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Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 1
HLTEN514B
Apply Research Skills Within a
Contemporary Health Environ...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 2
Topic 1 – An Overview
What is research?
Where does knowledge come fr...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 3
What is Research?
“Systematic process using both inductive
and deduc...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 4
Where does knowledge come from?
• Over the years, knowledge has been...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 5
Sources of Knowledge
Tradition and Custom
- Passed on from generatio...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 6
Sources of Knowledge
Authority
- Reliance on individuals as „experts...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 7
Sources of Knowledge
Trial and Error
- Uses successive numbers of al...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 8
Sources of Knowledge
Personal Experience
- First-hand knowledge
- Of...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 9
Sources of Knowledge
Intuition
- „hunch‟ or „gut feeling‟
- Closely ...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 10
Sources of Knowledge
Reasoning
- Use of logical thought pattern
- I...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 11
Why do we need to do it?
– Critical appraisal
– Provide quality car...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 12
Evolution of nursing research
1854 Florence Nightingale
implementin...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 13
Nursing Research
Some examples of nursing research
• Wound Healing
...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 14
The Language of Research
• Research has its own language
• Some com...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 15
The Language of Research
Efficacy
- The ability of an intervention ...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 16
The Language of Research
Validity
- Is the research providing answe...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 17
The Language of Research
Reliability
- Is the research tool reliabl...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 18
The Language of Research
Dissemination
- The communication of resea...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 19
The Language of Research
• Methodology
• Control
• Randomisation
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 20
Types of Research
There are three main types of research
• Quantita...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 21
Types of Research
Quantitative
- A systematic process used to gathe...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 22
Mixed Method Research
• Combination of quantitative and qualitative...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 23
What is Evidence Based
Practice?• Basing (in the case of nursing) c...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 24
Evidenced Based Practice -
EBP
- Applying the most current research...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 25
Evidenced Based
Practice - EBP
• Clinical
Expertise
• Expert
Panels...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 26
Evidence Based Practice - EBP
• Benefits of EBP
– Patients & consum...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 27
Evidence Based Practice
• There are centres that collect, collabora...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 28
Evidence Based Practice - EBP
Five steps to EBP
1. Ask the question...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 29
Evidence Based Practice -
EBP
• Evidence can be found
– CINAHL (Cum...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 30
How is research utilised in
practice
• Research based policy, proce...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 31
Research and the EN
“a professional nurse
interprets, evaluates and...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 32
Research and the EN
• All nurses must base their practice on the
be...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 33
References
(Andrew S, and Halcomb E 2008 “Mixed Method
Research” in...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 34
References
Crotty, M. (1998). The Foundations of
Social Research: M...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 35
References
Kumar, R. (1996). Research Methodology: A
step-by-step g...
Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 36
Example Heading
• Rule number 1 = less is more, keep it simple
• Al...
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Hlten514 b research

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Transcript of "Hlten514 b research"

  1. 1. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 1 HLTEN514B Apply Research Skills Within a Contemporary Health Environment www.tastafe.tas.edu.au
  2. 2. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 2 Topic 1 – An Overview What is research? Where does knowledge come from? Language of research Types of research Application to practice
  3. 3. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 3 What is Research? “Systematic process using both inductive and deductive reasoning to confirm and refine existing knowledge and to build new knowledge” (Borbasi, Jackson & Langford, 2004, pp.68)
  4. 4. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 4 Where does knowledge come from? • Over the years, knowledge has been gained from many sources • Some reliable • Some not so reliable and bring risk
  5. 5. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 5 Sources of Knowledge Tradition and Custom - Passed on from generation to generation - Reflects our culture and heritage For example: As nurses we provide daily linen changes and bathing. Why? We traditionally take patients‟ obs each shift. Why?
  6. 6. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 6 Sources of Knowledge Authority - Reliance on individuals as „experts‟ - Information obtained from text books and perhaps teachers? How can you ensure this information is correct?
