Chapter Focus
Section 1 Congressional Membership
Section 2 The House of
Representatives
Section 3 The Senate
Section 4 Con...
Chapter Objectives
•

Congressional Membership Describe the
structure of Congress and list the qualifications
for congress...
Congressional Membership
Key Terms
bicameral legislature, session, census,
reapportionment, redistrict, gerrymander, at-la...
Congressional Membership
Understanding Concepts
Political Processes How well do you think
members of Congress represent th...
Jeanette Rankin, a Republican from Montana,
was the first woman elected to Congress. She
was elected to the House of Repre...
I. Congressional Sessions (page 123)
A. Each term of Congress has two sessions.
B. Sessions last until Congress votes to a...
I. Congressional Sessions (page 123)

Until 1933 Congress remained in session
only four to six months each year. Should
mo...
II. Membership of the House (pages 124–127)
A. Members must be at least 25 years old,
citizens for at least 7 years, and r...
II. Membership of the House (pages 124–127)
II. Membership of the House (pages 124–127)

Today, each House member represents
about 625,000 people. When the population...
II. Membership of the House (pages 124–127)
III. Membership of the Senate (pages 128–129)
A. Senators must be at least 30 years old,
citizens for at least 9 years, an...
III. Membership of the Senate (pages 128–129)
E. Both House and Senate members enjoy
immunity from arrest, in cases not in...
III. Membership of the Senate (pages 128–129)

If you were a politician, would you rather be
a member of the House or the ...
IV.The Members of Congress (pages 129–130)
A. Nearly half the members of Congress
are lawyers.
B. White, middle-aged male ...
IV.The Members of Congress (pages 129–130)
IV.The Members of Congress (pages 129–130)
C. Most incumbent members of Congress win
reelection to office because they are...
IV.The Members of Congress (pages 129–130)
IV.The Members of Congress (pages 129–130)

In the late 1990s, members of Congress
faced growing criticism about spending ...
Checking for Understanding
1. Main Idea In a graphic organizer similar to the
one below, compare the qualifications for
re...
Checking for Understanding
Match the term with the correct definition.

___ bicameral legislation
F

A. a population count...
Checking for Understanding
3. Identify Elbridge Gerry, Twenty-seventh
Amendment.
Elbridge Gerry was an early DemocraticRep...
Checking for Understanding
4. How does Congress reapportion House seats
among the states every ten years?
Following the Ce...
Critical Thinking
5. Making Inferences Members of Congress
spend part of their time working for reelection.
Which house ha...
Political Processes What percentage of
people believe that their representative
does not listen to them? Formulate a
quest...
The House of Representatives
Key Terms
constituents, caucus, majority leader, whips, bill,
calendars, quorum

Find Out
• W...
The House of Representatives
Understanding Concepts
Growth of Democracy Why does the majority
party often get the credit o...
The Speaker of the House who served the
longest was Democrat Sam Rayburn of Texas.
He served from 1940–1947,1949–1953, and...
I. Rules for Lawmaking (pages 132–134)
A. Each house of Congress has rules to help
members conduct business.
B. Congress c...
I. Rules for Lawmaking (pages 132–134)

Do you agree or disagree with the House
rule that limits a representative’s
speaki...
II. House Leadership (pages 134–135)
A. The Speaker of the House is leader of the
majority party and has great power and
i...
II. House Leadership (pages 134–135)

The Speaker of the House follows the vice
president in the line of presidential
succ...
III. Lawmaking in the House (pages 135–137)
A. Members attend House floor sessions to
vote on legislation.
B. All laws beg...
III. Lawmaking in the House (pages 135–137)
D. The Rules Committee determines which bills
will be considered by the full H...
III. Lawmaking in the House (pages 135–137)

Why is so much of the work of Congress
done in committees?
Committees divide ...
III. Lawmaking in the House (pages 135–137)
Checking for Understanding
1. Main Idea In a graphic organizer similar to the
one below, show three ways in which the Rule...
Checking for Understanding
Match the term with the correct definition.

___ constituents
D
___ caucus
A
___ bill
E
___ maj...
Checking for Understanding
3. Identify Rules Committee.
The Rules Committee serves as the “traffic
officer” in the House, ...
Checking for Understanding
4. Analyze the role of House committees.
Committees enable House members to
efficiently accompl...
Checking for Understanding
5. How does a representative introduce a bill in
the House?
The representative drops a copy of ...
Critical Thinking
5. Understanding Cause and Effect Why are
changes in House rules more likely to occur
when political con...
Growth of Democracy Browse through
current newspapers and magazines to
find out what legislation the majority
party in the...
The Senate
Key Terms
president pro tempore, filibuster, cloture

Find Out
• Why does the Senate have fewer rules and a les...
The Senate
Understanding Concepts
Growth of Democracy Why do floor debates in
the Senate often include powerful speeches
c...
You have probably heard someone say that
“talk is cheap.” Not in the Senate, where in a
1953 debate senators opposed to a ...
I. The Senate at Work (pages 138–140)
A. The Senate has fewer rules than the House.
Senators have more freedom to express
...
I. The Senate at Work (pages 138–140)
D. The Senate majority floor leader is
responsible for guiding bills through the
Sen...
I. The Senate at Work (pages 138–140)
G. The Senate has only two calendars—the
Calendar of General Orders, which
schedules...
I. The Senate at Work (pages 138–140)

Why does the committee system have a
less important role in the Senate than in
the ...
Checking for Understanding
1. Main Idea In a graphic organizer similar to the
one below, analyze the relationship between ...
Checking for Understanding
Match the term with the correct definition.

