Inquiry and essential questions
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Inquiry and essential questions

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Using Inquiry and Essential Questins to promote critical thinking and increased reading comprehension skills.

Using Inquiry and Essential Questins to promote critical thinking and increased reading comprehension skills.

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  • This presentation has been updated to reflect data and information from the Florida Department of Education, “Lessons Learned” and the “FCAT Item Specifications.” The new Reading Item Specifications detail item and design features of test items written to match the Sunshine State Standards in reading that were adopted in 2007. Note: In 2011, all items appearing on FCAT Reading tests will be written to the new Specifications (released in 2009). The 2010 FCAT Reading and Mathematics tests will have field-test items written to the new Specifications, but the items that are used to calculate student scores will still be based on the earlier versions of the Specifications. ** The new test item specifications are subject to change, Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • First, it is important to understand what Information Literacy is. Information literacy is the ability to identify what information is needed, understand how it is organized, locate and evaluate the best sources, and share that information in creative and innovative ways. Put simply, analyze, synthesize, summarize, evaluate, and create... sound familiar? These same skills in information literacy also match the higher levels of thinking in Bloom’s taxonomy. Furthermore, In the rapidly changing digital landscape we live in, information dissemination skills are not just important for increasing student achievement; they are essential for basic navigation in our society as “digital citizens.” Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • Which brings us to the “3 R’s” and the connection between Reference, Research, and Reading. One strategy that can help students connect higher level thinking skills across the curriculum and core content areas is the Research Process Model, a step-by-step learning model that provides students with a framework for comprehension, application, and connection to their learning. A Research Process Model is designed to help scaffold students through the thinking process of application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation in a systematic way, much like the scientific process guides students from hypothesis to conclusion. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • The research model used across the state of Florida was developed by the Florida Department of Education, Library Media Services and is called the FINDS Research Process Model. The acronym FINDS stands for Focus, Investigate, Note and evaluate, Develop and organize, and finally Score/Self-reflect. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • Again, note the alignment between the FINDS Research Process Model and the new Language Arts benchmarks for the research process. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • FINDS also aligns perfectly with project-based learning, “plan, gather, build,” and the inquiry-based approach, based on student driven questions. More information on FINDS and teacher handouts and resources can be downloaded for free from the SUNLINK website noted on the slide. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • This slide shows the alignment between step 1 of FINDS: (FOCUS) and the planning stage for a project. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • Here, we see the alignment between the step 2 (Investigate) of FINDS and the “gather” stage of project building. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • In step 3 of FINDS (Note), students must also learn how to summarize information in their own words and cite it correctly. The note and develop stage of FINDS encourages students to synthesize multiple sources of information and draw their own conclusions. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • Finally, we know that when students create, they are working at the highest levels of Bloom’s taxonomy. Here is where our next generation of creative, critical thinkers begin to practice and apply reference and research skills at the highest levels. In our highly interactive, digital society, students are eager and highly motivated to share and publish their work with digital tools. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • Now that we know what the FINDS model is, the question becomes how can we use it to help students learn and improve their reading comprehension? Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • Based on the research and the FINDS model, there are some important implications for teachers.. I will briefly highlight some key strategies with informational text, fiction, and extending novels Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • Joyce Valenza, nationally known library media teacher and blogger, recently wrote in an article that there is no better time to be a media specialist and I have to agree! Our role in supporting 21 st teaching and learning has never been more important. Looking at that Digital Blooms Taxonomy you will see that many of the higher order thinking skills or HOTS– are aligned with information literacy and the AASL skills for the 21 st Century Learner. This is a great tool to show administrators and the importance of embedding high level technology rich lessons with the research process. