LOAPUSH Ch22 book


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  • Charleston, South
    Carolina, in Ruins, April
    1865 Rebel troops
    evacuating Charleston
    blew up military supplies
    to deny them to General
    William Tecumseh
    Sherman’s forces. The
    explosions ignited fires
    that all but destroyed the
  • Educating Young Freedmen and Freedwomen, 1870s Freed slaves in the South
    regarded schooling as the key to improving their children’s lives and the fulfillment of a
    long-sought right that had been denied blacks in slavery. These well-dressed schoolchildren
    are lined up outside their rural, one-room schoolhouse alongside their teachers,
    both black and white.
  • Crushed by the Constitution
    President Andrew Johnson
    revered the U.S. Constitution but
    eventually felt its awesome
    weight in his impeachment trial.
  • Sharecroppers Picking Cotton
    Although many freed slaves found
    themselves picking cotton on their
    former masters’ plantations, they
    took comfort that they were at least
    paid wages and could work as a
    family unit. In time, however, they
    became ensnared in the web of
    debt that their planter bosses spun
    to keep a free labor force tightly
    bound to them.
  • An Inflexible President, 1866 This Republican cartoon
    shows Johnson knocking blacks out of the Freedmen’s
    Bureau by his veto.
  • Republicans Campaigning in
    Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1868
    The soldiers’ caps and regimental
    flags demonstrate the continuing
    federal military presence in the
    Reconstruction South. Radical
    Republican congressman Thaddeus
    Stevens said that Reconstruction
    must “revolutionize
    Southern institutions, habits, and
    manners. . . . The foundation of
    their institutions . . . must be
    broken up and relaid, or all our
    blood and treasure have been
    spent in vain.”
  • Map 22.1 Military Reconstruction, 1867 (five districts and commanding generals)
    For many white Southerners, military Reconstruction amounted to turning the knife in the
    wound of defeat. An often-repeated story of later years had a Southerner remark, “I was
    sixteen years old before I discovered that damn yankee was two words.”
  • Freedmen Voting,
    Richmond, Virginia,
    1871 T he exercise of
    democratic rights by former
    slaves constituted a political
    and social revolution in the
    South and was bitterly
    resented by whites.
  • Congressman John R. Lynch of Mississippi After John
    Lynch was freed by the Union Army, he got an education at
    a freedmen’s school in Natchez, Mississippi. At age twenty four,
    he became speaker of the Mississippi House. In 1872,
    Lynch joined six other African Americans in Congress,
    where he made his greatest mark in the long debate over
    the Civil Rights Act of 1875, barring discrimination in public
    accommodations. Lynch drew on his own humiliating
    experiences as a black man in the South to argue for a law
    prohibiting discrimination on public transportation like
    trains and at places like inns, restaurants, and theaters. The
    law passed but was not enforced. It was ruled
    unconstitutional in 1883.
  • The Ku Klux Klan, Tennessee, 1868 This night-riding
    terrorist has even masked the identity of his horse.
  • Impeachment Drama T he
    impeachment proceedings
    against President Andrew
    Johnson, among the most
    severe constitutional crises in
    the Republic’s history, were
    high political theater, and
    tickets were in sharp demand.
  • Map 22.2 Alaska and the Lower Forty-eight States (a size
  • Is This a Republican Form of Government? by Thomas
    Nast, Harper’s Weekly, 1876 T he nation’s most
    prominent political cartoonist expressed his despair at the
    tragic way that Reconstruction had ended—with few real
    gains for the former slaves.