___ cloture
B
___ filibuster
A
___ president
C
pro...
Checking for Understanding
3. Identify Calendar of General Orders.
The Calendar of General Orders is a listing of
all the ...
Checking for Understanding
4. How does the Senate bring bills to the floor?
Through unanimous consent, all senators
presen...
Critical Thinking
5. Making Comparisons Compare the rules
and procedures of the House with those of
the Senate.
Possible a...
Growth in Democracy Search through
a reference work of historic speeches.
Use one of the speeches as a model for
a persuas...
Congressional Committees
Key Terms
standing committee, subcommittee, select
committee, joint committee, conference committ...
Congressional Committees
Understanding Concepts
Political Processes Why have committees
become the power centers in Congre...
In the early 1950s Wisconsin Senator Joseph
McCarthy, chairman of the Committee on
Government Operations, treated witnesse...
I. Purposes of Committees (page 141)
A. Committees ease Congressional workload
by dividing work among smaller groups,
allo...
I. Purposes of Committees (page 141)

Identify some advantages and disadvantages
to working out a compromise on a bill.
Ad...
II. Kinds of Committees (pages 142–144)
A. Standing committees deal with certain
issues continuing from one Congress to
th...
II. Kinds of Committees (pages 142–144)
E. Joint committees are made up of members
of both houses to act as study groups.
...
II. Kinds of Committees (pages 142–144)
II. Kinds of Committees (pages 142–144)

Identify some issues that you think are
important enough to create a select
congr...
III. Choosing Committee Members (pages 144–145)
A. Membership in committees is one key role
played by members of Congress....
III. Choosing Committee Members (pages 144–145)
C. In both houses, both parties assign
members to the standing committees....
III. Choosing Committee Members (pages 144–145)

Members of Congress who have served the
longest often head key committees...
Checking for Understanding
1. Main Idea In a Venn diagram, show how a
conference committee and a joint committee are
alike...
Checking for Understanding
Match the term with the correct definition.

___ conference
C
committee
___ joint
D
committee
_...
Checking for Understanding
3. Identify Select Intelligence, Rules, Ways and
Means, Appropriations Committees.
The Select I...
Checking for Understanding
4. List four important powers of a committee
chairperson.
Any four: makes key decisions about
c...
Critical Thinking
5. Making Inferences Why did Republicans,
when they won control of Congress in 1995,
institute many rule...
Political Processes Watch coverage of
a congressional committee on television,
or read about it in a newspaper. Outline
th...
Staff and Support Agencies
Key Terms
personal staff, committee staff, administrative
assistant, legislative assistant, cas...
Staff and Support Agencies
Understanding Concepts
Political Processes How do staffs and support
agencies help members of C...
The Library of Congress is the world’s largest
library, as of 2000 housing more than 18
million books and 71 million maps,...
I. Congressional Staff Role (pages 146–147)
A. Lawmakers rely on their staffs to help with
many congressional duties.
B. A...
I. Congressional Staff Role (pages 146–147)

In 1995 Congress cut the congressional staff
by one-third. Do you think this ...
II. Congressional Staff Growth (page 147)
A. Prior to 1946, Congress had no staff aides. In
recent decades, increased comp...
II. Congressional Staff Growth (page 147)

Should members of Congress be responsible
for helping private citizens resolve ...
III. Personal Staffs (pages 147–148)
A. Members’ personal staffs are divided so
that some staffers work in Washington and
...
III. Personal Staffs (pages 147–148)

Congressional staffers are not elected, yet
they sometimes exert great power and
inf...
IV.Committee Staff (pages 148–149)
A. Committee staffs work for congressional
committees, assisting chairpersons as
bills ...
IV.Committee Staff (pages 148–149)

What are the advantages and disadvantages
of having an experienced staffer remain with...
V. Support Agencies (pages 149–150)
A. The Library of Congress provides
information requested by Congress,
congressional s...
V. Support Agencies (pages 149–150)
C. The General Accounting Office is the
watchdog over the spending of funds
appropriat...
V. Support Agencies (pages 149–150)

What is the main advantage of having
congressional support agencies that are
independ...
Checking for Understanding
1. Main Idea In a graphic organizer like the one
shown, analyze the differences between
persona...
Checking for Understanding
Match the term with the correct definition.

___ administrative
B
assistant

A. work for House ...
Checking for Understanding
3. Identify Library of Congress, Congressional
Budget Office, General Accounting Office,
Govern...
Checking for Understanding
4. Why did the numbers of congressional staff
increase rapidly after 1900?
Staffs grew to cope ...
Critical Thinking
5. Demonstrating Reasoned Judgment Why do
you think the comptroller general who oversees
the General Acc...
Political Processes Create a political
cartoon that includes a caption about the
role of committee staff in Congress.
Take...
Reviewing Key Terms
Match each term below with one of the following phrases or terms.

a. House

b. Senate

___ 1. bill
c
...
Recalling Facts
1. What are the qualifications for members of the
House and Senate?
Representatives must be at least 25 ye...
Recalling Facts
3. List four advantages incumbents have in
running for office.
Incumbents find it easier to raise campaign...
Recalling Facts
5. What position in the Senate does the vice
president serve?
The vice president serves as president of
th...
Understanding Concepts
1. Political Processes How does the census
affect the reapportionment of the House?
A state’s popul...
Understanding Concepts
2. Growth of Democracy Why does the
Constitution provide for free and unlimited
debate in Congress?...
Understanding Concepts
3. Political Processes How does the majority
party in each house determine the flow of
legislation?...
Critical Thinking
1. Making Inferences Why are bills that minority
party members introduce unlikely to be reported
out of ...
Critical Thinking
2. Making Comparisons In a graphic organizer
like the one below, compare the duties of a
congressional a...
Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity
1. What is the subject
of this cartoon?
The subject is
incumbent
members of
Congr...
Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity
2. What do the roots
of the tree trunk
symbolize?
The roots
represent the
network...
Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity
3. According to this
cartoon, how
difficult is it to
unseat an
incumbent?
It is e...
What is the House mace, and has it ever
been used?
The mace is a 46-inch-long staff topped
by a silver globe and an eagle ...
1) Governor Elbridge Gerry

