Ammonia emissions from beef cattle feedyards:Seven years of research in TexasRichard W. ToddN. Andy ColeHeidi M. WaldripUS...
Precursor to respirable particulatesOverfertilizationof N-sensitiveterrestrialecosystemsEutrophication of surface waters,t...
FeedProductionFeedProductionAtmospheric NH350Atmospheric NH350Removed20>95%of totalvolatilizedNH3Diet100Excreted N85%Pens ...
Feedyard C (FYC)2002-200544,700 head
Feedyard A (FYA)2006-200912,700 head
Feedyard E (FYE)2006-200919,600 head
50403020 60 70 80Ammonia-N loss as % of fed NFG(b)NP(b)FG(b)NP(b)LD(a)LD(a)LD(c)GD(d)LD(f)LD(f)GD(d)LD(f)LD(f)(a) Harper e...
Inverse dispersiontechnique to estimateemission(Flesch et al., 2005)• Ammonia concentration• Atmospheric turbulence• Caref...
FYCSix seasonal campaigns43 complete daysTodd, R.W., N.A. Cole, R.N. Clark, T.K. Flesch, L.A. Harper, and B.-H.Baek. 2008....
FYC Per Capita Fed N or NH3-N LossCampaignSu02 W03 Su03 W04 Su04 Sp05PercapitaNloss(ghead-1d-1)050100150200250fed NNH3-N
Mean Monthly Per Head Ammonia-N Emission RateFeb-07Mar-07Apr-07May-07Jun-07Jul-07Aug-07Sep-07Oct-07Nov-07Dec-07Jan-08Feb-0...
Mean Monthly Ammonia-N Emission Rate and Crude ProteinFeb-07Mar-07Apr-07May-07Jun-07Jul-07Aug-07Sep-07Oct-07Nov-07Dec-07Ja...
Mean Annual Ammonia-N Loss as Fraction of Fed NYear Feedyard E Feedyard A% of fed NFeb07-Jan08 52 49Feb08-Jan09 47 66Todd,...
Mean Annual Ammonia Emission RatesFeedyard 2002-05 2007 2008lb NH3 animal-1d-1FYC 0.26FYA 0.24 0.37FYE 0.22 0.20Todd, R.W....
Fractional Ammonia Loss% of fed NFeedyard Summer Winter Annual% of fed NFYC 68 36 53FYA 71 44 58†FYE 68 42 52††Includes sp...
Fractional NH3-N Loss, Great Plains FeedyardsPreece, S.L.M., N.A. Cole, R.W. Todd, and B.W. Auvermann. 2012. Ammonia emiss...
LossNH3-N = 0.5 NfedEFNH3 = 88 lb head-1yr-1
Conclusions• Ammonia is significant loss of N from feedyards1/2 of fed N lost with optimum diets• With a well-planned and ...
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Ammonia Emissions and Emission Factors: A Summary of Investigations at Beef Cattle Feedyards on the Southern High Plains

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Proceedings available at: http;//www.extension.org/67711

Ammonia volatilization is a major component of the nitrogen balance of a feedyard, and the effects of ammonia loss range from the economic (loss of manure fertilizer value) to the environmental (air quality degradation, overfertilization of ecosystems). Although not yet regulated, ammonia emissions from cattle are required to be reported under the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act. Emission factors are used to estimate ammonia emissions for purposes of reporting and national inventories, but current emission factors are based on limited data. Our objective was to definitively quantify ammonia emissions and emission factors from commercial feedyards on the southern High Plains of Texas.

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  • Cattle feedyards are a significant source of ammonia emitted to the atmosphere. Where does that ammonia come from? 1. It comes from the air – 78% of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas. It's converted to ammonium fertilizer, which is used in feed production 2. In this example, cattle are fed 100 units of a corn-based diet, and I’ll show you some typical numbers. 3. Anywhere from 10 to 15% of nitrogen intake is retained in animals. 4. But most of the N is excreted onto the pen surface, as urea in the the urine and organic N forms in the feces. 5. Urea converts quickly to ammonium, which volatilizes and is lost to the atmosphere. More than 95% of the total lost ammmonia comes from the pen surface. 6. A small amount of nitrogen runs off into the feedyard’s water retention structure. 7. And, manure is periodically removed from the pen surface and either stockpiled, composted or applied to land. 8. Ammonia emissions from the pond and removed manure are very small.
  • We conducted and completed six seasonal campaigns that allowed us to characterize ammonia emissions.
  • Mean of all four years = 96.5 g/head/d Contrast this with mean annual PCER from FYC = 96 g/head/d No sig. diff. between feedyards in 2007
  • Mean of all four years = 96.5 g/head/d Contrast this with mean annual PCER from FYC = 96 g/head/d No sig. diff. between feedyards in 2007
  • Figure 2: Ammonia-N loss as a percentage of fed nitrogen from Great Plains beef cattle feedyards. Studies: (a) Todd and Cole, unpublished data, (b) Todd and Cole, unpublished data, (c) Todd et al., 2011, (d) Todd et al., 2008, (e) van Haarlem et al., 2008, (f) McGinn et al., 2007, (g) Flesch et al., 2007, (h) Harper et al., 2004, (i) Todd et al., 2005, (j) Todd et al., 2005, (k), Cole et al, 2006, (l) Erickson and Klopfenstein, 2004, (m) Erickson et al., 2000, (n) Bierman et al., 1999.
  • Ammonia is a significant loss of N from feedyards
  • Ammonia Emissions and Emission Factors: A Summary of Investigations at Beef Cattle Feedyards on the Southern High Plains