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • This word cloud illustrates a few key activities for information literacy can be identified throughout the Digital Blooms. Embedding these activities into media instruction accomplishes multiple objectives: engaging the 21 st century learner with application of reference and research critical thinking skills. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • Some key strategies for working with informational text--- students need to become familiar with the academic language and text structure and how these features support comprehension (i.e., captions, headings, diagrams, charts and graphs). One way is to skim the article and check out the framework, jotting notes before reading. Note the framework has a “connection.” It is important that we constantly seek to model and scaffold the process of making “connections.” Based on the research of Keene and Zimmerman, Mosaic of Thought, we know that students read better when they make different types of connections to text. Providing students with a scaffold—graphic organizer on paper or electronically such as Inspiration or mindmeister (web 2.0) Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • Using a graphic organizer during reading allows students to “read to learn” and to hear teachers think aloud connections to text. I noticed that in elementary school, students often try to read fiction and non-fiction the same way. With informational text, students need to take a more methodical approach, much like the infotective we talked about at the beginning of the presentation. Detectives use clues to reach conclusions. Students, as “infotectives,” need to learn to identify text features to give them clues for better understanding and comprehension. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • It is important that students have practice answering questions that require inference, in addition to going back into the text. Again, our goal is to teach students to “create answers” by synthesizing and to draw conclusions from multiple sources. Here is where I have found that struggling readers often give up. We need to constantly model how we come to our conclusions when the answer is not always found simply in the text. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • This quote is from Mosaic of Thought a well known reading resource. In this chapter, the authors go on to discuss how passive readers do not interact with text. The authors provide the analogy that some children are trying to read the same way they often watch television: Passively! So how do we increase student engagement? How do we convince students that poetry and difficult text has meaning that is worth working for? We must find creative ways to break reading down through vocabulary, text structure, and background knowledge. We must set the stage, so to speak, for breaking the code, putting together the puzzle, and motivating students to “want to figure it out” and to wonder about and develop questions about what they are reading. We must INNOVATE, INTEGRATE AND MOTIVATE! Just as we need “infotectives” with informational text, so must we have “infotectives” with fiction and poetry. If we don’t scaffold and model the discovery and questioning part of reading, we risk allowing students to remain passive readers, who never truly master comprehension skills and who never become the creative, critical thinkers our country and our world needs. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • One simple way that every teacher can make a significant impact with students is through questioning strategies. Your handouts include “reference and research” type question stems that can be used with any type of passage. Using these question stems will help students learn to question as they read and to make those critical connections. Constant modeling of how you as teacher connect to the text to yourself, text to text and the text to the world around you helps students see how these connections are made. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • We see from the research on this slide the role that questioning plays for proficient readers. We need to do whatever we can to motivate students to ask questions. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • With fiction, remember to mix-it-up and provide students opportunities to synthesize multiple sources, such as a passage, poem, and map or chart. Encourage and support your classroom teachers by helping to provide access to variety of different types of information for assignments. Using a variety of text fiction and non-fiction with a common theme (such as a news article on hurricanes and a poem about wind), allows students to practice synthesizing multiple sources of information, draw conclusions, and make those connections. Remember that reference and research skills are not limited to informational text. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • Through technology integration, we can help student become more engaged to find “text-to-world” and “text-to- self” connections. Students are highly motivated to blog, create, podcast and publish their research. Teachers do not need to be an expert with technology, but rather the “coach” of the content. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • So how do we engage students and help make different connections to reading? It’s simple... 21st century students need 21st century connections. We need to Innovate…. Integrate and Motivate! Encourage students to use technology to express their thoughts, ideas. Coach the content, model questions and provide students opportunities to deliver their projects in the digital form that is “native” for them. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • Panasonic video Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • Recap... today we have talked about the importance of critical thinking skills as they relate to reference and research skills and the need to help students make “curriculum connections” with reading. We talked about important research released from the state that shows trends in learning for cluster 4 and the ways in which students must demonstrate mastery and how Blooms Taxonomy has been adapted for 21 st Century Teaching and Learning. Finally we showed how Media Specialists can integrate the FINDS research model to provide instruction supporting cluster 4, helping students to synthesize, analyze and evaluate information. 1. FINDS and Informational Text--understand text structure and help students make text-to-self, text-to-text, text-to-world connections 2. FINDS & Fiction--make text-to-text connections between articles and passages, poems, and multiple sources of information to allow students the opportunity to apply synthesis and evaluative skills 3. FINDS and Novel Extensions--involve other core subject areas and integrate technology to make text-to-world and cross-curricular and real world connections. 4. As a media specialist one of the most important roles you can play is to be an active member of your school’s literacy team. Making your media center the information hub of your school will actively engage and motivate students in reading and the research process. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • So how do we begin to reframe our instruction to incorporate 21 st teaching and learning? How do we get from here to “there” that we saw in the panasonic video? The first place we need to start is with our standards,by identifying cognitive complexity and aligning equivalent digital strategies that align with those standards. Our next activity is hands on. We will be using the web 2.0 tool “Trackstar” to complete a “graphic organizer” to help us better understand the alignment of 21 st century skills and our standards. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • So now that we have a good understanding of the different standards which frame our instruction, how can improve lesson design in our practice… and when we collaborate with classroom teachers? One strategy that we use in Broward is based on our peer coaching training which incorporates a “learning activity checklist” as an essential piece of lesson planning and improvement. As media specialist, teacher often come to us and ask how they can integrate technology into the lesson and make a lesson more engaging. We’re going to break into groups and look at a lesson and discuss the lesson in these four areas --- Is the task standards based? Is it engaging? Do the students solve a problem? Does the technology enhance learning? Split into 4 groups. Assign each group a quandrant. Have each group discuss “What’s for Lunch Lesson.” Identify what is missing … how they would improve it. After sharing, hand out revised lesson. Give time for teachers to review and reflect to discuss lesson improvement. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • As we can see from the Learning Activity Checklist, standards based inquiry based learning is the key to good lesson design. Now let’s take this one step further and embed our FINDS model into the inquiry structure of lessons. FINDS can be used for long term research units or for simple activities. FINDS always starts with the question Jeffrey wilhem offers some great tips for writing essential questions. For many teachers … and students, creating an essential questions is quite challenging. Today we will look at one strategy for creating essential and guiding questions that provide the focus for inquiry. Wilhelm, Jeffrey. Engaging Readers & Writers with Inquiry Promoting Deep Understandings in Language Arts and the Content Areas With Guiding Questions (Theory and Practice). New York: Scholastic Teaching Resources (Teaching, 2007. Print. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • For many teachers, writing essential questions is a very difficult task. We are going to look at one strategy that shows how teachers can include students in the brainstorming or questioning process. Note the three areas we start with… text world and me … we’re going to use the book “Where the Wild Things Are” as an example. In his book, Wilhem advocates the strategy of using questioning circles to drive inquiry and deepen understanding with reading. Note that the three areas also align with research found from Mosaic of Thought by keene and zimmerman. Today we’ll use the picture book… “Where the wild things are by Maurice Sendak. (Describe or read aloud book) Step 1 -- start with pure questions directly related to “text, me & world”–So we begin by crafting questions that only relate to each circle. Our goal is to work toward a “dense” questions that connects all three.
  • Step 2 Begin to add shaded questions—question that adress two area where the circles combine– Let’s start with text and me.
  • Step 2 add shaded questions—world and me
  • Step 2 add shaded questions--areas where the circles combine-- TEXT and me, world and me, text and world.
  • Step 3 Begin to form a “Dense question” that pulls from the 3 shaded questions
  • STEP #3 Write a Dense Question that connects all layers. Example: What can we learn from Max’s experience about ways to set ourselves inside and outside of various relationship groups in the world? You can see that the over arching dense questions is tied to each of the guiding questions that led up to it.
