Treatment Technologies for Ammonia in Liquid Manure:Nitrification/denitrification and Anammox BasedDeammonificationFrom Wa...
North Carolina producesapproximately 750 millionchickens, 40 million turkeys,3.5 billion table eggs, and19 million hogs pe...
Treatment Technologies for NitrogenManagement in Liquid Manure• Biological nitrogen removal (conversion ofammonia into N2)...
•2nd Generation system (lagoon replacement)• Full-scale treatment of 5,200 finishing pigs in North Carolina•Solid-liquid s...
SolidsNPBiological nitrogen removal: Nitrification-DenitrificationNITRIFICATIONDENITRIFICATIONNH4+NO 2-NO 3-N2NO xOrganic ...
TREATEDEFFLUENTPHOSPHORUSSEPARATION UNITBBLOWERPOLYMERFLOCCULANTPDENITRIFICATIONCLARIFICATIONNITRIFICATIONRETURNBIOLOGICAL...
DenitrificationNitrificationDenitrificationuses soluble carbonfrom manure
•3rd Generation system (2012)• Full-scale treatment of 1,200-sow farrow-to-finish (producing 30,500hogs/year) in North Car...
0510152025303540FebMaAprMaJunJulAugSepOctNovDecJanFebWaterTemperature(oC)Daily MAXDaily MINAverageTo reduce cost, the 2nd ...
0 5 10 15 20 25 30050010001500200001020304050HPNS; this inventionMarine; Furukawa et al.(1993)On-site domestic, Chiemchais...
To start-up the plant, the nitrification tank (230m3) was seeded with 1 liter of HPNS. In 40days, it reached the optimum r...
Operation SimplicityOnce a week, the operator measured the nitrifying biomassand set the operation parameters for the week.
MLE Biological N Removal performanceInfluentConc. (After SolidsSeparation) (ppm)EffluentConc. (ppm)Efficiency%TKN 1,428 59...
Ammonia emissions reduction with this systemcompared to the anaerobic lagoon technologyAneja et al., 2008. Atmospheric Env...
TSSNPLagoon SystemNew SystemThe use of clean water to flush barnsimproved the air quality in the barns, pighealth and econ...
Benefits of cleaner environment onanimal production** Data compares five pig production cycles obtained with lagoon techno...
Treatment Technologies for BiologicalNitrogen Removal in Liquid Manure1. Nitrification-Denitrification2. Partial Nitritati...
Deammonification ProcessTraditional Nitrogen Removal ProcessesUses externalcarbon additionfor DN(nitrification / denitrifi...
Anammox: new shortcut for thebiological removal of nitrogenNITRIFICATIONDENITRIFICATIONNH4+NO2-NO3-N2NOxOrganic-CANAMMOXOr...
Anammox biomass was grown in a parent reactor inFlorence, South Carolina.Brocadia caroliniensis was deposited in USDA Agri...
Partial nitritation + Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation (ANAMMOX)PartialNitritation ANAMMOXaerationNH4+ + NO2-50 %NH4+ in-N2Trea...
• Twosequencingbatch tractors(SBR)• Treatment ofswinewastewater(1400 mg N/L)Anammox coupled with Partial NitritationTwo-st...
2010: anammox bacteria handledunder anaerobic conditions
Completely anaerobicChambers??
2011: Single tank deammonificationprocess (nitritation-anammox)Biofilm plastic carriersMixing of specialized bacterialcult...
Single-tank deammonification process start-up:1. Mix of nitrification sludge with anammox,2. start aeration and wastewater...
Continuous flow, aerated fluidizedreactor with biofilm carriers 30% v/vSingle-tank deammonification reactor setup (5-L rea...
Another Single-tank deammonification reactor setup ( 1-L)Airflowmeterand valveReturnSludgeSingletankClarifierDOmonitorpHmo...
01002003004005006007001 6 11 16 21 26NConcentration(mg/L)daysNH4-NinNH4-NoutNO2-NinNO2-NoutNO3-NinNO3-NoutI II IIII = synt...