  • LOAPUSH Ch22 book

    1. 1. Chapter 22 The Ordeal of Reconstruction, 1865–1877
    2. 2. I. The Problems of Peace • Jefferson Davis: – Was temporarily clapped into irons during the early days of his two-year imprisonment – He and his fellow “conspirators” were finally released – All rebels leaders were finally pardoned by President Andrew Johnson in 1868 – Congress removed all remaining civil disabilities some thirty yeas later
    3. 3. I. The Problem of Peace (cont.) – Congress only posthumously restored Davis’s citizenship more than a century later. – Conditions of the South: • Collapsed economically and socially the Old South • Handsome cities, Charleston and Richmond, now rubble-strewn and weed-choked • Economic life had creaked to a halt • Banks and businesses had locked their doors, ruined by runaway inflation • Factories were smokeless, silent, dismantled
    4. 4. I. Problems of Peace (cont.) • The transportation system had broken down completely • Agriculture—the economic lifeblood of the South— was almost completely crippled • The slave labor system had collapsed • Not until 1870 would the cotton production be at prewar levels • The princely planter aristocrats were humbled by their losses • Their investment of more than $2 billion in slaves had evaporated with emancipation
    5. 5. I. Problems of Peace (cont.) • Beaten but unbent, many high-spirited white Southerners remained dangerously defiant – Confederates continued to believe that their view of secession was correct and that the “lost cause” was still a just war – These attitudes boded ill for the prospects of painlessly binding up the Republic’s wounds
    6. 6. II. Freedmen Define Freedom • What was the precise meaning of “freedom” for the blacks: – There were many responses to emancipation • How could the complexity of master-slave relationship be defined • Some slaves’ pent-up bitterness burst forth violently on the day of liberation • Eventually all masters were forced to recognize their slaves’ permanent freedom • Some blacks initially responded with suspicion
    7. 7. II. Freedman Define Freedom (cont.) • Many took new names and demanded that their masters address them as “Mr.” or “Mrs.” • Some abandoned the coarse cottons for silks, satins, and other finery • Whites were forced to recognize the realities of emancipation • Thousands took to the roads, some to test their freedom • Other to search for long-lost spouses, parents, and children • Emancipation strengthened the black family
    8. 8. II. Freedman Define Freedom (cont.) • Many newly freed men and women formalized “slave marriages” for personal and pragmatic reasons, including the desire to make their children legal heirs • Others left their masters to work in towns and cities, where existing black communities provided protection and mutual assistance • Whole communities moved together in search of opportunities • The church became the focus of black communities • They formed their own churches pastored by their own ministers
    9. 9. II. Freedman Define Freedom (cont.) – Black churches grew robustly – The churches formed the bedrock of black community life – They soon gave rise to other benevolent, fraternal, and mutual aid societies – All these organizations helped blacks protect their newly won freedom. • Emancipation meant education for many blacks: – Reading and writing became a privilege – Freedmen established societies for self-improvement: » Raised funds to purchase land, build schoolhouses, and hire teachers—all proof of their independence.
    10. 10. II. Freedman Define Freedom (cont.) – Southern blacks soon found: • That demands outstripped the supply of qualified black teachers • They accepted the aid of Northern white women sent by the American Missionary Association: – Who volunteered their services as teachers • They also turned to the federal government for help • The freed blacks were going to need all the friends— and power—they could muster in Washington.
    11. 11. p466
    12. 12. p467
    13. 13. p468
    14. 14. p468
    15. 15. p468
    16. 16. III. The Freedmen’s Bureau • Freedmen’s Bureau created March 3, 1865: • The bureau was to be a kind of primitive welfare agency • It was to provide food, clothing, medical care, and education both to freedmen and to white refugees • Heading the bureau was Union General Oliver O. Howard, who later founded Howard University in Washington, D.D. • The bureau achieved its greatest successes in education
    17. 17. III. The Freedmen’s Bureau (cont.) – In other areas, the bureau’s achievements were meager or even mischievous – It was to settle former slaves on forty-acre tracts confiscated from the Confederates: • Little land made it into the blacks’ hands • Local administrators often collaborated with planters in expelling blacks from towns and cajoling them into signing labor contracts to work for their former masters – The white South resented the bureau as a meddlesome federal interloper that threatened to upset white racial dominance.