2) Massachusetts

3) 1812
2) New York and
Pennsylvania
1) New York ranked first in 1890, third in 2004

3) California, Texas, and
Florida
1) the Republicans
2) the Republicans
3) Possible answer:
disappointment with Congress
performance, a general shift back
t...
2) joint committees
1) standing committees,
subcommittees, and
select committees

3) to reconcile the House
and Senate ver...
1) by completing more
than 875,000 research
requests for
Congress

2) discs, tapes, photographs,
prints, and moving images...
Following Local Coverage of Congress Begin the
chapter by watching a local half-hour evening news
program (not national or...
Congressional Staff Growth By 1900, fewer than
300 people served on congressional staffs.
Complaining about the later grow...
What’s in a Name?
The Founders named the U.S. Senate after ancient
Rome’s highest political body. At the time, 9 of the 13...
Term Limits In both bodies of Congress,
members may serve for an unlimited number of
terms. The issue of term limits has b...
Parliamentarians in Congress advise the presiding
officers of the House and Senate about parliamentary
rules and procedure...
Interviewing Caseworkers Interview a
caseworker for a member of Congress. Ask and
report to the class the caseworker’s res...
Technology The Library of Congress is an invaluable
resource for legislators and their staffs, but it also is
available to...
Vernon Baker
In 1996 the Pentagon leadership conceded that racism
was the reason that no African Americans had been
awarde...
More About the V-Chip Networks and TV
programmers disapprove of the V-chip. They are
worried about the potential loss of a...
Elbridge Gerry
Ron Wyden
Elbridge Gerry (1744–1814)
Elbridge Gerry (1744–1814) served the United
States with distinction. In 1776 he was a member o...
Ron Wyden
Ron Wyden of Oregon was the first person to be
elected to the Senate entirely by mail. In early
1996, he won a s...
Sam Rayburn (1882–1961)
Sam Rayburn (D-Texas) was one of the most
influential Speakers of the House. He served in that
pos...
Thomas Reed
Thomas Reed served as Speaker from 1889 to
1891 and from 1895 to 1899. He was sometimes
called “Czar Reed” bec...
To navigate within this Presentation Plus! product:
Click the Forward button to go to the next slide.
Click the Previous b...
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LOUSG chapter 05