Single tank deammonificationof swine wastewaterStoichiometry obtained:1 NH4 + 0.87 O2  0.45 N2 + 0.11 NO3 + 1.41 H2O + 1....
Deammonification of swine wastewaterParameter SWAmmonia removal rate1034 mg N/L-reactor/dayAmmonia removal efficiency 100%...
Single tank deammonification processTheory (partial nitritation + anammox):NH4+ + 0.85 O2 → 0.44 N2 + 0.11 NO3- + 1.41 H2O...
Stoichiometric ratesNH4+ + 0.87 O2 → 0.45 N2 + 0.11 NO3- + 1.41 H2O + 1.18 H+TheoreticalResults of this study using digest...
••New Deammonification Processfor Manure Digester EffluentsDeammonification Treatment (compared to nitrification-denitrifi...
Conclusions• Nitrification-denitrification of swine wastewaterwas optimized after solids-liquid separation usinga pre-anox...
http://www.ars.usda.gov/saa/cpswprc
Odor reduction in the liquid (99.9%)050010001500200025003000ppbSampleSkatoleHomogenization TankSeparated WaterPost Nitroge...
GHG Emissions reduced 97% with thereplacement of the anaerobic lagoon withthe aerobic system443054218135050010001500200025...
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissionreduction using aerobic treatment(nitrification/denitrification and composting)Vanotti et al....
DecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecJanFeb03006009001200020406080100NitrogenPig WeightTotalPigWeight(lb*1000)FlushNLoad...
Single-tank operation• Continuous flow• HRT 0.4-0.8 days• Return sludge 2Q• Ambient temperature (22 oC)• Aeration rate 60 ...
Brocadia sp. (Candidatus AM285341)Uncultured planctomycete Pla 5GA-8 (GQ356125)Uncultured bacterium Asahi BRW (AB456583)Br...
Single-tank reactor N removalat various N concentrations and loads01020304050607080901000200400600800100012001400160018002...
Treatment Technologies for Ammonia in Liquid Manure: Nitrification/denitrification and Anammox Based Deammonification
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Treatment Technologies for Ammonia in Liquid Manure: Nitrification/denitrification and Anammox Based Deammonification

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Proceedings available at: http://www.extension.org/67627

Biological nitrogen removal is regarded as the most efficient and economically feasible method available for removal of ammonia from wastewater. Its implementation in concentrated livestock farms can help reduce surplus nitrogen and ammonia emissions.

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Treatment Technologies for Ammonia in Liquid Manure: Nitrification/denitrification and Anammox Based Deammonification

  1. 1. Treatment Technologies for Ammonia in Liquid Manure:Nitrification/denitrification and Anammox BasedDeammonificationFrom Waste to Worth ConferenceDenver, Colorado, April 4, 2013Matias Vanotti, Patrick Hunt, Ariel Szogi - USDA-ARS, Florence, SC, USAJose Martinez - IRSTEA, Rennes Centre, FranceAirton Kunz - EMBRAPA Swine and Poultry, Concordia, BrazilTakao Fujii - Sojo University, Kumamoto, JapanKenji Furukawa - Kumamoto University, Japan
  2. 2. North Carolina producesapproximately 750 millionchickens, 40 million turkeys,3.5 billion table eggs, and19 million hogs per year.Animal Manure – Surplus N and Ammonia Emissionsin many regions of USA (and the world)Walker et al., Atmos. Environ. 38:1235-1246Ammonia Emissions
  3. 3. Treatment Technologies for NitrogenManagement in Liquid Manure• Biological nitrogen removal (conversion ofammonia into N2)1. Nitrification-Denitrification
