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Predicting and Preventing Future Involvement in the Criminal Justice System
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Predicting and Preventing Future Involvement in the Criminal Justice System



Dr. Hill Walker, Co-Director at the University of Oregon Institute on Violence and Destructive Behavior, at the 2011 Local Public Safety Coordinating Council of Multnomah County's "What Works" ...

Dr. Hill Walker, Co-Director at the University of Oregon Institute on Violence and Destructive Behavior, at the 2011 Local Public Safety Coordinating Council of Multnomah County's "What Works" conference, "Juvenile Justice Grounded in Youth Development" December 9, 2011, Portland, OR. Audio concludes at slide #24.



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Predicting and Preventing Future Involvement in the Criminal Justice System Predicting and Preventing Future Involvement in the Criminal Justice System Presentation Transcript

  • Predicting and Preventing Future Involvement in the Criminal Justice System Hill M. Walker, Ph.D. Institute on Violence and Destructive Behavior University of Oregon 2011 Annual “What Works” Conference:Juvenile Justice Grounded in Youth Development Friday, December 9, 2011 Oregon Convention Center Portland, Oregon
  • List of Handout Pages and Articles (1)Handouts• Facts on Antisocial Behavior and• Additional Resources on Antisocial Behavior in Children and Youth• Fact Sheet: School Safety and Violence Prevention• Risk Factors for Adolescent Delinquency and Predictors of Adolescent Violence• Tips for Parents on Effective Family Management Techniques• OJJDP Fact Sheet on Costs and Benefits of Early Childhood Intervention• Economic Policy Institute website info• Approaches That Work in Early Childhood Intervention to Achieve Prevention Outcomes• First Step to Success Publications List and• Reviews of Effective Early Intervention Programs• Cardinal Rules for Conducting Social Skills Training• Sources of Recommended Evidence-Based Programs for Disruptive School Behavior
  • List of Handout Pages and Articles (2)Articles• Where is School Along the Path to Prison? By H. Walker & R. Sylwester, Educational Leadership, September 1991.• Exceptional Returns: Economic, Fiscal, and Social Benefits of Investment in Early Childhood Development by R. G. Lynch, Economic Policy Institute, Washington DC, 2004.• Long-term Effects of Nurse Home Visitation on Children’s Criminal and Antisocial Behavior, by Olds et al., JAMA, Vol. 280, No. 14., October, 1998.
  • Current Landscape of School-Related Behavior Disorders (2)• National Trends in the Identification of Students with Behavioral Challenges• (SED sample)• (Autism sample)• Approximately 1% of public school population served as EBD under auspices of IDEA.• Special Education can never solve problem – (a) costs – (b) legal and bureaucratic barriers
  • Universal Screening Methods Using Multiple Gates• First used by Cronbach in 1940’s• Patterson, Loeber, & Dishion (1984) developed a three- stage, multiple-gating model to identify delinquency-prone youth• Walker, Severson,& Feil (1990, 1995) have developed the SSBD and ESP multiple-gating models for use in screening BD students in preschool through elementary• (example)
  • Developing innovations in better serving at risk students has ramped up substantially in the past decade1. 3-tiered public health prevention model applied to school contexts2. Advent in use of response to intervention approaches for screening, identification and treatment3. Strong interest by psychologists in conducting school-based research on conduct disorders4. Priority of adapting promising programs for routine usage in school practices
  • Examples of Evidence-based Interventions for Improved Outcomes: Universal, Selected, and Indicated Approaches
  • Examples of High Quality ECD Programs that Produce High Cost-Benefit Ratios• The Perry Preschool Project• The Prenatal/Early Infancy Project• The Abecedarian Early Childhood Intervention• The Chicago Child-Parent Center Program
  • The Regional Intervention Program: An Early Intervention for Oppositional, Out-of-Control ChildrenParents are taught to:• Carefully monitor their child’s activities• Ignore problem behavior and reward desired behaviors• Help their child to set self-management goals• Work with other meaningful adults in the child’s life to reinforce new styles of interaction• Enlist support from family and community for the child and themselves
  • The RIP Adult Follow-Up Study (1)• As preschoolers, the children in this study had exhibited severe and prolonged tantrums, continual opposition to adults’ requests and commands, and physical aggression toward their parents. Many of the parents were at a loss as to what to do; nothing in their ordinary repertoires of discipline seemed to work.• After completing the intervention program through RIP, these children and their families have been transformed. Now adults in their mid-twenties and early thirties, these children have, by and large, gone on to lead full and productive lives.