  1. 1. Chapter Focus Section 1 Congressional Membership Section 2 The House of Representatives Section 3 The Senate Section 4 Congressional Committees Section 5 Staff and Support Agencies Chapter Assessment
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives • Congressional Membership Describe the structure of Congress and list the qualifications for congressional membership. • The House of Representatives Describe the rules and procedures used in the House and explain its role in the lawmaking process. The Senate Contrast the Senate’s leadership and role in the lawmaking process with that of the House. Congressional Committees Identify kinds of congressional committees and principles by which members serve on them. Staff and Support Agencies Explain how staff members and support agencies participate in the legislative process. • • •
  3. 3. Congressional Membership Key Terms bicameral legislature, session, census, reapportionment, redistrict, gerrymander, at-large, censure, incumbent Find Out • How does apportionment of membership in the House of Representatives in districts provide representation to local voters? • What are the key common characteristics of members of Congress?
  4. 4. Congressional Membership Understanding Concepts Political Processes How well do you think members of Congress represent the people who have delegated legal authority to them? Section Objective Describe the structure of Congress and list the qualifications for congressional membership.
  5. 5. Jeanette Rankin, a Republican from Montana, was the first woman elected to Congress. She was elected to the House of Representatives in 1916 and was reelected in 1940.
  6. 6. I. Congressional Sessions (page 123) A. Each term of Congress has two sessions. B. Sessions last until Congress votes to adjourn.
  7. 7. I. Congressional Sessions (page 123) Until 1933 Congress remained in session only four to six months each year. Should modern Congresses return to this schedule? Why or why not? Answers will vary. Students should support their opinions with good reasons.
  8. 8. II. Membership of the House (pages 124–127) A. Members must be at least 25 years old, citizens for at least 7 years, and residents of the states they represent. B. Members serve for two-year terms. C. The number of representatives from each state is determined by the census population count every 10 years. D. State legislatures set up congressional districts after the census count, with one representative from each district.
  9. 9. II. Membership of the House (pages 124–127)
  10. 10. II. Membership of the House (pages 124–127) Today, each House member represents about 625,000 people. When the population increases, should Congress add more members to the House? Why or why not? No. The size of the House is limited for more efficient government.
  11. 11. II. Membership of the House (pages 124–127)
  12. 12. III. Membership of the Senate (pages 128–129) A. Senators must be at least 30 years old, citizens for at least 9 years, and residents of the states they represent. B. Senators serve for 6-year terms; one-third are elected every two years. C. Each state elects two senators. D. The Senate and the House set their members’ salaries; members receive numerous benefits, allowances for office staffs and business trips, tax breaks for maintaining two residences, and pensions when they retire.
  13. 13. III. Membership of the Senate (pages 128–129) E. Both House and Senate members enjoy immunity from arrest, in cases not involving a felony or treason, or being sued for libel when Congress is in session. F. Both the Senate and House may refuse to seat a member and may censure or even expel members.
  14. 14. III. Membership of the Senate (pages 128–129) If you were a politician, would you rather be a member of the House or the Senate? Explain. Answers will vary. Students should cite the advantages of membership in either chamber.
  15. 15. IV.The Members of Congress (pages 129–130) A. Nearly half the members of Congress are lawyers. B. White, middle-aged male members are increasingly joined by members reflecting the ethnic, racial, and gender makeup of the general population.
  16. 16. IV.The Members of Congress (pages 129–130)
  17. 17. IV.The Members of Congress (pages 129–130) C. Most incumbent members of Congress win reelection to office because they are well known, find it easier to raise campaign money, and often represent districts gerrymandered in favor of their parties. D. Candidates for Congress have begun using the Internet as a campaign tool; experts forecast that Congressional candidates will make greater use of Web technologies in the future.
  18. 18. IV.The Members of Congress (pages 129–130)
  19. 19. IV.The Members of Congress (pages 129–130) In the late 1990s, members of Congress faced growing criticism about spending so much time in office raising money and planning their reelection campaigns. Do you think this criticism was justified? Explain. Answers will vary. Students should support their opinions with examples.
  20. 20. Checking for Understanding 1. Main Idea In a graphic organizer similar to the one below, compare the qualifications for representatives and senators. House: 25 years old; citizen for 7 years; resident of state. Senate: 30 years old; citizen for 9 years; resident of state.
  21. 21. Checking for Understanding Match the term with the correct definition. ___ bicameral legislation F A. a population count ___ censure D B. elected official that is already in office ___ census A C. as a whole; for example, statewide ___ incumbent B ___ gerrymander E ___ at-large C D. a vote of formal disapproval of a member’s actions E. to draw a district’s boundaries to gain advantages in elections F. a two-chambered legislature
  22. 22. Checking for Understanding 3. Identify Elbridge Gerry, Twenty-seventh Amendment. Elbridge Gerry was an early DemocraticRepublican governor of Massachusetts whose redistricting plan that gave his party a political advantage over the Federalists inspired the term gerrymandering. The Twenty-seventh Amendment is the constitutional amendment that prohibits a sitting Congress from giving itself a pay raise.
  23. 23. Checking for Understanding 4. How does Congress reapportion House seats among the states every ten years? Following the Census, each state’s population determines how the House seats are reapportioned.
  24. 24. Critical Thinking 5. Making Inferences Members of Congress spend part of their time working for reelection. Which house has a greater percentage of its time remaining for legislative work? Why? The Senate has more time because senators come up for reelection only every six years. Members of the House face reelection every two years.
  25. 25. Political Processes What percentage of people believe that their representative does not listen to them? Formulate a questionnaire that surveys voters about this issue.
  26. 26. The House of Representatives Key Terms constituents, caucus, majority leader, whips, bill, calendars, quorum Find Out • Why are committees more important in the House than they are in the Senate? • Why is the Rules Committee one of the most powerful committees in the House?
  27. 27. The House of Representatives Understanding Concepts Growth of Democracy Why does the majority party often get the credit or blame for everything Congress does? Section Objective Describe the rules and procedures used in the House and explain the House’s role in the lawmaking process.
  28. 28. The Speaker of the House who served the longest was Democrat Sam Rayburn of Texas. He served from 1940–1947,1949–1953, and 1955–1961, for a total of seventeen years. No other Speaker has served more than 10 years.
  29. 29. I. Rules for Lawmaking (pages 132–134) A. Each house of Congress has rules to help members conduct business. B. Congress carries out most of its work by committees. Because of its large membership, committee work is even more important in the House than in the Senate. C. Party membership guides Congress in its work, since the majority party in each house organizes the committees, appoints committee heads, and controls the flow of legislation.
