Manure Application Method and Timing Effects on Emission of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide


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We conducted a field study on corn to evaluate the effect of liquid dairy manure applied pre-plant (injection or surface broadcast with immediate or 3-day disk incorporation) or sidedressed at 6-leaf stage (injected or surface-applied) on emission of NH3 and N2O. Manure was applied at a rate of 6500 gal/acre, which supplied an average of 150 lb/acre of total N and 65 lb/acre of NH4-N. Ammonia emission was measured for 3 days after manure application using the dynamic chamber/equilibrium concentration technique, and N2O flux was quantified using the static chamber method at intervals of 3 to 14 days throughout the season. Ammonia-N losses were typically 30 to 50 lb/acre from pre-plant surface application, most of the loss occurring in the first 6 to 12 hours after application. Emission rates were reduced 60-80% by quick incorporation and over 90% by injection. Losses of N2O were relatively low (1 lb/acre or less annually), but pronounced peaks of N2O flux occurred from either pre-plant or sidedress injected manure in different years. Results show that NH3 emission from manure can be reduced substantially by injection or quick incorporation, but there may be some tradeoff with N2O flux from injection.

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Manure Application Method and Timing Effects on Emission of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide

  1. 1. Manure Application Method andTiming Effects on Emission ofAmmonia and Nitrous OxideBill Jokela, Carrie Laboski, and Todd Andraski  USDA-ARS, Dairy Forage Research Center, Marshfield, WISoil Science Dept., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WIWaste to Worth ConferenceApril 2-5, 2013. Denver, CO
  2. 2. Situation• Ammonia losses from surface-applied manure canbe large, reducing manure N availability/economicvalue and contributing to environmental problems• Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gasthat can be released from manure• Injection or quick tillage incorporation can reduceNH3 loss but effect on N2O emissions is less clear.• How do manure management variables (timing,method, incorporation time) affect– NH3 and N2O losses?– N availability/fertilizer value for corn?• Can sidedressed manure be a viable N source?
  3. 3. Sidedress Manure?Ontario (Ball-Coehlo)QuebecVermont (Jokela)
  4. 4. Objective• Evaluate the effect of liquid dairymanure application method and timing,and time of incorporation on:– Ammonia losses– Nitrous oxide emissions– Corn yield and manure Navailability/fertilizer N value
  5. 5. Field Site• Marshfield, WI, Ag Research Station• Withee silt loam– Aquic Glossudalf– Somewhat poorly drained, 0-2% slope• Previous crop = corn– New site each year
  6. 6. Treatments• Pre-plant manure (mid- late May)– Surface application with diskincorporation• Immediate (<1 h)• 1-day• 3-day (surface)– Injection• S-tine (Kongsgilde Vibro-flex)• 15-inch spacing• 2-3-inch diam. band , 4-6 in. deep– All plots chisel plowed 3-5 daysafter manure application
  7. 7. Treatments• Sidedress manure (5-6 lf stage)– Injection• S-tine (Kongsgilde Vibro-flex)with shields• 30-inch spacing• 4-6 inches deep– Surface (Yr 2, 3, and 4)• Fertilizer N– 6 pre-plant rates• 0 to 200 lb/acre– Not evaluated for NH3 or N2O
  8. 8. Injected Manure Placement
  9. 9. Manure Source• Liquid dairy manure– 6500 gal/acre (target rate)– Solids content: 14% (avg.)– Sand bedding– N application rate (avg.)• 158 lb total N/acre• Variable
  10. 10. NH3 emission measurement– Dynamic chamber/equilibriumconcentration• Svensson, 1994; Misselbrook andHansen, 2001• 2 chambers, 1 ambient meter/plot• 4 passive diffusion samplers (2 types)in each chamber– Started immediately after manureapplication; continued through Day 3– 6 measurement periods• Approx. 0-1, 1-2.5, 2.5-6, 6-20, 20-30,and 44-54 h after manure application