  4. 4. •2nd Generation system (lagoon replacement)• Full-scale treatment of 5,200 finishing pigs in North Carolina•Solid-liquid separation with polymer, then nitrification/denitrification toremove the ammonia, and P recovery.Bioresource Technology 100 (2009): 5406-5416
  5. 5. SolidsNPBiological nitrogen removal: Nitrification-DenitrificationNITRIFICATIONDENITRIFICATIONNH4+NO 2-NO 3-N2NO xOrganic -COrganic -COrganic -CO2O2
  6. 6. TREATEDEFFLUENTPHOSPHORUSSEPARATION UNITBBLOWERPOLYMERFLOCCULANTPDENITRIFICATIONCLARIFICATIONNITRIFICATIONRETURNBIOLOGICAL SLUDGECONFINEDLIVESTOCKSOLID-LIQUIDSEPARATIONUNITEXCESSBIOLOGICAL SLUDGERECYCLEPHOSPHATEPRECIPITATESLUDGEPMHOMOGENIZATIONTANKLIMEDEWATERED SOLIDS,BIOLOGICAL SLUDGE &PHOSPHORUS SLUDGEPMPREANOXIC BIOLOGICALNITROGEN REMOVAL UNITModified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE)PSEPARATEDLIQUIDTANK
  7. 7. DenitrificationNitrificationDenitrificationuses soluble carbonfrom manure
  8. 8. •3rd Generation system (2012)• Full-scale treatment of 1,200-sow farrow-to-finish (producing 30,500hogs/year) in North Carolina•Solid-liquid separation using settling and polymer, thennitrification/denitrification to remove the ammoniaTerra Blue Inc., Clinton, NC
  9. 9. 0510152025303540FebMaAprMaJunJulAugSepOctNovDecJanFebWaterTemperature(oC)Daily MAXDaily MINAverageTo reduce cost, the 2nd generation system incorporated newnitrifying bacteria sludge acclimated to low temperatures
  10. 10. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30050010001500200001020304050HPNS; this inventionMarine; Furukawa et al.(1993)On-site domestic, Chiemchaisriand Yamamoto (1993)Municipal; Chudoba andPannier, (1994)Enriched nitrifying for high-ammoniadigester; Shammas, (1986)Livestock; Bae et al. (2001)Municipal; Wild et al. (1971)NitrificationRategN/m3-reactor/dCold weather municipal; Anderssonand Rosen (1990)y = 1.25 + 1.93xr2= 0.998Temperature, oCmgN/gMLVSS/hHigh Performance Nitrifying Sludge(HPNS):• Isolated from manure• High activity at low temperatures• Used for rapid start-up of plantsHPNS was deposited in Agriculture ResearchCulture Collection (Peoria, IL ) : NRRL B-50289
  11. 11. To start-up the plant, the nitrification tank (230m3) was seeded with 1 liter of HPNS. In 40days, it reached the optimum removal rate of100 kg ammonia-N/day
  12. 12. Operation SimplicityOnce a week, the operator measured the nitrifying biomassand set the operation parameters for the week.
  13. 13. MLE Biological N Removal performanceInfluentConc. (After SolidsSeparation) (ppm)EffluentConc. (ppm)Efficiency%TKN 1,428 597 101 145 92.9NH4-N 1,182 483 59 124 95.0COD 8,906 4,933 1,016 529 88.6NH4-N removal efficiency:Warm Weather: 94.0%Cold Weather: 96.0%
  14. 14. Ammonia emissions reduction with this systemcompared to the anaerobic lagoon technologyAneja et al., 2008. Atmospheric Environment, 42:3291-3300Emissions reductionWarm Season 94.7%Cool Season 99.0%
  15. 15. TSSNPLagoon SystemNew SystemThe use of clean water to flush barnsimproved the air quality in the barns, pighealth and economic returns024681012141618MayJunJulAugSepNH3ConcentrationinBarnExhaustAir(ppm)Lagoon SystemNew SystemAvg Lagoon SytemAvg New SystemNH3 in the barns
  16. 16. Benefits of cleaner environment onanimal production** Data compares five pig production cycles obtained with lagoon technologyand five pig cycles obtained with the new technology (5200 pigs/cycle)