  30. 30. I. Rules for Lawmaking (pages 132–134) Do you agree or disagree with the House rule that limits a representative’s speaking time during a debate? Explain. Answers will vary. Students should support their answers with logical reasons.
  31. 31. II. House Leadership (pages 134–135) A. The Speaker of the House is leader of the majority party and has great power and influence over its members. B. Floor leaders of both the majority and minority parties are party leaders who help steer bills through committees. C. Party whips assist the floor leaders in persuading party members to support laws the party favors.
  32. 32. II. House Leadership (pages 134–135) The Speaker of the House follows the vice president in the line of presidential succession. Do you support or object to this plan? Explain. Answers will vary. Students should give sound reasons for the plan they support.
  33. 33. III. Lawmaking in the House (pages 135–137) A. Members attend House floor sessions to vote on legislation. B. All laws begin as bills introduced in the House, then go to committee. If approved there, they are put on the proper calendar, listing the order in which they will be considered on the House floor. C. The House Rules Committee receives all bills approved by the various committees of the House.
  34. 34. III. Lawmaking in the House (pages 135–137) D. The Rules Committee determines which bills will be considered by the full House and places them on the House Calendar. E. The Rules Committee also settles disputes among other House committees and delays or blocks bills that representatives and House leaders do not want to come to a vote. F. When the Rules Committee sends bills to the floor, the House may sit as a Committee of the Whole, in which 100 members constitutes a quorum, in order to speed up consideration of an important bill, so that the full House can then vote on it.
  35. 35. III. Lawmaking in the House (pages 135–137) Why is so much of the work of Congress done in committees? Committees divide up the tasks and make them manageable.
  36. 36. III. Lawmaking in the House (pages 135–137)
  37. 37. Checking for Understanding 1. Main Idea In a graphic organizer similar to the one below, show three ways in which the Rules Committee controls legislation. Answers might include: directs flow of legislation; may limit debate on bills; specifies how much a bill may be amended.
  38. 38. Checking for Understanding Match the term with the correct definition. ___ constituents D ___ caucus A ___ bill E ___ majority leader B ___ whips C ___ quorum F A. a private meeting of party leaders to choose candidates for office B. the Speaker’s top assistant C. an assistant to the party floor leader in the legislature D. a person whom a member of Congress has been elected to represent E. a proposed law F. the minimum number of members who must be present to permit a legislative body to take official action
  39. 39. Checking for Understanding 3. Identify Rules Committee. The Rules Committee serves as the “traffic officer” in the House, helping to direct the flow of major legislation.
  40. 40. Checking for Understanding 4. Analyze the role of House committees. Committees enable House members to efficiently accomplish their work with more influence as a group than they could have as individuals on the House floor.
  41. 41. Checking for Understanding 5. How does a representative introduce a bill in the House? The representative drops a copy of the bill into the “hopper.”
  42. 42. Critical Thinking 5. Understanding Cause and Effect Why are changes in House rules more likely to occur when political control of the House shifts to another party? Answers will vary, but students may suggest that once a party gains majority power, it will want to do things its own way, so it will establish its own rules.
  43. 43. Growth of Democracy Browse through current newspapers and magazines to find out what legislation the majority party in the House is trying to pass. Make a chart of the key legislation and record its progress for several weeks.
  44. 44. The Senate Key Terms president pro tempore, filibuster, cloture Find Out • Why does the Senate have fewer rules and a less formal atmosphere than the House? • Why does the Senate usually take longer than the House to pass a bill?
  45. 45. The Senate Understanding Concepts Growth of Democracy Why do floor debates in the Senate often include powerful speeches charged with emotion? Section Objective Contrast the Senate’s leadership and role in the lawmaking process with that of the House of Representatives.
  46. 46. You have probably heard someone say that “talk is cheap.” Not in the Senate, where in a 1953 debate senators opposed to a bill about offshore oil drilling rights added 1,241,414 words to the pages of the Congressional Record —and increased the printing cost by several thousand dollars.
  47. 47. I. The Senate at Work (pages 138–140) A. The Senate has fewer rules than the House. Senators have more freedom to express their views and are less subject to party discipline than representatives. B. The atmosphere in the Senate is more informal than in the House. C. The vice president presides over the Senate but has much less power and influence there than does the Speaker of the House; the president pro tempore often presides in the Senate.
  48. 48. I. The Senate at Work (pages 138–140) D. The Senate majority floor leader is responsible for guiding bills through the Senate; the minority floor leader develops criticisms of majority party bills and tries to keep the opposition party members working together. E. Majority and minority floor whips assist their floor leaders in making sure members are present for key Senate votes. F. Senate leaders control the flow of bills to committees and to the floor for debate; there is no Senate committee comparable to the House Rules Committee.
  49. 49. I. The Senate at Work (pages 138–140) G. The Senate has only two calendars—the Calendar of General Orders, which schedules bills to be considered in the Senate, and the Executive Calendar, which schedules treaties and nominations. H. A filibuster—a stalling of the legislative procedure to prevent a vote—can be ended only by a three-fifths vote; in recent years the filibuster has lost effectiveness as a legislative weapon because new rules allow other matters to continue at the same time. I. The majority party controls the flow of legislative work in the Senate.
  50. 50. I. The Senate at Work (pages 138–140) Why does the committee system have a less important role in the Senate than in the House of Representatives? More discussion takes place on the floor of the Senate because there are fewer senators.
  51. 51. Checking for Understanding 1. Main Idea In a graphic organizer similar to the one below, analyze the relationship between the Senate majority and minority leaders, whips, and assistant whips. From top to bottom: majority leader, majority whip, assistant majority whip; minority leader, minority whip, assistant minority whip.
  52. 52. Checking for Understanding Match the term with the correct definition. ___ cloture B ___ filibuster A ___ president C pro tempre A. a method of defeating a bill in the Senate by stalling the legislative process and preventing a vote B. a procedure that allows each senator to speak only 1 hour on a bill under debate C. the Senate member, elected by the Senate, who stands in as president of the Senate in the absence of the vice president
  53. 53. Checking for Understanding 3. Identify Calendar of General Orders. The Calendar of General Orders is a listing of all the bills the Senate will consider.
  54. 54. Checking for Understanding 4. How does the Senate bring bills to the floor? Through unanimous consent, all senators present agree to consider a bill from the calendar.
  55. 55. Critical Thinking 5. Making Comparisons Compare the rules and procedures of the House with those of the Senate. Possible answer: The Senate has a more informal atmosphere than the House and follows more flexible rules; furthermore, senators generally can act more independently than members of the House do.
