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Hlten514 b research Hlten514 b research Presentation Transcript

  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 1 HLTEN514B Apply Research Skills Within a Contemporary Health Environment www.tastafe.tas.edu.au
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 2 Topic 1 – An Overview What is research? Where does knowledge come from? Language of research Types of research Application to practice
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 3 What is Research? “Systematic process using both inductive and deductive reasoning to confirm and refine existing knowledge and to build new knowledge” (Borbasi, Jackson & Langford, 2004, pp.68)
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 4 Where does knowledge come from? • Over the years, knowledge has been gained from many sources • Some reliable • Some not so reliable and bring risk
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 5 Sources of Knowledge Tradition and Custom - Passed on from generation to generation - Reflects our culture and heritage For example: As nurses we provide daily linen changes and bathing. Why? We traditionally take patients‟ obs each shift. Why?
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 6 Sources of Knowledge Authority - Reliance on individuals as „experts‟ - Information obtained from text books and perhaps teachers? How can you ensure this information is correct?
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 7 Sources of Knowledge Trial and Error - Uses successive numbers of alternative solutions. - Often used when we have no reference to draw upon. What are the weaknesses of this approach?
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 8 Sources of Knowledge Personal Experience - First-hand knowledge - Often hard to translate or explain to others who have no similar experience. Novice Advanced Beginner Competent Proficient Expert
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 9 Sources of Knowledge Intuition - „hunch‟ or „gut feeling‟ - Closely tied to personal experience - Perceptual awareness
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 10 Sources of Knowledge Reasoning - Use of logical thought pattern - Inductive reasoning: starts with facts and builds a larger picture - Deductive reasoning: starts with the big picture and breaks down into smaller parts.
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 11 Why do we need to do it? – Critical appraisal – Provide quality care based on facts – Legal accountability for practice – Latest & best practice to improve outcomes – Link theory, education & practice – Cost effective care – Improve decision making, prioritising & organising nursing care
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 12 Evolution of nursing research 1854 Florence Nightingale implementing sanitary reforms – considered to be the first nursing study. Slow start – next research 1940‟s! 60‟s and 70‟s advance degrees increased a push for PhD 1970‟s two new nursing journals – research explosion! 1980‟s in Aust and NZ – Nursing moved into tertiary education sector
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 13 Nursing Research Some examples of nursing research • Wound Healing • Pressure relieving devices for ulcers • Client information • Nutritional support for elderly • Urinary incontinence • Hypothermia in OR • Pain And many more
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 14 The Language of Research • Research has its own language • Some common terms are explained in the following slides
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 15 The Language of Research Efficacy - The ability of an intervention to produce beneficial results that it is intended to deliver within a research study. www.bidmc.org/YourHealth/HealthResearchJournals.aspx Abstract - A brief, comprehensive summary of a study. (Elliott & Burr, 2000, pp.574)
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 16 The Language of Research Validity - Is the research providing answers to the research questions for which is was undertaken? - If so, is it providing these answers using appropriate methods and procedures? (Kumar, 1996, pp.137)
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 17 The Language of Research Reliability - Is the research tool reliable, i.e. consistent, stable, predictable and accurate? (Kumar, 1996, p.140) Bias - A distortion in the data analysis results. (Elliott & Burr, 2000, pp. 575)
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 18 The Language of Research Dissemination - The communication of research findings. E.g. publication of research papers, presentations at conferences etc. Hypothesis - A predication about the relationship between two or more variables. Variable - A defined concept (Elliott & Burr, 2000, pp. 575)
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 19 The Language of Research • Methodology • Control • Randomisation
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 20 Types of Research There are three main types of research • Quantitative – objective, about numbers • Qualitative – subjective, about feelings and experiences • Mixed Method – a mixture of both the above • Each type has varying methods
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 21 Types of Research Quantitative - A systematic process used to gather and statistically analyse information that has been measured by an instrument and converted into numerical data. - Considered by many to be the truest form of research Qualitative - Reality is subjective, multifaceted rather than a single, fixed, objective, actuality. - Investigates feelings and experiences
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 22 Mixed Method Research • Combination of quantitative and qualitative date collection methods • Seeks to build on the strengths and weakness of both methods • Gaining in popularity • It‟s use is widely debated (Andrew S, and Halcomb E 2008 “Mixed Method Research” in Borbasi S, Jackson D and Langford R Navigating the Maze of Nursing Research 2e. Mosby Elsevier)
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 23 What is Evidence Based Practice?• Basing (in the case of nursing) clinical practice, on solid evidence found through a deliberate collection of research on any given topic. • Policy and procedure should be based on evidence gained through reliable and valid research, not on trial and error, cultural practice or any other method through which knowledge is gained.
