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Livestock and Poultry MortalityManagementJosh Payne – Oklahoma State UniversityJean Bonhotal – Cornell UniversityShafiqur ...
Livestock and Poultry Mortality• Issue faced by every animal farming operation• Management is vital for:- controlling dise...
Livestock and Poultry Mortality• Routine mortalities• Natural disasters- Flooding- Tornado- Fire• Disease outbreak- Avian ...
Improper Disposal• Risks to ground and surface water from leachate• Risks to human and animal health• Neighbor/Nuisance co...
Disease Transmission• Pathogens may be present in carcass• Can be spread by:• Runoff from rainfall• Direct contact with ot...
Goals of Carcass Disposal• Fulfills regulations• Creates positive public perception• Reduces diseased transmission• Promot...
Carcass Disposal Options• Burial• Landfills• Incineration• Rendering• CompostingIllustrations courtesy: Cornell Waste Mgmt...
Burial• Proper guidelines must be followed• Poor site selection, sandy soils, areas with highwater tables may pose threat ...
Landfills• Some licensed landfills accept animal mortalities• May require notification prior to delivery• Tipping fees may...
Incineration• Carcass consumed by fire and heat• Requires self contained incinerator• Recycles nutrients in form of ash• M...
Rendering• Cooks the carcass while killing pathogens• Meat and bone meal and fat are by-products• Used in pet food, rubber...
Composting• Carcass is buried in a carbon source• Converts carcass into stable, humus-like product• High temperatures kill...
Disposal Options Summary• Incineration, rendering and composting arepreferred methods as they recycle nutrients andproduce...
Composting• Definition:Controlled biological decomposition process thatconverts organic matter to stable, humus-likeproduct
Livestock Mortality Composting• Above ground burial in bio-mass filterIllustration courtesy: Cornell Waste Mgmt. Institute
Livestock Composting Components• Nitrogen source (dead animal)• Carbon source (wood chips, shavings)• Aerobic microorganisms
Additional Tools• Front-end loader• Water• Long-stemmed thermometer
Optimal conditions• 25 parts carbon and 1 part N (25:1)• 50% moisture• 130 – 150 F
Common Bulking AgentsCarbon Source C:N RatioSawdust 200 – 750:1Straw 48 – 150:1Corn stalks 60 – 73:1Finished compost 30 – ...
The Composting ProcessFirst Heat Cycle• Carcass and carbon material layered in pile• High rate of anaerobic and aerobic mi...
Compost Site Selection• Recommend 300 ft. away from roads, residencesand waterways
Construct Barrier (optional)Photo courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
Poultry Compost BinPhoto courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
Build a Pad• 18-24 inches deep• 8 ft. diameter for stocker calves• 10 ft. diameter for mature cows• 12 ft. diameter for ho...
Calf Pad - 8’ diameterPhoto courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
Horse Pad – 12’ diameterPhoto courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
Carcass placement• Secure legs and head with baling twine (optional)• Carcass located 18-24” from pad edgePhoto courtesy: ...
Poultry Bin LayeringLitterStrawDead birdsNote: 6” ofspace fromsidewallIllustration courtesy: Oklahoma State University Coo...
Build Windrows for MultipleMortalitiesIllustration courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
Adding Carbon CoverWater may be added to pad and carbon cover - damp to the touch (~50%)Photo courtesy: Oklahoma State Uni...
Finished pilePhotos courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
Monitor Temperature• Pile will heat to over 130 F then gradually drop• Once temp drops to 30 F below max temp orbelow 110 ...
Turning pile• Mix using front end loader• Add moisture if needed• Large bones should remain in core of pilePhoto courtesy:...
Monitor Temperature• After turning, pile will heat again, then cool• Pile should begin to cureChart courtesy: Oklahoma Sta...
Finished product• Land apply as fertilizer• Use to compost additional mortalities• Remaining bones should be brittle and c...
Mortality Composting• Turns waste into valuable soil amendment• Reduces disease transmission• Reduces environmental contam...
Questions?For more info visit:extension.org/animal_manure_managementPhoto courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative ...
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Livestock and Poultry Mortality Management

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For more: http://www.extension.org/68315 Managing animal mortalities is an unpleasant but necessary part of raising livestock or poultry. Improper carcass disposal can negatively impact the environment and be a source of disease or pathogens. This material was developed for use in beginning farmer and extension programs, high school classrooms, and for self-study or professional continuing education.

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Transcript of "Livestock and Poultry Mortality Management "