  56. 56. Growth in Democracy Search through a reference work of historic speeches. Use one of the speeches as a model for a persuasive speech of your own.
  57. 57. Congressional Committees Key Terms standing committee, subcommittee, select committee, joint committee, conference committee, seniority system Find Out • Why are several different kinds of committees necessary in the House and Senate? • Why are committee chairpersons considered the most powerful members of Congress?
  58. 58. Congressional Committees Understanding Concepts Political Processes Why have committees become the power centers in Congress? Section Objective Identify kinds of committees and why members serve on them.
  59. 59. In the early 1950s Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy, chairman of the Committee on Government Operations, treated witnesses before that committee so harshly, ignoring their constitutional rights, that the Senate later censured him. Such misconduct now is often called “McCarthyism.”
  60. 60. I. Purposes of Committees (page 141) A. Committees ease Congressional workload by dividing work among smaller groups, allowing members to specialize on key issues. B. Committees allow members to discuss and select the most important bills Congress will consider. C. Committees hold investigative public hearings on key problems and issues to inform the public.
  61. 61. I. Purposes of Committees (page 141) Identify some advantages and disadvantages to working out a compromise on a bill. Advantages: wider support in Congress, more care in crafting legislation. Disadvantages: bill loses original focus; it takes a longer time.
  62. 62. II. Kinds of Committees (pages 142–144) A. Standing committees deal with certain issues continuing from one Congress to the next. B. The majority party in each house controls standing committees and bases committee membership on each party’s strength. C. Subcommittees handle special subcategories of standing committees’ work and continue from one Congress to the next. D. Select committees are special committees created in both houses of Congress, usually for one term only, to study a specific issue and report their findings.
  63. 63. II. Kinds of Committees (pages 142–144) E. Joint committees are made up of members of both houses to act as study groups. F. Conference committees are temporary committees set up to resolve the differences in the House and Senate versions of a bill by working out a compromise bill that each house then can accept or reject.
  64. 64. II. Kinds of Committees (pages 142–144)
  65. 65. II. Kinds of Committees (pages 142–144) Identify some issues that you think are important enough to create a select congressional committee. Answers will vary. See list of types of issues on page 143.
  66. 66. III. Choosing Committee Members (pages 144–145) A. Membership in committees is one key role played by members of Congress. B. Membership on certain committees: 1. helps members to build reputations and to increase their chances for reelection; 2. gives members a chance to influence important national legislation; 3. enables members to influence other members since those committees deal with issues that are important to all members.
  67. 67. III. Choosing Committee Members (pages 144–145) C. In both houses, both parties assign members to the standing committees. D. The party leaders and chairpersons of the standing committees are the most powerful members of Congress. E. Standing committee chairpersons make key decisions about the work of their committees, though their power has been reduced since 1970. F. Seniority traditionally guided the election of chairpersons until the 1970s.
  68. 68. III. Choosing Committee Members (pages 144–145) Members of Congress who have served the longest often head key committees and have an important voice in passing legislation. Do you think this seniority system helps Congress to operate more effectively? Explain your viewpoint. Answers will vary. See seniority system page 145.
  69. 69. Checking for Understanding 1. Main Idea In a Venn diagram, show how a conference committee and a joint committee are alike and how they are different. Conference committees resolve differences between conflicting versions of a bill. Joint committees act as study groups. Both have members from the Senate and House.
  70. 70. Checking for Understanding Match the term with the correct definition. ___ conference C committee ___ joint D committee ___ select A committee ___ standing B committee A. a temporary committee formed to study one specific issue and reports its findings to the Senate or the House B. a permanent committee in Congress that oversees bills that deal with certain kinds of issues C. a temporary joint committee set up when the House and Senate have passed different versions of the same bill D. a committee of the House and Senate that usually acts as a study group and reports its findings back to the House and Senate
  71. 71. Checking for Understanding 3. Identify Select Intelligence, Rules, Ways and Means, Appropriations Committees. The Select Intelligence Committee is one of several committees that have been reclassified as permanent committees. The Rules, Ways and Means, and Appropriations Committees are key committees within the House of Representatives.
  72. 72. Checking for Understanding 4. List four important powers of a committee chairperson. Any four: makes key decisions about committee work, decides when hearings will be held and which witnesses will be called, hires committee staff members, controls the committee budget, manages floor debates over the bills from the committee.
  73. 73. Critical Thinking 5. Making Inferences Why did Republicans, when they won control of Congress in 1995, institute many rule changes? Possible answer: The majority party can set the rules, and the Republicans wanted to do things in ways that were more comfortable for them or that they considered more efficient.
  74. 74. Political Processes Watch coverage of a congressional committee on television, or read about it in a newspaper. Outline the major issues presented in the testimony before the committee. Write a position paper in which you agree or disagree with the witnesses.
  75. 75. Staff and Support Agencies Key Terms personal staff, committee staff, administrative assistant, legislative assistant, caseworker Find Out • Why do members of Congress have large personal and committee staffs? • How could a committee staffer have more influence than a member of Congress over a proposed bill?
  76. 76. Staff and Support Agencies Understanding Concepts Political Processes How do staffs and support agencies help members of Congress carry out their many responsibilities? Section Objective Explain how staff members and support agencies participate in the legislative process.
  77. 77. The Library of Congress is the world’s largest library, as of 2000 housing more than 18 million books and 71 million maps, recordings, photographs, and manuscripts. One of its most treasured items is the Gutenberg Bible, which is on permanent display for visitors to see.
  78. 78. I. Congressional Staff Role (pages 146–147) A. Lawmakers rely on their staffs to help with many congressional duties. B. As congressional workloads have increased, staff duties have become increasingly important as well.
  79. 79. I. Congressional Staff Role (pages 146–147) In 1995 Congress cut the congressional staff by one-third. Do you think this reduction was necessary? Explain your answer. Answers will vary. Staff cuts are rare, but this one had bipartisan support.
  80. 80. II. Congressional Staff Growth (page 147) A. Prior to 1946, Congress had no staff aides. In recent decades, increased complexity has resulted in much larger congressional staffs. B. Congressional staffs provide expert help on key issues and help members of Congress serve constituents’ growing demands.