  • Now it is your turn. Working with a partner, try this strategy with a topic. Essential what we are doing is scaffolded brainstorm. If your students would like to brainstorm electroncially. They could go to Mindmeister.com
  • To help your students brainstorm and include them interactive question development try using mindmeister.com FAME 2009 Broward County Public Schools LRIM
  • For Investigate…. Model how to use NetTrekker, my portfolio, standards and image search to gather information. FAME 2009 Broward County Public Schools LRIM
  • To help with summarizing, notetaking and paraphrassing, show students how to use the free templates at read write think to take notes. FAME 2009 Broward County Public Schools LRIM
  • To Develop a multimedia project, direct students to sites like animoto where they can upload images, choose music and create short video. FAME 2009 Broward County Public Schools LRIM
  • To help teachers assess multimedia and to help students self-reflect show them how to create and use pbl checklists on 4teachers.org. FAME 2009 Broward County Public Schools LRIM
  • Note the FINDS process in creating a book trailer Focus: What is the main idea of the book/how to hook the reader? Investigate: Review the story and identify key elements and additional information, gather information images in NetTrekker Note: Summarize book, write script, identify key phrases of text for video Develop: Create the video in Animote Score/Publish Link to Destiny OpAc FAME 2009 Broward County Public Schools LRIM
  • Remember, the media specialist is a school’s on site expert for curriculum collaboration with the research process. Many schools have already started implementing the state’s FINDS model. We also have additional training for classroom teachers and media specialists via face-to-face workshops and Virtual University. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • Much of the data used from the presentation was collected from these sources. For more information please contact: Michele Rivera, Director, Learning Resources & Instructional Materials Broward County Schools Lynne Oakvik, Specialist, Learning Resources & Instructional Materials Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009
  • When teachers instruct and model higher levels questioning…. Students learn that reading requires ”strategic engagement” For this generation digital storytelling and publishing is an essential skill. Broward County Public Schools LRIM FAME 2009

Inquiry and essential questions Inquiry and essential questions Presentation Transcript

  • Reference, Research & Reading
    • Broward County Public Schools
    • Learning Resources & Instructional Materials
    • FAME K-12
    • Rev. January 2010
  • Think of students as “Infotectives... a student thinker capable of asking great questions about data in order to convert the data into information and eventually insight .” Creating Critical Thinkers McKenzie, Jamie. (1998). Grazing the Net: Raising a Generation of Free Range Students
  • Reference, Research, & Reading
  • Florida Research Model
  • FINDS & Sunshine State Standards
    • Select a topic for inquiry (FOCUS)
    • Locate, use, and analyze information from text features (INVESTIGATE)
    • Use information from text to answer questions related to main idea
    • Identify characteristics (structure) of various types of text
    • Record information related to text (NOTE & EVALUATE)
    • Organize information to show understanding through mapping, paraphrasing, compare and contrast, and summarizing. (DEVELOP)
  • Use FINDS to guide your students through the research process and inquiry based learning. FINDS http://www.sunlink.ucf.edu /
  • What is my assignment or problem to be solved? What are my questions? What information is needed? FOCUS
  • Investigate Where are my sources located? What sources should I use? Where is the information within each source?
  • NOTES How do I take notes in my own words? Which facts do I need to create a citation? Do I have all the information I need?
  • DEVELOP INFORMATION FOR PRESENTATION How do I present the information? Are my conclusions based on research? How do I integrate technology to enrich, publish, or present my project?
  • SCORE Was my research process efficient and effective? Did I present the information in the best way?
    • FINDS and the Digital Bloom’s Taxonomy
    • FINDS & Informational Text
    • FINDS & Fiction
    Instructional Strategies
  • Digital Bloom’s Taxonomy
  • 21 st Century Learner
  • FINDS and Informational Text Pre-Reading: Check out the Framework
  • FINDS and Informational Text During reading: Connect to the main idea with a graphic organizer such as a fishbone for cause and effect
  • FINDS and Informational Text After reading: Connect to the main idea by using higher level questioning that requires students to “create” their answer through application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
  • Digging Deeper “ Many children are not so engaged when they read. They don’t know when they’re comprehending. They don’t know when they are not. They don’t know whether it is critical for them to comprehend a given piece. And if they don’t comprehend, they don’t know what to do about it.” Keene, Ellin Oliver and Zimmerman, Susan. Mosaic of Thought . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1997.