  • The RIP Adult Follow-Up Study (2)• All but one completed high school and a large fraction went on to college and graduate school.• All but one (the same one who dropped out of high school) are currently employed.• During their adolescence, one experimented with illegal drugs (marijuana) and one (the high school dropout) was involved in the justice system for theft.• None of them was identified for special education or as emotionally disturbed.• There were no reports of any of these children ever engaging in aggression toward parents, peers or teachers after completing the program.• After 25 years, most parents reported that the program had helped improve parent-child interactions; that they had learned to use the strategies at home and in public places; that they had been able to teach them to other meaningful adults in the child’s life; and that their family’s needs had effectively been addressed.
  • The Regional Intervention Program RIPnetwork.org -- Parenting That Works!The Regional Intervention Program has been serving families with young children since 1969. RIP is an internationally recognized parent-implemented program in which parents learn to work directly with their own children. Experienced RIP parents provide training and support to newly enrolled families. The program is available to families in which there are concerns regarding a young childs behavior, and is coordinated by a professional resource staff person. Parents should feel free to contact the program to discuss their concerns. For program information contact: Steve Karnies, Coordinator for RIP Expansion Sites Regional Intervention Program 3411 Belmont Boulevard Nashville, Tennessee 37215 phone: (615) 963-1177 fax: (615) 963-1178 e-mail the Regional Intervention Program: mail@ripnetwork.org A program of the Tennessee Department of Mental Health
  • Why Effective Teachers and Orderly Classrooms at the Point of School Entry REALLY Matter!• A child’s first contacts with schooling forms a strong, long-lasting impression.• Well-managed, orderly classrooms foster achievement and healthy social development.• Long-term studies of aggressive, marginalized youth show that those whose initial classrooms are chaotic and poorly managed are far more aggressive and at- risk in middle school than equally aggressive youth initially assigned to orderly, well-managed classrooms.
  • Universal Screening Methods Using Multiple Gates (3)• Disadvantages – reduces discretion in teacher referral- verification process – each student identified must be served – fear of costs and potential to identify large number of BD students – stigma
  • School ContextFactors That Influence Educator Adoption of New Practices: Fits seamlessly into ongoing school routines Consistent with school and educator values Universal versus targeted interventions Solves a high priority problem or issue Time and effort costs are reasonable Teacher perceives s/he has the skills and resources to apply practice effectively
  • Logic for School-wide PBS• Schools face a set of difficult challenges today • Multiple expectations (Academic accomplishment, Social competence, Safety) • Students arrive at school with widely differing understandings of what is socially acceptable. • Traditional “get tough” and “zero tolerance” approaches are insufficient.• Individual student interventions • Effective, but can’t meet need• School-wide discipline systems • Establish a school culture within which both social and academic success is more likely
  • Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Intensive, Individual Interventions Intensive, Individual Interventions •Individual Students 1-5% 1-5% •Individual Students •Assessment-based •Assessment-based •High Intensity •Intense, durable procedures Targeted Group Interventions 5-10% 5-10% Targeted Group Interventions •Some students (at-risk) •Some students (at-risk) •High efficiency •High efficiency •Rapid response •Rapid responseUniversal Interventions 80-90% Universal Interventions 80-90%•All students •All settings, all students•Preventive, proactive •Preventive, proactive
  • HIGH PRIORITY NEEDS TO HELP MARGINALIZED STUDENTS ACHIEVE SCHOOL SUCCESS1) Implement early, universal screening to detect students who areat risk for : a) Challenging behavior b) Reading problems & failure c) Poor motivation for engaging school2) Teach the value of and strategies for achieving positiverelationships with others: a) Teachers b) Peers3) Address the issues of bullying, harassment and relationalaggression as part of school curricula. a) Cyber-bullying and cyber-aggression are especially concerning in this context.