    18. 18. IV. Johnson: The Tailor President – What manner of man was Andrew Johnson? • Reached the White House from humble beginnings • Born to impoverished parents, orphaned early, never attended school but apprenticed to a tailor at ten • Taught himself to read, and later his wife taught him to write and do simple arithmetic • He was inclined to over praise his maker • Became active in Tennessee politics • He was an impassioned champion of poor whites against the planter aristocrats
    19. 19. IV. Johnson: The Tailor President (cont.) • He excelled as a two-fisted stump speaker • Elected to Congress, he attracted favorable attention in the North(but not the South) when he refused to secede with his own state • After Tennessee was partially “redeemed” by Union armies, he was appointed war governor and served courageously in an atmosphere of danger • Political exigency next thrust Johnson into the vice presidency • Lincoln’s Union party in 1864 needed an person who could attract diverse votes
    20. 20. IV. Johnson: The Tailor President (cont.) – “Old Andy” Johnson was no doubt a man of parts —unpolished parts: – – – – – – – – He was intelligent, able, forceful, honest Steadfastly devoted to duty and to the people Dogmatic champion of states’ rights and the Constitution Yet he was also a misfit A Southerner who did not understand the North A Tennessean who had earned the distrust of the South A Democrat who had never been elected to the office He was not at home in a Republican White House
    21. 21. IV. Johnson: The Tailor President (cont.) – He was hot-headed, contentious, and stubborn – He was the wrong man in the wrong place at the wrong time – A Reconstruction policy devised by angels might well have failed in his tactless hands.
    22. 22. p470
    23. 23. V. Presidential Reconstruction • War over Reconstruction: – Abraham Lincoln: • Believed the Southern states never legally withdrew from the Union • Lincoln’s “10 percent” Reconstruction plan: – A state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10 percent of its voters in the presidential election of 1860 swore allegiance – And pledge to abide by emancipation. • The next step would be formal erection of a state government • Would then recognize the purified regime.
    24. 24. V. Presidential Reconstruction (cont.) – Lincoln’s proclamation provoked a sharp reaction in Congress where Republicans: • Feared the restoration of the planter aristocracy • The possible reenslavement of blacks – Republican rammed through Congress 1864: • The Wade-Davis Bill: – Required that 50% of a state’s voters take the oath of allegiance – Demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation than Lincoln’s as the price of readmission to the Union • Lincoln “pocket-vetoed” the bill.
    25. 25. V. Presidential Reconstruction (cont.) • The controversy over Wade-Davis revealed: – Deep differences between the president and Congress » Congress insisted that the seceders left the Union » “committed suicide” as republican states » Had forfeited all their rights – They could be readmitted only as “conquered provinces” on such conditions as Congress should decree. • Majority moderate group: – Tended to agree with Lincoln that seceded states should be restored as simply and swiftly as reasonable—though on Congress’s terms, not the president's.
    26. 26. V. Presidential Reconstruction (cont.) • Minority radical group: – Believed the South should atone more painfully for its sins. They wanted its social structure uprooted, the haughty planted punished, the newly emancipated blacks protected by federal powers. – Andrew Johnson: • Disillusioned them after the death of Lincoln • He agreed with Lincoln that the seceded states had never left the Union • He quickly recognized several of Lincoln’s 10% governments
    27. 27. V. Presidential Reconstruction (cont.) • May 29, 1865 he issued his own Reconstruction proclamation (see Table 22.1): – Disfranchised certain leading Confederates: » including those with taxable property worth more than $20,000 » though they might petition him for personal pardons – Called for special state conventions: » which required to repeal the ordinances of secession, repudiate all Confederate debts » and ratify the slave-freeing Thirteenth Amendment – States that complied would be swiftly readmitted to the Union.
    28. 28. V. Presidential Reconstruction (cont.) – Johnson now granted pardons: • Bolstered by the political resurrection of the planter elite, recently rebellious states moved rapidly to organize governments • As the pattern of the new governments became clear, Republicans of all stripes grew furious.
    29. 29. Table 22-1 p471
    30. 30. VI. The Baleful Black Codes • Black Codes: – Were designed to regulate the affairs of the emancipated blacks: • Mississippi, first to pass such law in November, 1865 • Varied in severity from state to state: – Mississippi’s the harshest; Georgia’s the most lenient – Their aims: • To ensure a stable and subservient labor force • Whites wanted to retain the tight control they exercised in the days of slavery.
    31. 31. VI. The Baleful Black Codes (cont.) – Dire penalties: • On blacks who “jumped” their labor contracts: – Committed them to work for the same employer for 1 year – Generally at pittance wages • Violators could be made to forfeit back wages or could be forcibly dragged back to work by a “Negrocatcher.” – In Mississippi the captured freedmen could be fined – Then hired out to pay their fines » An arrangement that closely resembled slavery itself.