  7. 7. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 7 Sources of Knowledge Trial and Error - Uses successive numbers of alternative solutions. - Often used when we have no reference to draw upon. What are the weaknesses of this approach?
  8. 8. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 8 Sources of Knowledge Personal Experience - First-hand knowledge - Often hard to translate or explain to others who have no similar experience. Novice Advanced Beginner Competent Proficient Expert
  9. 9. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 9 Sources of Knowledge Intuition - „hunch‟ or „gut feeling‟ - Closely tied to personal experience - Perceptual awareness
  10. 10. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 10 Sources of Knowledge Reasoning - Use of logical thought pattern - Inductive reasoning: starts with facts and builds a larger picture - Deductive reasoning: starts with the big picture and breaks down into smaller parts.
  11. 11. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 11 Why do we need to do it? – Critical appraisal – Provide quality care based on facts – Legal accountability for practice – Latest & best practice to improve outcomes – Link theory, education & practice – Cost effective care – Improve decision making, prioritising & organising nursing care
  12. 12. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 12 Evolution of nursing research 1854 Florence Nightingale implementing sanitary reforms – considered to be the first nursing study. Slow start – next research 1940‟s! 60‟s and 70‟s advance degrees increased a push for PhD 1970‟s two new nursing journals – research explosion! 1980‟s in Aust and NZ – Nursing moved into tertiary education sector
  13. 13. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 13 Nursing Research Some examples of nursing research • Wound Healing • Pressure relieving devices for ulcers • Client information • Nutritional support for elderly • Urinary incontinence • Hypothermia in OR • Pain And many more
  14. 14. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 14 The Language of Research • Research has its own language • Some common terms are explained in the following slides
  15. 15. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 15 The Language of Research Efficacy - The ability of an intervention to produce beneficial results that it is intended to deliver within a research study. www.bidmc.org/YourHealth/HealthResearchJournals.aspx Abstract - A brief, comprehensive summary of a study. (Elliott & Burr, 2000, pp.574)
  16. 16. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 16 The Language of Research Validity - Is the research providing answers to the research questions for which is was undertaken? - If so, is it providing these answers using appropriate methods and procedures? (Kumar, 1996, pp.137)
  17. 17. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 17 The Language of Research Reliability - Is the research tool reliable, i.e. consistent, stable, predictable and accurate? (Kumar, 1996, p.140) Bias - A distortion in the data analysis results. (Elliott & Burr, 2000, pp. 575)
  18. 18. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 18 The Language of Research Dissemination - The communication of research findings. E.g. publication of research papers, presentations at conferences etc. Hypothesis - A predication about the relationship between two or more variables. Variable - A defined concept (Elliott & Burr, 2000, pp. 575)
  19. 19. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 19 The Language of Research • Methodology • Control • Randomisation
  20. 20. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 20 Types of Research There are three main types of research • Quantitative – objective, about numbers • Qualitative – subjective, about feelings and experiences • Mixed Method – a mixture of both the above • Each type has varying methods
  21. 21. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 21 Types of Research Quantitative - A systematic process used to gather and statistically analyse information that has been measured by an instrument and converted into numerical data. - Considered by many to be the truest form of research Qualitative - Reality is subjective, multifaceted rather than a single, fixed, objective, actuality. - Investigates feelings and experiences
  22. 22. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 22 Mixed Method Research • Combination of quantitative and qualitative date collection methods • Seeks to build on the strengths and weakness of both methods • Gaining in popularity • It‟s use is widely debated (Andrew S, and Halcomb E 2008 “Mixed Method Research” in Borbasi S, Jackson D and Langford R Navigating the Maze of Nursing Research 2e. Mosby Elsevier)
  23. 23. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 23 What is Evidence Based Practice?• Basing (in the case of nursing) clinical practice, on solid evidence found through a deliberate collection of research on any given topic. • Policy and procedure should be based on evidence gained through reliable and valid research, not on trial and error, cultural practice or any other method through which knowledge is gained.