  • According to Mosaic of Thought, proficient readers: Make different types of connections to the text Text-to-Self Text-to-Text Text -to-World
  • The Question is the Key
    • Proficient Readers:
    • Spontaneously generate questions
    • Ask questions to clarify meaning
    • Recognize that if the answer is not in text, they will need to infer it
    • Are aware that as they hear questions, new ones are inspired in the their own minds
  • Connecting Text Make connections between different types of passages with common themes After reading informational text on a topic, have students read a literary piece or poem and identify the connection between the texts TEXT-TO-TEXT CONNECTION
  • Novel Extensions Identify a theme or topic that requires further research, exploration, or cross-curricular study. Turn passive readers into active readers by integrating technology and inquiry-based learning into reading instruction. Podcasts, Google Lit Trips, E-Zines, wikis and blogs are just a few examples of how technology can be used to extend novels, giving students a chance for real world application and tap into critical thinking skills.
  • FINDS: Novel Extensions Google Lit Trips combine digital literacy, technology and reading skills.
  • Planning our next step: Reframing Our Instruction
  • Planning our Next Step: Reframing Our Instruction Essential Question: How can the library media specialist effectively integrate digital tools, strategies and resources within the curriculum to enhance critical thinking skills and support student achievement?
    • http://trackstar.4teachers.org/trackstar/ts/viewTrack.do?number=399561
    Connecting Our Standards and 21 st Century Learning Know Our Standards
  • Reframing Instruction through Lesson Improvement All, None With checked * Export citations to Word * Copy & paste citations * E-mail checked citations * Delete checked citations Wilhelm, Jeffrey. Engaging Readers & Writers with Inquiry Promoting Deep Understandings in Language Arts and the Content Areas With Guiding Questions (Theory and Practice). New York: Scholastic Teaching Resources (Teaching, 2007. Print.
    • Standards Based Task
    • Engaging Task
    • Problem Solving Task
    • Technology enhances
    • Learning
  • Reframing Instruction with FINDS Start with Guiding Questions Wilhelm, Jeffrey. Engaging Readers & Writers with Inquiry Promoting Deep Understandings in Language Arts and the Content Areas With Guiding Questions (Theory and Practice). New York: Scholastic Teaching Resources (Teaching, 2007. Print.
    • Is it relevant to students?
    • Does it get to the heart of the matter?
    • Does it provoke emotion?
    • Is is open-ended and concise?
    • Does it leads to new questions asked by students?
  • WORLD ME TEXT D ense Question (connects all 3 How do I treat people who I am happy or upset with? How do Max, his mother and the Wild Things place themselves inside and outside relationships with others? What kind of relationships do I pursue and why? What kind of groups, teams, organizations do want to belong to in the world? Questioning Circle for Where the Wild Things Are by Maurice Sendak Wilhelm, Jeffrey. Engaging Readers & Writers with Inquiry Promoting Deep Understandings in Language Arts and the Content Areas With Guiding Questions (Theory and Practice). New York: Scholastic Teaching Resources (Teaching, 2007. Print. FINDS: FOCUS
  • ME TEXT How do I treat people who I am happy or upset with? How do Max, his mother and the Wild Things place themselves inside and outside relationships with others? What kind of relationships do I pursue and why? Questioning Circle for Where the Wild Things Are by Maurice Sendak Wilhelm, Jeffrey. Engaging Readers & Writers with Inquiry Promoting Deep Understandings in Language Arts and the Content Areas With Guiding Questions (Theory and Practice). New York: Scholastic Teaching Resources (Teaching, 2007. Print. TEXT/ME FINDS: FOCUS How do I treat people who I am happy or upset with?