  1. 1. Livestock and Poultry MortalityManagementJosh Payne – Oklahoma State UniversityJean Bonhotal – Cornell UniversityShafiqur Rahman – North Dakota State University
  2. 2. Livestock and Poultry Mortality• Issue faced by every animal farming operation• Management is vital for:- controlling disease- proper nutrient management- maintaining regulatory compliancePhoto courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
  3. 3. Livestock and Poultry Mortality• Routine mortalities• Natural disasters- Flooding- Tornado- Fire• Disease outbreak- Avian Influenza- Foot and Mouth Disease
  4. 4. Improper Disposal• Risks to ground and surface water from leachate• Risks to human and animal health• Neighbor/Nuisance complaints• Regulated by state agenciesPhoto courtesy: Texas AgriLife Extension Service
  5. 5. Disease Transmission• Pathogens may be present in carcass• Can be spread by:• Runoff from rainfall• Direct contact with other animals• Scavengers• InsectsIllustration courtesy: Cornell Waste Mgmt. Institute
  6. 6. Goals of Carcass Disposal• Fulfills regulations• Creates positive public perception• Reduces diseased transmission• Promotes environmental sustainability• Produces beneficial by-product• Economical• PracticalIllustration courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
  7. 7. Carcass Disposal Options• Burial• Landfills• Incineration• Rendering• CompostingIllustrations courtesy: Cornell Waste Mgmt. Institute
  8. 8. Burial• Proper guidelines must be followed• Poor site selection, sandy soils, areas with highwater tables may pose threat to groundwatercontamination• Construct pit at least 300’ from waterways and atleast 1’ above floodplain level• Cover carcasses with at least 1’ of topsoil• Does not recycle nutrients for forage uptakeIllustrations courtesy: Cornell Waste Mgmt. Institute and Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
  9. 9. Landfills• Some licensed landfills accept animal mortalities• May require notification prior to delivery• Tipping fees may range from $20-40/ton• Consider transportation costs• Consider disease transmission risks by moving carcassesoff-farm• Does not recycle nutrients• Increases landfill volume making it unsustainable
  10. 10. Incineration• Carcass consumed by fire and heat• Requires self contained incinerator• Recycles nutrients in form of ash• May require air quality permit• Pathogens are destroyed• Mainly designed for smaller carcasses• Fuel costs should be considered• Open air incineration discouraged due toodor, emissions and lack of heat to fully consumecarcass
  11. 11. Rendering• Cooks the carcass while killing pathogens• Meat and bone meal and fat are by-products• Used in pet food, rubber, soaps, biodiesel, etc.• Recycles nutrients• Availability limited to some producers• Fees may be associated with service• Consider disease transmission risks by moving carcassesoff-farm
  12. 12. Composting• Carcass is buried in a carbon source• Converts carcass into stable, humus-like product• High temperatures kill most pathogens• Proper management is key for effectiveness• Produces valuable soil amendment• Recycles nutrients
  13. 13. Disposal Options Summary• Incineration, rendering and composting arepreferred methods as they recycle nutrients andproduce usable by-product• Availability may limit incineration and rendering• Composting can be conducted on any farm• This presentation focuses on composting
  14. 14. Composting• Definition:Controlled biological decomposition process thatconverts organic matter to stable, humus-likeproduct
  15. 15. Livestock Mortality Composting• Above ground burial in bio-mass filterIllustration courtesy: Cornell Waste Mgmt. Institute
  16. 16. Livestock Composting Components• Nitrogen source (dead animal)• Carbon source (wood chips, shavings)• Aerobic microorganisms
  17. 17. Additional Tools• Front-end loader• Water• Long-stemmed thermometer
  18. 18. Optimal conditions• 25 parts carbon and 1 part N (25:1)• 50% moisture• 130 – 150 F
  19. 19. Common Bulking AgentsCarbon Source C:N RatioSawdust 200 – 750:1Straw 48 – 150:1Corn stalks 60 – 73:1Finished compost 30 – 50:1Horse manure 22-50:1Cattle manure 19:1Turkey litter 16:1Broiler litter 14:1Animal carcasses 5:1
  20. 20. The Composting ProcessFirst Heat Cycle• Carcass and carbon material layered in pile• High rate of anaerobic and aerobic microbial activity• Temperature increases then decreases• Breakdown of flesh and small bonesSecond Heat Cycle• Turning pile initiates increased aerobic microbial activity• Temperature increases then decreases• Breakdown of long bones, skull and pelvis• Stabilization of compost material
  21. 21. Compost Site Selection• Recommend 300 ft. away from roads, residencesand waterways
  22. 22. Construct Barrier (optional)Photo courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
  23. 23. Poultry Compost BinPhoto courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
  24. 24. Build a Pad• 18-24 inches deep• 8 ft. diameter for stocker calves• 10 ft. diameter for mature cows• 12 ft. diameter for horsesIllustration courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
  25. 25. Calf Pad - 8’ diameterPhoto courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
  26. 26. Horse Pad – 12’ diameterPhoto courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
  27. 27. Carcass placement• Secure legs and head with baling twine (optional)• Carcass located 18-24” from pad edgePhoto courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
  28. 28. Poultry Bin LayeringLitterStrawDead birdsNote: 6” ofspace fromsidewallIllustration courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
  29. 29. Build Windrows for MultipleMortalitiesIllustration courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
  30. 30. Adding Carbon CoverWater may be added to pad and carbon cover - damp to the touch (~50%)Photo courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
  31. 31. Finished pilePhotos courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
  32. 32. Monitor Temperature• Pile will heat to over 130 F then gradually drop• Once temp drops to 30 F below max temp orbelow 110 F, turn pile
  33. 33. Turning pile• Mix using front end loader• Add moisture if needed• Large bones should remain in core of pilePhoto courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
  34. 34. Monitor Temperature• After turning, pile will heat again, then cool• Pile should begin to cureChart courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
  35. 35. Finished product• Land apply as fertilizer• Use to compost additional mortalities• Remaining bones should be brittle and can befurther composted or land appliedPhotos courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
  36. 36. Mortality Composting• Turns waste into valuable soil amendment• Reduces disease transmission• Reduces environmental contamination• Promotes sustainable agriculture
  37. 37. Questions?For more info visit:extension.org/animal_manure_managementPhoto courtesy: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service
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