  81. 81. II. Congressional Staff Growth (page 147) Should members of Congress be responsible for helping private citizens resolve their difficulties with government agencies? Why or why not? Answers will vary. See constituent service under Congressional Staff Growth on page 147.
  82. 82. III. Personal Staffs (pages 147–148) A. Members’ personal staffs are divided so that some staffers work in Washington and others work in members’ home states. B. Administrative assistants run lawmakers’ offices, supervise schedules, and advise on political matters. C. Legislative assistants keep lawmakers well informed about bills, assist in committee work, write speeches, and keep track of the workflow. D. Caseworkers are congressional personal staff members who handle requests from constituents; they usually staff members’ offices in their home states.
  83. 83. III. Personal Staffs (pages 147–148) Congressional staffers are not elected, yet they sometimes exert great power and influence in the lawmaking process. What are some advantages and disadvantages of this system? Advantages: staff provides expert information; helps manage workload. Disadvantages: may be out of touch with the people; may have too much influence.
  84. 84. IV.Committee Staff (pages 148–149) A. Committee staffs work for congressional committees, assisting chairpersons as bills proceed through various committees to the floor. B. Committee staff members often become experts in the areas their committees handle; critics argue that staff members are unelected, yet they have a large role in shaping legislation.
  85. 85. IV.Committee Staff (pages 148–149) What are the advantages and disadvantages of having an experienced staffer remain with the same committee for many years? Answers will vary but should show evidence and understanding of committee work.
  86. 86. V. Support Agencies (pages 149–150) A. The Library of Congress provides information requested by Congress, congressional staff, and committees. B. The Congressional Budget Office coordinates budget making, studies presidential budget proposals, projects new program costs, and tracks congressional spending.
  87. 87. V. Support Agencies (pages 149–150) C. The General Accounting Office is the watchdog over the spending of funds appropriated by Congress, informing members about specific program costs. D. The Government Printing Office serves the federal government by printing the Congressional Record, a complete account of all congressional speeches and testimony, and the Statistical Abstract of the United States, an annual publication.
  88. 88. V. Support Agencies (pages 149–150) What is the main advantage of having congressional support agencies that are independent of the executive branch? Agencies that support Congress are responsible only to Congress.
  89. 89. Checking for Understanding 1. Main Idea In a graphic organizer like the one shown, analyze the differences between personal staff and committee staff in Congress. Personal: work directly for individual senators and representatives; run the lawmaker’s office; research and draft bills; attend committee meetings; prepare speeches; handle requests for help from constituents. Committee: work for many House and Senate committee members; draft bills; study issues; collect information; plan committee hearings; write memos; prepare committee reports.
  90. 90. Checking for Understanding Match the term with the correct definition. ___ administrative B assistant A. work for House and Senate committees ___ caseworker C B. runs lawmaker’s office, supervises schedule, and gives advice ___ committee staff A ___ legislative E assistant ___ personal staff D C. handles requests from constituents D. work directly for individual senators and representatives E. makes certain lawmaker is well informed about proposed legislation
  91. 91. Checking for Understanding 3. Identify Library of Congress, Congressional Budget Office, General Accounting Office, Government Printing Office. The Library of Congress is one of the largest libraries in the world. The Congressional Budget Office coordinates the budget-making work of Congress, studies the budget proposals put forward by the president each year, and makes cost projections of proposed new programs. The General Accounting Office is the nation’s watchdog over the spending of funds Congress appropriates. The Government Printing Office is the largest multipurpose printing plant in the world and does the printing for the entire federal government.
  92. 92. Checking for Understanding 4. Why did the numbers of congressional staff increase rapidly after 1900? Staffs grew to cope with the growing complexity of lawmaking and increasing numbers of constituents.
  93. 93. Critical Thinking 5. Demonstrating Reasoned Judgment Why do you think the comptroller general who oversees the General Accounting Office is appointed for a 15-year term? Possible answer: The comptroller general needs to serve a long term to trace the ways in which Congress appropriates and spends funds.
  94. 94. Political Processes Create a political cartoon that includes a caption about the role of committee staff in Congress. Take a position on whether professional staff members have too much power.
  95. 95. Reviewing Key Terms Match each term below with one of the following phrases or terms. a. House b. Senate ___ 1. bill c c. Both chambers ___ 6. joint committee c ___ 2. majority leader ___ 7. redistricting c a ___ 3. gerrymandering ___ 8. reapportionment a a ___ 4. filibuster b ___ 9. censure c ___ 5. constituents c ___ 10. incumbent c
  96. 96. Recalling Facts 1. What are the qualifications for members of the House and Senate? Representatives must be at least 25 years old, citizens of the United States for at least 7 years, and legal residents of the state that elects them. Senators must be at least 30 years old, citizens of the United States for 9 years, and legal residents of the state they represent. 2. Identify the most powerful committee in the House of Representatives. The House Rules Committee is the most powerful committee in the House of Representatives.
  97. 97. Recalling Facts 3. List four advantages incumbents have in running for office. Incumbents find it easier to raise campaign funds; they often represent districts that have been gerrymandered in their party’s favor; they are better known to voters; they use their positions and office staff to help solve problems for voters. 4. How do House rules differ from Senate rules? Senate rules are more flexible than House rules. Senate rules are designed to give all senators maximum freedom to express their ideas. House rules are more complex and are designed to move legislation quickly once it reaches the floor.
  98. 98. Recalling Facts 5. What position in the Senate does the vice president serve? The vice president serves as president of the Senate.
  99. 99. Understanding Concepts 1. Political Processes How does the census affect the reapportionment of the House? A state’s population determines its number of House members.
  100. 100. Understanding Concepts 2. Growth of Democracy Why does the Constitution provide for free and unlimited debate in Congress? Free and unlimited debate in Congress ensures that legislators would have the freedom to express their ideas and opinions.
  101. 101. Understanding Concepts 3. Political Processes How does the majority party in each house determine the flow of legislation? In both houses the majority party selects the leaders and controls the flow of legislative work. The House majority leader plans the party’s legislative program and steers important bills through the House, making sure that committees complete their work on important bills. The majority leader of the Senate steers bills through the Senate and plans the Senate’s work schedule with the minority leader.
  102. 102. Critical Thinking 1. Making Inferences Why are bills that minority party members introduce unlikely to be reported out of committee? Minority leaders have no power over scheduling work in the House, so a bill introduced by a minority party member may never reach the floor.