  • WORLD ME How do I treat people who I am happy or upset with? What kind of relationships do I pursue and why? What kind of groups, teams, organizations do want to belong to in the world? Questioning Circle for Where the Wild Things Are by Maurice Sendak Wilhelm, Jeffrey. Engaging Readers & Writers with Inquiry Promoting Deep Understandings in Language Arts and the Content Areas With Guiding Questions (Theory and Practice). New York: Scholastic Teaching Resources (Teaching, 2007. Print. WORLD/ME How do I feel about the way we treat “outsiders” in our school, town, culture? FINDS: FOCUS
  • WORLD TEXT How do I treat people who I am happy or upset with? How do Max, his mother and the Wild Things place themselves inside and outside relationships with others? What kind of groups, teams, organizations do want to belong to in the world? Questioning Circle for Where the Wild Things Are by Maurice Sendak TEXT/WORLD How do the relationships in the book compare to the ways society treats people we approve or disapprove of? FINDS: FOCUS
  • WORLD ME TEXT Dense Question (connects all) How do I treat people who I am happy or upset with? How do Max, his mother and the Wild Things place themselves inside and outside relationships with others? What kind of relationships do I pursue and why? What kind of groups, teams, organizations do want to belong to in the world? Questioning Circle for Where the Wild Things Are by Maurice Sendak Wilhelm, Jeffrey. Engaging Readers & Writers with Inquiry Promoting Deep Understandings in Language Arts and the Content Areas With Guiding Questions (Theory and Practice). New York: Scholastic Teaching Resources (Teaching, 2007. Print. TEXT/ME WORLD/ME TEXT/WORLD How do I feel about the way we treat “outsiders in our school, town, culture? How do the relationships in the book compare to the ways society treats people we approve or disapprove of? FINDS: FOCUS How do I treat people who I am happy or upset with?
  • Dense Question How do I treat people who I am happy or upset with? Questioning Circle for Where the Wild Things Are by Maurice Sendak Wilhelm, Jeffrey. Engaging Readers & Writers with Inquiry Promoting Deep Understandings in Language Arts and the Content Areas With Guiding Questions (Theory and Practice). New York: Scholastic Teaching Resources (Teaching, 2007. Print. TEXT/ME WORLD/ME TEXT/WORLD How do I feel about the way we treat “outsiders in our school, town, culture? How do the relationships in the book compare to the ways society treats people we approve or disapprove of? What can we learn from Max’s experience about ways to set ourselves inside and outside of various relationship groups in the world? How do Max, his mother and the Wild Things place themselves inside and outside relationships with others? What kind of relationships do I pursue and why? What kind of groups, teams, organizations do want to belong to in the world? How do I treat people who I am happy or upset with?
  • WORLD ME TEXT Dense Question (connects all) How do I treat people who I am happy or upset with? Questioning Circle Wilhelm, Jeffrey. Engaging Readers & Writers with Inquiry Promoting Deep Understandings in Language Arts and the Content Areas With Guiding Questions (Theory and Practice). New York: Scholastic Teaching Resources (Teaching, 2007. Print. TEXT/ME WORLD/ME TEXT/WORLD FINDS: FOCUS
  • Web 2.0 for Brainstorm/Focus Mindmeister.com
  • Web 2.0 for INVESTIGATE NetTrekker
  • Web 2.0 for NOTE Read Write Think NoteTaker http://interactives.mped.org/view_interactive.aspx?id=722&title=
  • Web 2.0 for Develop Animoto
  • Web 2.0 for SCORE PBL Checklists and Rubrics http://pblchecklist.4teachers.org/testing.php3?idunique=3&max=6&checklist=13
  • Putting It All Together Hands On Activity! Use the steps in the FINDS process to create a book trailer using Web 2.0 Tools http://www.enotes.com/documents/book-talk-sheet-49101
    • SunLink
    • Florida D.O.E. Resources
    Where can I learn more about FINDS and Reference & Research?
    • FCAT Item Specifications
      • http://fcat.fldoe.org/fcatis01.asp
    • Reports on the 2007 Assessment
      • http://fcat.fldoe.org/fcatflwrites.asp
    • FCAT Lessons Learned -Data Analyses and Instructional Implications
      • http://fcat.fldoe.org/lessonslearned.asp
    • FCAT Released Tests & Questions
      • http://fcat.fldoe.org/fcatrelease.asp
    • Florida Achieves
      • http://cim.florida-achieves.com/  
    State Instructional Resources:
  • “ Comprehension is viewed as a complex process involving knowledge, experience, thinking and teaching.” Stephanie Harvey Final Thoughts