatives.
      All information is incorporated under Bayesian framework.
    • Case Study: City of Corona
      Crossroads Collision Database software
      298 Intersections: 141 signalized and 157 non-signalized
      Crash period: 10 years (2000~2009).
      A set of roadway factors: minor ADT, major ADT, speed limit, etc.
    • Method Evaluation
      Crash data divided into 2 groups: Before period (2000~2004), After (2005~2009)
      Use top 10% locations as crash hotspots
      Evaluation criteria: overall crash costs of future period for all crashes and crash types.
      Results: type-and-severity recognition method shows advantages over the typical one in terms of both criteria.
    • Discussion on Future Direction
      Crash data from other cities or counties are needed.
      Data sample size (298) is relatively small.
      Special statistical modeling techniques are required to address issues associated with crash type and severity.
    • Assessing Public perception of user-based fees and tolls
      (Leonard Transportation Center)
      Anurag Pande, Ph.D.
      Assistant Professor
      Cal Poly State University , San Luis Obispo, CA
    • Outline
      Research Project Information
      Research Motivation
      Research Tasks
      Impact on local, regional, and state level
      Ongoing Research Efforts with CSU UTCs
    • Project Information
      Assessment of public perception of user-based fees and tolls to finance transportation infrastructure improvements
      In response to LTC RFP for Need Based Research
      Theme: Mobility
      In collaboration with Dr. Cornelius Nuworsoo
      Student Assistant Ms. Adriana Jordan
    • Research Motivation
      State and local fuel tax revenues in Thousands of dollars (Source: Tax Policy Center)
    • Research Motivation
      User-based fees are one mechanism of financing infrastructure in the face of declining tax revenues
      However, is it acceptable to the public?
    • Research Motivation
      Recent research from NCHRP showed that perception of the user based fees may not be as negative as once thought
      In this project we want to survey public opinion in the inland empire region to assess:
      • public’s perception of specifically directed user based fees collected as tolls
      • what information makes people more or less likely to support these fees
    • Stakeholder Interviews
      Interviews with the following interest groups:
      • AAA as a representative of the auto owners
      • Elected Officials
      • Trucking Corporations
      • CSU San Bernardino as a major area trip generator
      • Caltrans
      • Independent Truckers
      • Transportation Consulting Firms
      • Consumer Corporations w/ Distribution Centers in the inland empire area
    • Stakeholder Interviews
      Representatives from each stakeholder group were asked about:
      • Their role in the community
      • View on Traffic Congestion
      • Their interest group’s opinion on user-based fees
      • Their familiarity with the arguments for or against such fees
      • Any additional comments
    • Public Opinion Survey
      Based on detailed literature review and stakeholder interviews a public survey instrument was designed.
      The survey included questions on:
      • Demographics
      • Travel Behavior
      It seeks opinion on the following issues:
      • Congestion in the inland empire
      • Transportation financing mechanisms
      • Toll roads and HOT Lanes
      • Toll collection
    • Public Opinion Survey
      Interviews are currently being conducted over the phone with the option of taking the survey online
      Obtained the Random Digit Dialing (RDD) sample from STS
      Surveys are being conducted in English or Spanish based on choice of individual survey participant
      We have 50 responses from RDD sample of about 3000 phone numbers (including cell phones)
    • Impact on Local, Regional, and State Level
      Study results will provide insight to local and regional agencies about public’s view of toll roads and user-based fees
      These opinions can be used to formulate attractive policy proposals for tackling congestion and raising revenues
      Research effort provides a model for statewide survey with similar objectives
      Can provide policy makers with more options to raise funds for infrastructure priorities in this era of budget cuts and declining revenues
    • Ongoing Projects with CSU UTCs
      Proactive assessment of accident risk to improve safety on a system of freeways
      • Funded by Mineta Transportation Institute
      • In collaboration with Dr. Cornelius Nuworsoo (Cal Poly) and Dr. Katherine Cushing (SJSU)
      Integrating Effective Routing Strategies within the Emergency Management Decision Support System
      Funded by Mineta Transportation Institute
      In collaboration with Dr. Frances Edwards
      Student Assistant Mr. Joe Yu