  103. 103. Critical Thinking 2. Making Comparisons In a graphic organizer like the one below, compare the duties of a congressional administrative assistant with those of a legislative assistant. Administrative: run the lawmaker’s office; supervise schedules; give advice on political matters. Legislative: attend committee meetings; keep track of work on floor of Congress; keep the lawmaker informed.
  104. 104. Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity 1. What is the subject of this cartoon? The subject is incumbent members of Congress.
  105. 105. Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity 2. What do the roots of the tree trunk symbolize? The roots represent the network of support that incumbents build—a network that makes it hard for them to be “uprooted” by a challenger at election time.
  106. 106. Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity 3. According to this cartoon, how difficult is it to unseat an incumbent? It is extremely difficult.
  107. 107. What is the House mace, and has it ever been used? The mace is a 46-inch-long staff topped by a silver globe and an eagle with outstretched wings. The sergeant-at-arms has used the mace to restore order on several occasions. Sometimes the Speaker has ordered the sergeant-atarms to parade it up and down aisles to quiet agitated members.
  108. 108. 1) Governor Elbridge Gerry 2) Massachusetts 3) 1812
  109. 109. 2) New York and Pennsylvania 1) New York ranked first in 1890, third in 2004 3) California, Texas, and Florida
  110. 110. 1) the Republicans 2) the Republicans 3) Possible answer: disappointment with Congress performance, a general shift back to the Democrats
  111. 111. 2) joint committees 1) standing committees, subcommittees, and select committees 3) to reconcile the House and Senate versions of bills
  112. 112. 1) by completing more than 875,000 research requests for Congress 2) discs, tapes, photographs, prints, and moving images 3) about 216 million
  113. 113. Following Local Coverage of Congress Begin the chapter by watching a local half-hour evening news program (not national or cable news) and jotting down a note about any stories relating to members of Congress. During the course of the chapter, continue to watch the same local news (perhaps three times a week) and note relevant stories. When finished watching, respond to the following questions: • Overall, about how much of the local coverage mentioned the work of members of Congress? • How much coverage was given to members that represent your district or state? • If you were the news director, would you change the program’s coverage of Congress? Why or why not?
  114. 114. Congressional Staff Growth By 1900, fewer than 300 people served on congressional staffs. Complaining about the later growth of these staffs, Senator Herman Talmadge (D-Georgia) said, “We have got a lot of bright-eyed, idealistic young people right out of law school, seeking new worlds to conquer. They spend virtually all of their time writing speeches . . . and developing brand new spending programs . . . and if you double the staff you double the amendments and double the costly new programs.”
  115. 115. What’s in a Name? The Founders named the U.S. Senate after ancient Rome’s highest political body. At the time, 9 of the 13 colonies named their upper bodies “senate.” The House of Representatives lacked such a grand, historic origin. “House” simply refers to a legislative body or assembly of representatives. The Founders may have borrowed the name from the Virginia House of Burgesses.
  116. 116. Term Limits In both bodies of Congress, members may serve for an unlimited number of terms. The issue of term limits has been debated since the founding of our nation. Organize two teams—one in favor of term limits and the other against them—and have the teams debate the issue. Jot down the key points in each side’s argument for follow-up discussion, during which students can vote for the view that they think provides Americans with better representation.
  117. 117. Parliamentarians in Congress advise the presiding officers of the House and Senate about parliamentary rules and procedures. They also counsel members of Congress on procedures for routing legislation and decide which committees have jurisdiction over bills. Activity: Review the importance of parliamentary procedure, discuss why parliamentarians would be considered powerful employees of Congress and how the student parliamentarian (in the textbook activity) influenced the class meeting.
  118. 118. Interviewing Caseworkers Interview a caseworker for a member of Congress. Ask and report to the class the caseworker’s responses to questions about his or her daily responsibilities, contact with the office in Washington, and so on.
  119. 119. Technology The Library of Congress is an invaluable resource for legislators and their staffs, but it also is available to the public—and people do not have to go to Washington to use it. Students may be interested in exploring the Library of Congress via its official Web site at http://www.loc.gov/.
  120. 120. Vernon Baker In 1996 the Pentagon leadership conceded that racism was the reason that no African Americans had been awarded the Medal of Honor in World War II. President Clinton awarded Baker the medal, announcing, “Today we fill the gap in that picture and give a group of heroes who also loved peace—but adapted themselves to war —the tribute that has always been their due.” Activity: Work in groups to research the history of discrimination in the United States armed forces. Present your findings to the class in the form of a time line, a photo or art essay, or a skit.
  121. 121. More About the V-Chip Networks and TV programmers disapprove of the V-chip. They are worried about the potential loss of advertising revenue and creative control, and they question the constitutionality of the V-chip law. Television networks protest that the V-chip plan violates free speech rights of programmers, and they support a $2 million fund to develop alternative blocking technology.
  122. 122. Elbridge Gerry Ron Wyden
  123. 123. Elbridge Gerry (1744–1814) Elbridge Gerry (1744–1814) served the United States with distinction. In 1776 he was a member of the Continental Congress and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. In 1787 he represented Massachusetts at the Constitutional Convention. Even after the term gerrymandering was coined, Gerry received honorable recognition. From 1813 to his death he served as vice president during President James Madison’s second term.
  124. 124. Ron Wyden Ron Wyden of Oregon was the first person to be elected to the Senate entirely by mail. In early 1996, he won a special election in Oregon to fill the unexpired term of Senator Robert Packwood, who resigned in 1995. Ballots were mailed to voters on January 10 and had to be mailed back or dropped off at specific locations before 8 P.M. on January 30. (On Super Tuesday in 1996, Oregon also held the first presidential primary conducted entirely by mail-in ballot.)
  125. 125. Sam Rayburn (1882–1961) Sam Rayburn (D-Texas) was one of the most influential Speakers of the House. He served in that position for more than 17 years between 1940 and 1961. Rayburn (1882–1961) was respected for his accessibility and for his personal integrity, which he revealed in comments like these: “There are no degrees of truthfulness. You are 100 percent, or you are not.” “If you’re convinced in your heart that something is right, do it, go after it, fight for it, even if you find yourself in a minority of one.”
  126. 126. Thomas Reed Thomas Reed served as Speaker from 1889 to 1891 and from 1895 to 1899. He was sometimes called “Czar Reed” because of the aggressive way he controlled the House. Before he became Speaker, members of the minority party would try to block the majority party by refusing to be counted in the quorum for a vote. One of Reed’s first actions as Speaker was to count all members who were present, whether they liked it or not—even having the House chamber doors locked so that no member could escape.
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