Next Generation Technology Swine Waste-to-Energy Project


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For more: The Loyd Ray Farms project is the first swine waste project in the State of North Carolina to generate and transfer renewable energy credits (RECs) to a public utility. Utilizing an anaerobic digester as primary treatment, this waste treatment system is designed to meet the Environmental Performance Standards set forth by NC law for new and expanded swine facilities through the use of nitrification/denitrification and further treatment. The system implemented at this farm utilizes anaerobic digester technology to turn raw animal waste into biogas. The biogas is used to fuel a microturbine, generating electricity to power the environmental treatment system, and about half of the farm.

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  • NC ranks 14th in electricity generation from Renewable Sources, and 11th in generation from biomass, and 9thin generation from solar
  • Next Generation Technology Swine Waste-to-Energy Project

    1. 1. Next Generation TechnologySwine Waste-to-Energy ProjectRenewable Energy Generation andGHG Emission Reductions viaInnovative Waste ManagementPresented To:From Waste to Worth:“Spreading” Science & SolutionsApril 4, 2013Presented By:William G. “Gus” Simmons, Jr., P.E.Cavanaugh & Associates, P.A.1
    2. 2. Why is NC Looking at AlternativeEnergy / Fuels from Ag Waste???• NC Ranks 2nd in the US in pigs produced, with15% of the US pig crop (IA)• NC Ranks 2nd in the US in turkeysproduced, with 13% of the US turkey crop(MN)• NC Ranks 4th in the US in broilersproduced, with 9% of the US broiler crop (GA)• NC Ranks 10th in the US in residentialelectricity consumption, per capita2
    3. 3. So, Why Agricultural WTE in NC???• With the passage of Senate Bill 3 (2007), North Carolinabecame the first state in the Southeast to adopt a RenewableEnergy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (REPS).• SB3 requires:– investor-owned utilities in North Carolina to provide up to 12.5% oftheir energy through renewable energy resources or energy efficiencymeasures.– Rural electric cooperatives and municipal electric suppliers are subjectto a 10% REPS requirement.• Agree or Disagree – a linkage was made between thepotential for the development of renewable energy (biogas /biomass) and all the pig farms in North Carolina3
    4. 4. NC IOU* Renewable Obligation**4* Investor Owned Utility** Under Senate Bill 3Year Total REPS Solar SwineWastePoultryWaste2010 0.02%2012 3% 0.07% 0.07% 170k MWh2013 700k MWh2014 900k MWh2015 6% 0.14% 0.14%2018 10% 0.20% 0.20%2021 12.5%Out of State REC Cap = 25% of RequirementTo meet obligations of SB3, Duke Energy would need ~123,000 MWh of SwineWaste Fueled Electricity Needed by 2018 (pre-merger values)
    5. 5. North Carolina Swine Energy PotentialData provided by Duke University Carbon Offsets Initiative 5AshevilleTriad Raleigh/RTPCharlotte Wilmington
    6. 6. The North Carolina Potential -What Can We Expect from SwineWaste to Energy Systems?• About 1.1 M MWh electricity annually• About 6.3 M tons GHGs reduced annually• Potential for major nutrient managementstrides and pathogen reductions• Improved animal health, reducedmortalities, greater farm productivity• Creation of new acres of cash croplandData provided by Duke University Carbon Offsets Initiative6
    7. 7. How to turn pig waste intoelectrons?7
    8. 8. Case Study:Digester Systems forAnimal Waste Solids –Loyd Ray Farms ProjectGHG EmissionReductions andRenewable EnergyGeneration viaInnovative WasteManagement8
    9. 9. Step 1: Establish the TargetProject Goals: (2006)• Make it “Market Feasible” – farm owners perspective• Energy Generation + Water Quality Improvement + AirEmissions Improvement• Make it flexible - different farm sizes & types• Process based, not technology based• Innovative waste management : Achieveenvironmental performance standards as described byNC legislation– Substantial elimination of odor, ammonia, totalnitrogen, and pathogens9
    10. 10. BioEnergy Digesters in North Carolina
    11. 11. Commercial-Scale Demonstration Project:Loyd Ray Farms Swine Waste-to-Energy ProjectConverts waste from 9,000 pigs into electricityImproved Environmental Management
    12. 12. RawWasteMixed DigesterBiogasLiquidsHow it WorksExisting StorageLagoon
    13. 13. How it Works:13~65% CH4
    14. 14. Photos by: Marc Deshusses, Duke University, 2011What it looks like… After Construction14What it looks like… Steady State
    15. 15. Covered Anaerobic Digester15
    16. 16. Aeration System16
