Reproductive system 2010

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Reproductive system 2010

  1. 1. The facts 11/20/13 FI
  2. 2. Female & Male Hormones Female Sex Hormones The ovaries secrete two hormones, oestrogen and progesterone Male Sex Hormones  Testosterone & determines the primary and secondary sex characteristics.  The male reproductive system is controlled by hormones from the hypothalamus and from the anterior pituitary gland. 11/20/13 FI
  3. 3. 11/20/13 FI
  4. 4. Female Reproductive System 11/20/13 FI
  5. 5. Female Reproductive System 11/20/13 FI
  6. 6. Hormonal control of the female reproductive cycle. The two cycles are the ovarian cycle and the uterine cycle. The cycles are interrelated and average 28 days. The ovarian cycle is divided into the follicular phase and the luteal phase. During the follicular phase the ovarian follicle matures primarily in response to FSH. The follicular phase ends with ovulation and is dominated by oestrogen. 11/20/13 FI
  7. 7. The uterine cycle is divided into the menstral phase, the proliferative phase and the secretory phase. Menstral – loss of part of the endometrial lining and blood (menstruation) Proliferative – endometrial lining thickens and becomes vascular (primarily in response to oestrogen) Secretory – endometrial lining becomes lush and moist from increased secretory activity (primarily in response to progesterone) 11/20/13 FI
  8. 8. Structure and Function of the Breast 11/20/13 FI
  9. 9. Structure and Function of the Breast 11/20/13 FI
  10. 10. 11/20/13 FI
  11. 11. Hormonal and Menstrual Alterations Polycystic ovarian syndrome Leading cause of infertility in the United States Oligo-ovulation or anovulation Elevated levels of androgens or clinical signs of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries Multifactorial  Hyperinsulinism, hypertension, dyslipidemia Dysfunction of follicle development 11/20/13 FI
  12. 12. Infection and Inflammation Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Acute inflammatory disease caused by infection May involve any organ of the reproductive tract Salpingitis  Oophoritis  Sexually transmitted diseases migrate from the vagina to the upper genital tract Polymicrobial infection 11/20/13 FI
  13. 13. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) 11/20/13 FI
  14. 14. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) 11/20/13 FI
  15. 15. Pelvic Relaxation Disorders The bladder, urethra, and rectum are supported by the endopelvic fascia and perineal muscles The muscular and fascial tissue loses tone and strength with aging Fails to maintain organs in proper position 11/20/13 FI
  16. 16. Pelvic Relaxation Disorders Cystocele and rectocele Urethrocele Cystourethrocele Enterocele Vaginal prolapse Uterine prolapse 11/20/13 FI
  17. 17. Pelvic Relaxation Disorders 11/20/13 FI
  18. 18. Benign Growths and Proliferative Conditions Endometriosis Presence of functioning endometrial tissue or implants outside the uterus Responds to hormone fluctuations of the menstrual cycle Possible causes  11/20/13 Retrograde menstruation, spread through vascular or lymphatic systems, stimulation of multipotential epithelial cells on reproductive organs or genetic predisposition FI
  19. 19. Cervical Cancer 11/20/13 FI
  20. 20. Benign Growths and Proliferative Conditions Endometriosis 11/20/13 FI
  21. 21. Breast Cancer Reproductive factors Hormonal factors Environmental factors and lifestyle Radiation Diet Chemicals (xenoestrogens) Physical activity Familial factors and tumor-related genes 11/20/13 FI
  22. 22. Breast Cancer Manifestations Painless lump, dimpling of skin, edema Treatment Based on stage of cancer Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, biologic therapy and bone marrow transplantation 11/20/13 FI

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