  17. 17. Treatment Technologies for BiologicalNitrogen Removal in Liquid Manure1. Nitrification-Denitrification2. Partial Nitritation-Anammox(Deammonification)Anammox
  18. 18. Deammonification ProcessTraditional Nitrogen Removal ProcessesUses externalcarbon additionfor DN(nitrification / denitrification)NH4+AnammoxNO2-N2↑Biological N removal processesnitrificationdenitrification nitrificationdenitrificationMeOHQ4 Q(partial nitritation / anammox)Uses endogenouscarbon for DN No carbon needed
  19. 19. Anammox: new shortcut for thebiological removal of nitrogenNITRIFICATIONDENITRIFICATIONNH4+NO2-NO3-N2NOxOrganic-CANAMMOXOrganic-COrganic-CO2O2Anammox bacteria for low-cost treatment of livestockwastewater•Isolated from swine manurein North CarolinaBrocadia caroliniensisAnammox = Anaerobic ammonium oxidation• ~ Half the aeration cost thantraditional method
  20. 20. Anammox biomass was grown in a parent reactor inFlorence, South Carolina.Brocadia caroliniensis was deposited in USDA Agriculture Research CultureCollection (Peoria, IL): NRRL B-50286
  21. 21. Partial nitritation + Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation (ANAMMOX)PartialNitritation ANAMMOXaerationNH4+ + NO2-50 %NH4+ in-N2TreatedeffluentClosedAnaerobicEnvironment
  22. 22. • Twosequencingbatch tractors(SBR)• Treatment ofswinewastewater(1400 mg N/L)Anammox coupled with Partial NitritationTwo-stage process:Anammox SBRMagrí, A.; Vanotti, M.B.; Szögi, A.A.; Cantrell, K.B. Partial nitritation of swine wastewater in view of its coupling with theanammox process. Journal of Environmental Quality (2012 doi:10.2135/jeq2012.0092)Partial nitritation SBR
  23. 23. 2010: anammox bacteria handledunder anaerobic conditions
  24. 24. Completely anaerobicChambers??
  25. 25. 2011: Single tank deammonificationprocess (nitritation-anammox)Biofilm plastic carriersMixing of specialized bacterialcultures to start the one-stageprocessContinuous flow,aerated reactor
  26. 26. Single-tank deammonification process start-up:1. Mix of nitrification sludge with anammox,2. start aeration and wastewater flowNitrificationsludge HPNSAnammox sludgeB. Caroliniensisin the single-tank
  27. 27. Continuous flow, aerated fluidizedreactor with biofilm carriers 30% v/vSingle-tank deammonification reactor setup (5-L reactor)
  28. 28. Another Single-tank deammonification reactor setup ( 1-L)Airflowmeterand valveReturnSludgeSingletankClarifierDOmonitorpHmonitor
  29. 29. 01002003004005006007001 6 11 16 21 26NConcentration(mg/L)daysNH4-NinNH4-NoutNO2-NinNO2-NoutNO3-NinNO3-NoutI II IIII = synthetic effluent (~360 mg NH4-/L),II = swine effluent ~340 mg NH4/L),III = swine effluent ~600 mg NH4-N/L).Nitrogen Removal in Single Reactor
  30. 30. Single tank deammonificationof swine wastewaterStoichiometry obtained:1 NH4 + 0.87 O2  0.45 N2 + 0.11 NO3 + 1.41 H2O + 1.18 H+
  31. 31. Deammonification of swine wastewaterParameter SWAmmonia removal rate1034 mg N/L-reactor/dayAmmonia removal efficiency 100%Total N removal efficiency 89.1%
  32. 32. Single tank deammonification processTheory (partial nitritation + anammox):NH4+ + 0.85 O2 → 0.44 N2 + 0.11 NO3- + 1.41 H2O + 1.19 H+
  33. 33. Stoichiometric ratesNH4+ + 0.87 O2 → 0.45 N2 + 0.11 NO3- + 1.41 H2O + 1.18 H+TheoreticalResults of this study using digested swine manureDeammonification reaction reduced 57% of theoxygen requirements and 100% of the carbon needs.(Compared to nitrification-denitrification, from 2.0 to 0.85 mol O2 /mol NH4)NH4+ + 0.85 O2 → 0.44 N2 + 0.11 NOx- + 1.41 H2O + 1.19 H+Reactor 1 (5-L)Reactor 2 (1-L)