    17. 17. Gas ConditioningSystem &MicroturbineMicroturbine Specifications:•65 kilowatt Generative Capacity•First Scheduled Service @ 8,000 Hrs•Only one moving part  @ >90,000 RPM•Air bearings – no lubricant or coolant required17
    18. 18. Expected Outcomes:5,000± Carbon Offsets per Year, registered with Climate ActionReserve Duke University & Google: Retire to meet carbon neutralitygoal, retire for immediate internal demand, and/or sell whenstrong market signal arises500± Renewable Energy Credits per Year Utility: Motivated by NC Renewable Energy and EnergyEfficiency Portfolio Standard Swine Waste Set AsideElectricity Generation Farm: Energy to offset increased demand from innovativesystem and offset baseline electricity demand (projected tooffset up to half of farm’s existing electricity demand)Compliance with Environmental Performance Standards for New& Expanded Swine Farms(ammonia, nutrients, pathogens, odors, metals and zero dischargeof waste to surface and groundwater); Ensures compliance withoffset standard to meet all air and water quality standards bycontrolling nutrient loads 18
    19. 19. RESULTS19
    20. 20. 010203040506070 6/1/20116/8/20116/15/20116/22/20116/29/20117/6/20117/13/20117/20/20117/27/20118/3/20118/10/20118/17/20118/24/20118/31/20119/7/20119/14/20119/21/20119/28/201110/5/201110/12/201110/19/201110/26/201111/2/201111/9/201111/16/201111/23/201111/30/201112/7/201112/14/201112/21/201112/28/2011Power(kW)Electricity Production Rate - 201120Condensate floodedcompressor, required rebuildControls systemissues, supplier‘tweaks’Condensate pumpissues
    21. 21. 01020304050607012/31/20111/7/20121/14/20121/21/20121/28/20122/4/20122/11/20122/18/20122/25/20123/3/20123/10/20123/17/20123/24/20123/31/20124/7/20124/14/20124/21/20124/28/20125/5/20125/12/20125/19/20125/26/20126/2/20126/9/20126/16/20126/23/20126/30/20127/7/20127/14/20127/21/20127/28/20128/4/20128/11/20128/18/20128/25/2012Power(kW) Electricity Production Rate - 201221Compressor coolerfailure, controlsManual OperationOnly – Gas SkidReplacement
    22. 22. Scorecard22Parameter Goal Actual Success GaugeRECslearned that we have more potential500 344 69%Carbon Offsetsdeductions due to venting, metering5,000 Tons 2,500 Tons 50%Environmental Performance- Surface Water ProtectionSubstantial Elimination Accomplishedby PermitPassedEnvironmental Performance- Ground Water ProtectionSubstantial Elimination Accomplishedby PermitPassedEnvironmental Performance- Odor Emissions>7:1 D/T 2:1 D/T PassedEnvironmental Performance- Ammonia EmissionsWWTP =Farm =106 kg/wk476 kg/wk23 kg/wk341 kg/wk460% (Passed)140% (Passed)Environmental Performance- Vector Reduction<7,000 mpn/100mL <5,000mpn/100mL140%(Passed)
    23. 23. Costs and BenefitsCosts• Capital: $1.7M• O&M: $80,000/yearFunding sources• NCACSP LCP• CCPI/EQIP• Sale of RECs to Utility• Sale of Carbon Offsets(voluntary market)• Note: No capital or operatingcosts passed on to farm owner!Farm owner receives excesselectricity!!!Benefits• Cash flow for farm owner• Improved animal health• Other ecosystem services (N, Pcontrol)• Variability in nitrogen output forfertilizer• Reduced sludge managementcost• Improved air quality on-site• Reduction of odors off site• More choice in cropping plan• Sustaining NC Agriculture• Reduced GHG Emissions23
    24. 24. A couple of firsts…• First Swine Waste-to-energy project in theState of North Carolina to place RECs on theNorth Carolina Utilities Commission RECTracking System• First Transfer of RECs from a NC Swine Farm toDuke Energy• First ‘Innovative Swine Waste TreatmentSystem’ permitted that utilizes digester•  First Expansion Permit Since 1997???24
    25. 25. Ongoing Research & Analysis:• Digester Performance – DU is conducting continuousresearch of digester biogas composition, loading rates, andcarbon destruction efficiency (monthly)• Environmental System Performance – Waterquality analysis by DU and Private Labs (monthly / quarterly)• Emissions – DU performing flux analysis of ammonia andodor emissions (twice annually)• Animal Productivity – Mortality rates, feed conversionrates, days to market, etc.• Economic Performance – DU / DE / Cavanaugh25
    26. 26. Challenges & Lessons Learned:• Gas Skid Challenges – Gas skid has suffered frommultiple outages, which prevents REC generation. Numerousissues with gas skid controls system and condensate removal.• Abundance of Gas – Very conservative on gasproduction expectations – have not been able to utilize all gasproduced.• Electrical Load Balancing – Environmental systemoperating at full capacity requires more electricity (demand)than MT produces. Adjusted operational schedule to resolve.• CAR Protocol Requirements – Adding additional gasflow meters, thermocouples on flare, etc.26
    27. 27. Special ThanksMr. Loyd Bryant, Loyd Ray FarmsLNH Farms27