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Effect of Manure Handling and Incorporation on Steroid Movement In Agricultural Fields Fertilized With Beef Cattle Manure
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Effect of Manure Handling and Incorporation on Steroid Movement In Agricultural Fields Fertilized With Beef Cattle Manure


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Manure generated from concentrated animal feeding operations may serve as a source of steroids in surface water and adversely impact the development of aquatic ecosystems. The objectives of this research were to determine the amount of steroids and metabolites in manure from beef cattle production pens, and runoff from crop production fields.

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  • What are they studying and where?UC-Berkelye: Beef cattle and Dairy CAFO, Maryland: Poultry litterGerogia: BroilerWisconsin: Cattle, dairy, swine and poultryPurdue: Beef, dairy, poultry and swineAll of them are dealing mostly fate, transport and different BMPs, biological effects, impact on aquatic organisms,
  • Melengestrol acetate
  • What isTBA - TreboloneMGA?-Melengestrol acetateMight be good to animate at some point to show where we have numbers, and depending on the presentation, what will be discussed.
  • From Terry:-Hormonal residues are going to be found in animal waste-Limited statistical differences were found in hormone excretions between treated and control cattle
  • 12 out of 17, TBA was not present and MGA below detection limitU/T: 33.5/ 40.3, C/S: 23.7/51.1Write out here what you want me to say about this slide. What does the yellow mean? What do the circles (pointing out differences).What would EET2 be to be comparable to what we put on?Yellow column: These are the steroids we implanted or fed to the heifers.Violet: Detected but below detection limitRed circle: Detected in all manure samples, 3 whole circle shows concentration of steroids are higher in stockpiled manure than dot red circle where composted manure concentration is higher. Red arrow indicates that both composting has lower concentration than stockpile from both treated and untreated manure.
  • What more do you have on the literature about tillage, we will need to have some info on runoff/infilitration/erosion by timing of tillage as a background slide since this paper it to a group more interested in tillage than hormones.Dutta et al. (2010) and Jenkins et al. (2009) evaluated the potential impact of poultry litter application on steroid hormone concentrations in subsurface drainage and surface runoff under no‐till and conventional-till/ reduced till management systems. They found significantly less runoff loads of steroid hormones from no‐till than from conventional tillage due low runoff generation.
  • Tillage record important here, previous crops, rainfall for month up to spreading for both years.Field is in NT treatment over past 5 years.
  • You will need to explain about the size of the tillage blocks.
  • Manure and runoff samples were analyzed in the laboratory for 17 steroid hormones and metabolites Runoff samples were analyzed using on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source.Microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) was used for manure samples analysis
  • First one : avg (80-40 min)
  • Second one: No difference between manure applied and control plotsComparing the 2: no significant diff: only NT and MP of 2nd differ than 1st
  • This a lead into the second year study? Should be in the title somewhere.2008 rainfall simulation study was conducted seven months after the feedlot runoff study.where estriol was detected in 10% of the samples followed by estrone (9%), progesterone (7%), 4-androstenedione (6%), and 17α-trenbolone, α-zearalanol and α-zearalenol from 5% samples.
  • Why is soil more than manure?NT= No-till, T= Conventional till, EM= EE2 applied on manure, M= manure, ES= EE2 applied on soil and S= control plot with bare soil
  • Transcript