    32. 32. VI. The Baneful Black Codes (cont.) • To restore the pre-emancipation system of race relations: – Freedom was legally recognized, also privileges—the right to marry – All codes forbade a black to serve on a jury – Some even barred blacks from renting or leasing land – Blacks could be punished for “idleness” by working on a chain gang – Nowhere were blacks allowed to vote. • These oppressive laws mocked the ideal of freedom:
    33. 33. VI. The Baneful Black Codes (cont.) – Imposed burdens on the unfettered blacks: » Struggling against mistreatment and poverty. • The worst features of the Black Codes would eventually be repealed: – Their revocation could not by itself lift the liberated blacks into economic independence. – Lacking capital, many improvised former slaves slipped into the status of sharecropper, as did many landless whites – Sharecropper slipped into a morass of virtual peonage – Many became slaves to the soil and to their creditors – Yet dethroned planter aristocracy resented this pitiful concession to freedom. • The Black Codes made an ugly impression in the North.
    34. 34. VII. Congressional Reconstruction • Congress meeting of December, 1865: – New Southern states presented themselves: • • • • Many were former Confederate leaders Many were experienced statesmen Some were part of the “lost cause” There were 4 former Confederate generals, 5 colonels, and various members of the Richmond cabinet and Congress • Worst of all, Alexander Stephens, ex-vice president, still under indictment for treason, was there.
    35. 35. VII. Congressional Reconstruction (cont.) • These “whitewashed rebels” infuriated the Republicans in Congress and were not easily embraced. • While out, the Republicans had a free hand • Passed favorable Northern legislation, such as: – The Morrill Tariff, the Pacific Railroad Act, Homestead Act. • On the first day of congressional session, Dec. 4, 1865, they shut the door on the newly elected Southerner. • They failed to see that a restored South would be stronger than ever in national politics.
    36. 36. VII. Congressional Reconstruction (cont.) • Now the slave was five-fifths of a person • Owing to full counting of free blacks, the rebel states were entitled to 12 more votes • And 12 more presidential electoral votes. – Republicans had good reason to fear: • Southerners might join with Northern Democrats and will cont.rol of Congress • Maybe even the White House • They could dismantle the economic programs of the Republican Party by:
    37. 37. VII. Congressional Reconstruction (cont.) – – – – – Lowering tariffs Rerouting the transcontinental railroads Repealing the free-farm Homestead Act Possibly even repudiating the national debt. President Johnson deeply disturbed the congressional Republicans when he announced on December 6, 1865 » that the rebellious states had satisfied his conditions » and in his view the Union was now restored.
    38. 38. p472
    39. 39. VIII. Johnson Clashes with Congress • Clash explored in February 1866: – When the president vetoed a bill extending the life of the controversial Freedmen’s Bureau: – The Republicans passed the Civil Rights Bill: • Conferred on blacks the privilege of American citizenship • Struck at the Black Codes • Vetoed by President Johnson • But in April congressmen steamrollered it over his veto—something repeatedly done:
    40. 40. VIII. Johnson Clashes with Congress (cont.) – The lawmakers riveted the principles of the Civil Rights Bill into the Fourteenth Amendment: • Approved by Congress and sent to the states-1866 • Ratified-1868 • Most sweeping amendment, major pillar of constitutional law: – Conferred civil rights, including citizenship, excluding the franchise, on the freedman – Reduced proportionately the representation of a state in Congress and the Electoral College if it denied blacks the ballot
    41. 41. VIII. Johnson Clashes with Congress (cont.) – Disqualified from federal and state office former Confederates who as federal officeholders had once sworn “to support the Constitution of the United States” – Guaranteed the federal debt, while repudiating all Confederate debts (see the text of the Fourteenth Amendment in the Appendix). • The radical faction was disappointed that the Fourteenth Amendment did not grant the right to vote. – All Republicans agreed no state should be admitted back into the Union without first ratifying the Fourteenth Amendment.
    42. 42. p473
    43. 43. IX. Swinging ‘Round the Circle with Johnson • The battle between Johnson and Congress: – controversy “10 percent” government that passed the Black Code: • Worst feature—the embattled Freedmen’s Bureau and passing the Civil Right Bill • Both measures Johnson had vetoed • Now the acceptance of the principles enshrined in the Fourteenth Amendment • The Republicans would settle for nothing less.