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 24 Evidenced Based Practice - EBP - Applying the most current research based evidence in making decisions about patient care. - Conscientious integration of best research, clinical expertise, patient values, preferences and needs to provide quality, cost effective health care. - Allows a streamlined and structured way of keeping abreast of new research developments without the overload.
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 25 Evidenced Based Practice - EBP • Clinical Expertise • Expert Panels, Leader s Best available Evidence Patient preferences & values Evidence Based Clinical Decision Making = Practice
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 26 Evidence Based Practice - EBP • Benefits of EBP – Patients & consumers – Nurses – Health care organisations – Community Provide care that is supported by facts, than myths, rituals or habits Legally accountable for practice
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 27 Evidence Based Practice • There are centres that collect, collaborate and disseminate research findings • The task is too large for an individual on many topics • Facilities then adopt EBP in to policy and procedure • Can take many years from research to changing practice
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 28 Evidence Based Practice - EBP Five steps to EBP 1. Ask the question 2. Collect best & relevant evidence 3. Critically appraise the evidence 4. Integrate that evidence with clinical expertise, patient values & preferences in making change or decisions 5. Evaluate the decisions or change Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2005, pg 9
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 29 Evidence Based Practice - EBP • Evidence can be found – CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing & the Allied Health Literature) – Medline – The Cochrane Library – Meditext – Conference Papers – Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI)
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 30 How is research utilised in practice • Research based policy, procedure and clinical practice guidelines Barriers to implementation of EBP • Resistance to change • Insufficient time and resources to implement change to practice • Lack of supportive infrastructure • Lack of research skills – inability to critique
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 31 Research and the EN “a professional nurse interprets, evaluates and determines the credibility of research findings …..(in order to) promote the integration of research and clinical practice”. (Beanland & Scneider, 2000, pp.7)
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 32 Research and the EN • All nurses must base their practice on the best available evidence • ANMC competencies refer to practice based on evidence • Requirement of annual PD
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 33 References (Andrew S, and Halcomb E 2008 “Mixed Method Research” in Borbasi S, Jackson D and Langford R Navigating the Maze of Nursing Research 2e. Mosby Elsevier) Beanland, C., Schneider, Z., LoBiondo- Wood, G., Haber, J. (1999). Nursing Research: Methods, Critical Appraisal and Utilisation. Artamon: Mosby. Borbasi, S., Jackson, D., Langford, R. (2004). Navigating the Maze of Nursing Research. Marrickville: Mosby. Burns, N., & Grove, S. (1995). Understanding Nursing Research. Pennsylvania: W.B. Saunders Company.
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 34 References Crotty, M. (1998). The Foundations of Social Research: Meaning and Perspective in the Research Process. St Leonards: Allen & Unwin. Daly, J., Kellehear, A., Gliksman, M. (1997). The Public Health Researcher: A Methodological Guide. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Elliott, D., & Burr, G. (2000). Study Guide to Accompany Nursing Research: Methods, Critical Appraisal and Utilisation. Marrickville: Mosby.
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 35 References Kumar, R. (1996). Research Methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners. South Melbourne: Addison Wesley Longman. Peace, S. (1990). Researching Social Gerontology: Concepts, Methods and Issues. SAGE Publications: London. Punch, K. (1998). Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches. SAGE Publications: London.
  • Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 36 Example Heading • Rule number 1 = less is more, keep it simple • All text to be Gill Sans MT or Arial Regular if Gill Sans not available • Text recommended size – no less than 24pt • Text colour is grey (RGB values = 128/130/133 • Bullet points in grey (RGB values = 177/179/182) EXAMPLE SUBHEADING • Charts and tables can be made up of greys, black and orange. • 1.5 line spacing • Maximum 8 points to a page recommended