    • 1. Waste of WorthApril, 2013Denver, COCharles A. Shapiro, Sagor Biswas, David D. Tarkalson, William L.Kranz, David P. Shelton, Terry L. Mader, Daniel D. Snow, Simon J. vanDonk, Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt, and Tian C. ZhangTechnical assistance: Leslie Johnson and Mike MainzUniversity of Nebraska-LincolnEmail:
    • 2. Funding provided by US-EPA -2007programBeef and dairyPoultrylitterPoultrybroilerBeef, dairy, poultry and swine
    • 3.  96% of CAFO cattleuse implants CONCERN: Potential fornatural and syntheticsteroid hormones inlivestock waste to reachgroundwater andsurface waters?
    • 4.  Endogenous (natural) Estrodiol Estrone Testosterone Androstenedione Progesterone Exogenous (synthetic) Trenbolone Zearalonol Melengestrol Acetate17 -estradiolestroneTestosterone Progesterone-zearalonolMelengestrol acetate17 -trenbolone
    • 5. RalgroTM Implant active ingredient
    • 6.  Increase average daily gain (ADG) 5 - 25 % Improve feed efficiency (G/F) 5 - 18 % Improve lean tissue deposition 5 - 12 %
    • 7. 1) Quantify hormones in various stages of the manurepathway in cattle feedlots.2) Determine the effects of different handling practices ofcattle feedlot wastes on the stability and availability ofhormones.3) Determine the effects of different land applicationstrategies on the fate and transport of hormones in runoffand vadose zone soils.4) Determine if grasses grown in conservation buffersassimilate hormones.
    • 8. 8MeatMarketHormone supplements:36 mg α-zearalanol,140 mg of TBA and 14 mgof 17β-estradiol (after 35 days)0.45 mg of MGA (daily feed, 145 days)Fresh Manure ~25kg/day~0.5 mg/day excretion~ 20 ug/kg maximumCompost StockpileRunoff HoldingPondLandApplicationOverlandrunoffSoil WaterMovementPlant UptakeStreams, LakesVadose zone,Ground waterAnimalIngestion
    • 9.  96 heifers split between six pens Half receive implants /feedsupplement Surface samples, feces and urinespots collected and analyzed(7, 45, 125 days) Feed lot run-off from natural rainfallevents collected using tipping bucketsampler Pens scraped and waste stockpiledor composted Feeding pen study conducted 2007and 2008
    • 10.  Low concentrations of steroid hormonesdetected in feeding pen run-off Steroids detected in ≥ 80% of treated and controlsamples Synthetic steroids only detected in runoff fromtreated groups Mostly endogenous steroids and possibly mycotoxinsdetected in dissolved fraction Large proportion held in feed-lot surfaces Seasonal variation observed in metabolites andconcentrations
    • 11. 11MeatMarketLivestock(Heifers)Hormone Supplements:36 mg α-zearalanol,140 mg of TBA and 14 mg of 17β-estradiol (after 35 days)0.45 mg of MGA (daily feed)ManureCompost StockpileRunoff HoldingPondLandApplicationOverlandrunoffSoil WaterMovementPlant UptakeStreams, LakesVadosezone, GroundwaterAnimalIngestion
    • 12.  Feedlot study initiated June Waste handling study initiated October Manure fromtreated anduntreated cattleplaced incompost pilesand anaerobicstockpiles Piles turnedthrough Spring
    • 13. Androgens Mycotoxins Estrogens ProgestagensManure4-androstenedioneAndrosteroneα-zearalenolβ-zearalenolα-zearalanol17α-estradiol17β-estradiolEstriolEstroneMelengesterolacetateProgesterone17α-hydroxyprogesteroneTotalConcentrationng g-1CU 1.8 ND ND ND ND ND ND 2.0 5.1 <0.5 0.9 ND 9.8CT 3.3 3.5 ND ND 1.0 <0.5 <0.5 ND 5.4 <0.5 0.7 <0.5 13.9SU 6.8 ND ND 8.8 0.8 ND <0.5 ND 4.3 ND 4.0 ND 24.7ST 5.3 ND 1.9 11.4 ND <0.5 ND ND 3.7 <0.5 4.1 <0.5 26.413Detection limit: 0.5 ng g-1CU= Compost untreated, CT= Compost treated, SU= Stockpile untreated, ST=Stockpile treated, ND= Non-detectableAverage steroid concentration in manure sample from April 2008
    • 14.  To evaluate the effects of: precipitation (simulation at 1 DAT and 30 DAT) manure handling (composting vs stockpiling,treated vs untreated) tillage (disk, plow and no-till)-on the presence of steroid hormones in overlandrunoff14
    • 15.  Study area: HaskellAgricultural Laboratory,Concord Soil: Nora silty clay loam(28% sand, 48% silt and24% clay) Slope: 8% Average annualprecipitation: 672 mm(26 in) Average annualtemperature: 8 C (47 F)15Feedlot
    • 16.  Manure application rate: 193 Mg ha-1 stockpiled 159 Mg ha-1 composted N availability factor: 0.15 N requirement: 170 kg-Nha-1 for dryland corn Rainfall intensity:75 mm hr-1 6 runoff samplescollected at 5 minsinterval after runoffinitiation16Experimental Design
    • 17. 17
    • 18. 18Results (2008):b b bcba03060901201 DAT 30 DAT 1 DAT 30 DAT 1 DAT 30 DATTimetorunoffinitiation(min)(A) Tillage Treatment
    • 19. 19Results (2008):abaabb0204060801001201 DAT 30 DAT 1 DAT 30 DATTimetorunoffinitiation(min)(B) Manure Treatment
    • 20. 20Results:abaaab04812161 DAT 30 DAT 1 DAT 30 DAT 1 DAT 30 DATRunoff(mm)(A) Tillage Treatment
    • 21. 051015202530Disk Plow No-tillFrequencyofdetection(%)1 DAT 30 DAT051015202530Compost Stockpile Treated UntreatedFrequencyofdetection(%)1 DAT 30 DAT
    • 22.  Lack of detection in the 2008 Ensure sufficient concentrations todetect effect of treatments Not used or released by beef cattle 17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2)22
    • 23.  Manure application 193 Mg ha-1 N availability factor:0.15 170 kg-N ha-1 Nrequirements Application rate of 7.5mg m-2 Using a backpack sprayerwith a 3 m boom RCB with threereplications 23
    • 24. 24Runoffinitiationtime (min)TotalPrecipitation(mm)Pr>FTreatmentTillage 0.27 0.10Manure 0.19 0.24EE2 0.86 0.81MeanNT 53 100T 81 133
    • 25. Flow WeightedAverage Concentration(ng L-1)Masstransport(mg ha-1)Treatment Pr>FTillage 0.0003 0.003Manure 0.05 0.11Tillage*Manure 0.83 0.90MeanNT-EE2 with Manure 1765 a 110 aT-EE2 with Manure 62 b 3 b
    • 26.  Little steroid remains inmanure after feedlot Minor benefit fromcomposting Runoff from fields affected bytillage and timing Interaction between time fromtillage to rainfall affects erosionand hence, Size of storm to produce similarpotential losses varies Little leaching, held in soil(data not shown)Livestock(Heifers)ManureCompost StockpileLandApplicationOverlandrunoffStreams,Lakes