    1. 1. Ammonia emissions from beef cattle feedyards:Seven years of research in TexasRichard W. ToddN. Andy ColeHeidi M. WaldripUSDA Agricultural Research ServiceConservation and Production Research LaboratoryBushland, TX
    2. 2. Precursor to respirable particulatesOverfertilizationof N-sensitiveterrestrialecosystemsEutrophication of surface waters,toxic algal bloomsHypoxic bottom zone, Gulf of MexicoAmmonia Impacts
    3. 3. FeedProductionFeedProductionAtmospheric NH350Atmospheric NH350Removed20>95%of totalvolatilizedNH3Diet100Excreted N85%Pens Retentionpond5RunoffStockpile, compost,land applicationNitrogen flows in the feedyard< 5%Bierman et al. (1999), Cole et al. (2006), Farran et al. (2006), Flesch et al. (2007), Todd et al. (2008)15 10Haber-BoschProcessN2Natural gasNH4+fertilizer
    4. 4. Feedyard C (FYC)2002-200544,700 head
    5. 5. Feedyard A (FYA)2006-200912,700 head
    6. 6. Feedyard E (FYE)2006-200919,600 head
    7. 7. 50403020 60 70 80Ammonia-N loss as % of fed NFG(b)NP(b)FG(b)NP(b)LD(a)LD(a)LD(c)GD(d)LD(f)LD(f)GD(d)LD(f)LD(f)(a) Harper et al. (2004)(b) Todd et al. (2005)(c) Flesch et al. (2007)(d) Todd et al. (2008)(e) Rhoades et al. (2010)(f) Todd et al. (2011)CD Chemilum./dispersion modelFG Flux-GradientGD Gas washing/dispersion modelLD Open path laser/dispersion modelNP N:P ratioCD(e)CD(e)WinterSummer
    8. 8. Inverse dispersiontechnique to estimateemission(Flesch et al., 2005)• Ammonia concentration• Atmospheric turbulence• Carefully defined sourcearea
    9. 9. FYCSix seasonal campaigns43 complete daysTodd, R.W., N.A. Cole, R.N. Clark, T.K. Flesch, L.A. Harper, and B.-H.Baek. 2008. Ammonia emissions from a beef cattle feedyard on thesouthern High Plains.Atmos.Environ. 42:6797-6805.
    10. 10. FYC Per Capita Fed N or NH3-N LossCampaignSu02 W03 Su03 W04 Su04 Sp05PercapitaNloss(ghead-1d-1)050100150200250fed NNH3-N
    11. 11. Mean Monthly Per Head Ammonia-N Emission RateFeb-07Mar-07Apr-07May-07Jun-07Jul-07Aug-07Sep-07Oct-07Nov-07Dec-07Jan-08Feb-08Mar-08Apr-08May-08Jun-08Jul-08Aug-08Sep-08Oct-08Nov-08Dec-08Jan-09Percapitaammonia-Nemissionrate(ghead-1d-1)050100150200250Feedyard EFeedyard A
    12. 12. Mean Monthly Ammonia-N Emission Rate and Crude ProteinFeb-07Mar-07Apr-07May-07Jun-07Jul-07Aug-07Sep-07Oct-07Nov-07Dec-07Jan-08Feb-08Mar-08Apr-08May-08Jun-08Jul-08Aug-08Sep-08Oct-08Nov-08Dec-08Jan-09Percapitaammonia-Nemissionrate(ghead-1d-1)050100150200250Crudeproteincontent(%)0510152025Feedyard E ERFeedyard A ERFeedyard E CPFeedyard A CP
    13. 13. Mean Annual Ammonia-N Loss as Fraction of Fed NYear Feedyard E Feedyard A% of fed NFeb07-Jan08 52 49Feb08-Jan09 47 66Todd, R.W., N.A. Cole, M.B. Rhoades, D.B. Parker, and K.D. Casey. 2011.Daily, monthly, seasonal and annual ammonia emissions from southern High Plains cattle feedyards.J. Environ. Qual. 40:1-6.
    14. 14. Mean Annual Ammonia Emission RatesFeedyard 2002-05 2007 2008lb NH3 animal-1d-1FYC 0.26FYA 0.24 0.37FYE 0.22 0.20Todd, R.W., N.A. Cole, R.N. Clark, T.K. Flesch, L.A. Harper, and B.-H. Baek. 2008.Ammonia emissions from a beef cattle feedyard on the southern High Plains.Atmos.Environ. 42:6797-6805.Todd, R.W., N.A. Cole, M.B. Rhoades, D.B. Parker, and K.D. Casey. 2011.Daily, monthly, seasonal and annual ammonia emissions from southern High Plains cattle feedyards.J. Environ. Qual. 40:1-6.
    15. 15. Fractional Ammonia Loss% of fed NFeedyard Summer Winter Annual% of fed NFYC 68 36 53FYA 71 44 58†FYE 68 42 52††Includes spring and autumn emissions
    16. 16. Fractional NH3-N Loss, Great Plains FeedyardsPreece, S.L.M., N.A. Cole, R.W. Todd, and B.W. Auvermann. 2012. Ammonia emissions from cattle feeding operations. TexasA&M AgriLife Extension Service, E-632. College Station, TX.
    17. 17. LossNH3-N = 0.5 NfedEFNH3 = 88 lb head-1yr-1
    18. 18. Conclusions• Ammonia is significant loss of N from feedyards1/2 of fed N lost with optimum diets• With a well-planned and managed feeding program,feedyard cattle emit ¼ lb NH3 per animal per day• Previous emission factors underestimatedWe recommend an annual emission factor of 88 lb(40 kg) per animal (one-time capacity)
    19. 19. Questions?

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