  34. 34. ••New Deammonification Processfor Manure Digester EffluentsDeammonification Treatment (compared to nitrification-denitrification)•It is quick and efficient (high removal rate = 1 kg NH4-N/m3/day)•Organic carbon is not needed (best option for anaerobic digestion effluents)•Aeration needs reduced by 57% (lower operational costs)
  35. 35. Conclusions• Nitrification-denitrification of swine wastewaterwas optimized after solids-liquid separation usinga pre-anoxic design and a high performancenitrification sludge (HPNS)• Single-tank deammonification with anammoxwas feasible. It may be a key technology forefficient ammonia treatment in systems thatconsume carbon for energy production (AD)
  36. 36. http://www.ars.usda.gov/saa/cpswprc
  37. 37. Odor reduction in the liquid (99.9%)050010001500200025003000ppbSampleSkatoleHomogenization TankSeparated WaterPost Nitrogen TreatmentPost Phosphorus TreatmentBiological N treatmentLoughrin et al., JEQ 38:1739-1748
  38. 38. GHG Emissions reduced 97% with thereplacement of the anaerobic lagoon withthe aerobic system4430542181350500100015002000250030003500400045005000TonCO2-eq/yearBaseline (lagoon) EST Project ActivityCH4 N2OVanotti et al., Waste Management 28:759-766
  39. 39. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissionreduction using aerobic treatment(nitrification/denitrification and composting)Vanotti et al., Waste Management 28:759-766Baseline (lagoon)Project Activity
  40. 40. DecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecJanFeb03006009001200020406080100NitrogenPig WeightTotalPigWeight(lb*1000)FlushNLoad(kg/d)New systems need to be robust and withstand the large loadchanges during production (data show three production cycles)
  41. 41. Single-tank operation• Continuous flow• HRT 0.4-0.8 days• Return sludge 2Q• Ambient temperature (22 oC)• Aeration rate 60 mL/min (DO 0.5-0.9 mg/L)• Plastic media 40% v/v• Reactor MLVSS ~2600 mg/L• Influent ammonia 365 to 600 mgN/L• Carbonate alkalinity 1700 to 3000mg/L• Start-up with synthetic wastewater (10 days), then switch to swinewastewater (Effluent of anaerobic digestion)
  42. 42. Brocadia sp. (Candidatus AM285341)Uncultured planctomycete Pla 5GA-8 (GQ356125)Uncultured bacterium Asahi BRW (AB456583)Brocadia caroliniensisCandidatusBrocadia fulgida (Candidatus EU478693)Uncultured planctomycete HAuD-MB/2-35 (AB176696)Brocadia anammoxidans (Candidatus AF375994)Uncultured anoxic sludge bacterium KU1 (AB054006)Anammoxoglobus propionicus (Candidatus DQ317601)Jettenia asiatica (Candidatus DQ301513)Uncultured planctomycete KSU-1 (AB057453)Kuenenia stuttgartiensis (Candidatus AF375995)Scalindua sorokinii (Candidatus AY257181)1001001008999879697100810.005Similarity to Candidatus “B. caroliniensis” (JF487828)Candidatus “Brocadia fulgida” 96%Candidatus “Brocadia anammoxidans” 94%Candidatus “Jettenia asiatica” 92%Candidatus “Kuenia stuttgartiensis” 90%Candidatus “Anammoxoglobus propionicus” 90%Candidatus “Scalindua sorokinii” 86%
  43. 43. Single-tank reactor N removalat various N concentrations and loads010203040506070809010002004006008001000120014001600180020000 100 200 300 400 500Removalefficiency(%)NH4loadorremovalrate(mgN/L-reactor/d)Influent NH4+ concentration (mg N/L)NH4 load (mg N /L/d) NH4 removal (mg N/L/d) % Efficiency

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