  24. 24. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 24 Evidenced Based Practice - EBP - Applying the most current research based evidence in making decisions about patient care. - Conscientious integration of best research, clinical expertise, patient values, preferences and needs to provide quality, cost effective health care. - Allows a streamlined and structured way of keeping abreast of new research developments without the overload.
  25. 25. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 25 Evidenced Based Practice - EBP • Clinical Expertise • Expert Panels, Leader s Best available Evidence Patient preferences & values Evidence Based Clinical Decision Making = Practice
  26. 26. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 26 Evidence Based Practice - EBP • Benefits of EBP – Patients & consumers – Nurses – Health care organisations – Community Provide care that is supported by facts, than myths, rituals or habits Legally accountable for practice
  27. 27. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 27 Evidence Based Practice • There are centres that collect, collaborate and disseminate research findings • The task is too large for an individual on many topics • Facilities then adopt EBP in to policy and procedure • Can take many years from research to changing practice
  28. 28. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 28 Evidence Based Practice - EBP Five steps to EBP 1. Ask the question 2. Collect best & relevant evidence 3. Critically appraise the evidence 4. Integrate that evidence with clinical expertise, patient values & preferences in making change or decisions 5. Evaluate the decisions or change Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2005, pg 9
  29. 29. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 29 Evidence Based Practice - EBP • Evidence can be found – CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing & the Allied Health Literature) – Medline – The Cochrane Library – Meditext – Conference Papers – Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI)
  30. 30. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 30 How is research utilised in practice • Research based policy, procedure and clinical practice guidelines Barriers to implementation of EBP • Resistance to change • Insufficient time and resources to implement change to practice • Lack of supportive infrastructure • Lack of research skills – inability to critique
  31. 31. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 31 Research and the EN “a professional nurse interprets, evaluates and determines the credibility of research findings …..(in order to) promote the integration of research and clinical practice”. (Beanland & Scneider, 2000, pp.7)
  32. 32. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 32 Research and the EN • All nurses must base their practice on the best available evidence • ANMC competencies refer to practice based on evidence • Requirement of annual PD
  33. 33. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 33 References (Andrew S, and Halcomb E 2008 “Mixed Method Research” in Borbasi S, Jackson D and Langford R Navigating the Maze of Nursing Research 2e. Mosby Elsevier) Beanland, C., Schneider, Z., LoBiondo- Wood, G., Haber, J. (1999). Nursing Research: Methods, Critical Appraisal and Utilisation. Artamon: Mosby. Borbasi, S., Jackson, D., Langford, R. (2004). Navigating the Maze of Nursing Research. Marrickville: Mosby. Burns, N., & Grove, S. (1995). Understanding Nursing Research. Pennsylvania: W.B. Saunders Company.
  34. 34. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 34 References Crotty, M. (1998). The Foundations of Social Research: Meaning and Perspective in the Research Process. St Leonards: Allen & Unwin. Daly, J., Kellehear, A., Gliksman, M. (1997). The Public Health Researcher: A Methodological Guide. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Elliott, D., & Burr, G. (2000). Study Guide to Accompany Nursing Research: Methods, Critical Appraisal and Utilisation. Marrickville: Mosby.
  35. 35. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 35 References Kumar, R. (1996). Research Methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners. South Melbourne: Addison Wesley Longman. Peace, S. (1990). Researching Social Gerontology: Concepts, Methods and Issues. SAGE Publications: London. Punch, K. (1998). Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches. SAGE Publications: London.
  36. 36. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 36 Example Heading • Rule number 1 = less is more, keep it simple • All text to be Gill Sans MT or Arial Regular if Gill Sans not available • Text recommended size – no less than 24pt • Text colour is grey (RGB values = 128/130/133 • Bullet points in grey (RGB values = 177/179/182) EXAMPLE SUBHEADING • Charts and tables can be made up of greys, black and orange. • 1.5 line spacing • Maximum 8 points to a page recommended
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