  11. 11. N2O flux measurement– Static, vented chamber– GRACEnet protocol• Parkin and Venterea, 2010– 2 chambers/plot– Sampled approx. weekly May-Oct• More frequently after manure or rain• Less frequently late in season– 3 samples/time (0, 30, 60 min.)– Flux calculated by linear regression
  12. 12. NH3N2ON2O
  13. 13. Experimental Design• Randomized complete blockdesign• 4 replicates (3 for NH3 andN2O emission)• Plot size: 15 x 50-ft– 50-75-ft alleys forequipment turning
  14. 14. Results
  15. 15. Ammonia Emission2009-2011 Avg.051015202530354045500 10 20 30 40 50 60CumulativeNH3Loss(lbN/acre)Hoursafter Manure ApplicationCumulativeNH3 Loss2009-2011 AveragePP-InjectPP-Disk1 hrPP-Disk3 daySD-InjabcbcB0123456780 10 20 30 40 50 60NH3Emission(lbN/acreh)Hoursafter Manure ApplicationNH3 Emission Rates2009-2011 AveragePP-InjectPP-Disk 1 hrPP-Disk 3 daySD-InjA
  16. 16. Ammonia Emission• Most loss in first 6-12 hours afterapplication• Total 3-day losses (3-yr average)highest for surface application• NH3 loss reduced by injection (>90%) orimmediate disk incorporation (75%)
  17. 17. N2O Flux-100010020030040050060028-May 11-Jun 25-Jun 9-Jul 23-Jul 6-Aug 20-Aug 3-Sep 17-Sep 1-Oct 15-OctugN2O-Nm-2h-1N2O Flux 2011PP-InjPP-1 hrPP-3-daySD-InjSD-Sur0510152025303540455028-May 4-Jun 11-Jun 18-Jun 25-Jun 2-JulugN2O-Nm-2h-15 in.rain
  18. 18. Cumulative N2O Emission0. 2011lb/N2O-N/acreAnnualN2O Loss PP-InjPP-1 hPP-3-dSD-InjSD-Surf
  19. 19. N2O Emission• Increase in N2O flux after manureapplication at PP and/or SD– Injection most pronounced– 6 to 12-day lag time• Low levels of N2O late July to Oct.• Magnitude and timing (PP vs. SD) variedby year– May be explained by combination of rainevents/soil moisture, soil temperature, andmanure characteristics and N content
  20. 20. Grain response to preplant incorporated urea
  21. 21. N Fertilizer Equivalence Value (NFEV) of Manure% N Fert Equiv = NFEV ÷ total N applied x 100
  22. 22. Fertilizer N Equivalence• Varied by year– Weather, soil conditions, actual manureN rate• General trend (4-year avg.) related totime of incorporation– Inject (52%) >> 1-hr or 1-day (37%) > 3-day (34%) > None (sidedress, 32%)
  23. 23. Summary• Highest NH3 loss from surfaceapplication– Greatly reduced by injection (>90%) orimmediate disk incorporation (75%)• Most NH3 loss in first 6-12 hoursafter application– Quick incorporation important• Fertilizer N equivalence varied buthighest for injection, less for delayedincorporation
  24. 24. Summary• Injection of manure most effectiveat reducing NH3 losses… but alsoincreased N2O emissions– N2O-N << NH3-N, so not economicallyimportant; but environmentally importantas a greenhouse gas– But a portion of NH3 emitted eventuallyconverted to N2O (1 %; IPCC, 2006), sotrade-off may be minimized
  25. 25. • Alternatives to S-tine injection– Tillage incorporation, but considerresidue management and erosion/waterquality concerns– Different injection techniques (injectortype, depth, etc.)
  26. 26. Summary• Sidedress application of manure is a viable Nsource for corn– Another window of time for manure application– Can use PSNT to determine rate– Practical limitations• Equipment: Injection or direct incorporation preferred• Field issues: equipment turning, plant damage• Data support recent changes to UWEXmanure N availability (N FertilizerEquivalence)– 50% injected or broadcast incorporated <1 hr– 40% broadcast incorporated 1 to 72 hr– 30% broadcast incorporated >72 hr or not incorporated
  27. 27. Thank You• Research sponsored by:– USDA-ARS– WI Corn Growers Assoc.• Thanks to all the staff & studentsthat helped with field and lab work