    44. 44. IX. Swing ‘Round the Circle with Johnson (cont.) • The crucial congressional elections of 1866— • His famous “swing ‘round the circle” late summer (1866)-a seriocomedy of errors • Delivered a series of “give ‘em hell” speeches • As a vote getter, he was highly successful, for the opposition • His inept speechmaking heightened the cry “Stand by Congress” against the “Tailor of the Potomac.” • When the votes were counted, the Republicans had more than a two-third majority in both houses of Congress.
    45. 45. X. Republican Principles and Programs – The Republican had a veto-proof Congress and unlimited control of Reconstruction policy – The Radicals: • The Senate was led by courtly and principled idealist Charles Sumner: – Labored tirelessly for black freedom and racial equality • In the House the most powerful was Thaddeus Stevens – He had defended runaway slaves in court without fees – And insisted on being buried in a black cemetery – Was affectionately devoted to blacks.
    46. 46. X. Republican Principles and Programs (cont.) – Was a leading figure on the Joint (House-Senate) Committee on Reconstruction. • Radicals opposed to rapid restoration of the Southern states: – Wanted to keep them out as long as possible – Apply federal power to bring about a drastic social and economic transformation in the South. • Moderate Republicans: – Attuned to the time-honored principles of states’ rights and self-government – Recoiled from the full implications of the radical program – Preferred policies that restrained the states from abridging citizens rights
    47. 47. X. Republican Principles and Programs (cont.) – Rather than policies that directly involved the federal government in individual lives • The actual policies adopted by Congress showed the influence of both groups: – By 1867 both groups agreed on the necessity to enfranchise black votes, even if it took federal troops to do it.
    48. 48. p475
    49. 49. XI. Reconstruction by the Sword • The Reconstruction Act passed by Congress on March 2, 1867 (see Map 22.1) – It divided the South into five military districts: • Each commanded by a Union general • Policed by blue-clad soldiers, about 20,000 • Temporarily disfranchised ten of thousands of former Confederates. – Congress laid stringent condition for readmission • Wayward states were required to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment: giving former slaves their right as citizens.
    50. 50. XI. Reconstruction by the Sword (cont.) • Bitterest pill--the stipulation that they guarantee in their state constitutions full suffrage to their former adult male slaves: • Stopped short of giving the freedmen land or education a federal expense • Overriding purpose of the moderates: – To create an electorate in Southern states that would vote their states back into the Union: » On acceptable terms » Thus freeing the government from direct responsibility for the protection of black rights. » This approach proved woefully inadequate to the cause of justice for blacks.
    51. 51. XI. Reconstruction by the Sword (cont.) • Radical Republicans: – Only safeguard was to incorporate black suffrage in the federal Constitution – Congress sought to provide constitutional protection for the suffrage provisions of the Reconstruction Act – Fifteenth Amendment, passed by Congress 1869 and ratified by the required number of states in 1870 (see Appendix). • Military Reconstruction of the South: – Usurped certain presidential functions as commander in chief – Set up a martial regime of dubious legality.
    52. 52. XI. Reconstruction by the Sword (cont.) • Ex parte Milligan (1866): – – – – Military tribunals could not try civilians, Even during wartime In areas where the civil courts were open. Peacetime military rule seemed starkly contrary to the spirit of the Constitution. – Southern states: • Started the task of constitution making • All of them had reorganized their governments (1870) • And accorded full rights (see Table 22.2)
    53. 53. XI. Reconstruction by the Sword (cont.) • When federal troops finally left a state, its government swiftly passed back into the hands of white Redeemers, or “Home Rule” regimes— inevitably Democratic • In 1877 the last federal muskets were removed from state politics, and the “solid” Democratic South congealed.
    54. 54. Map 22-1 p476
    55. 55. XII. No Women Voters – The struggle for black freedom and the crusade for women’s rights were one and the same in the eyes of many women: – Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony: • During the war temporarily shelved their own demands • And worked wholeheartedly for the cause of black emancipation • The Woman’s Loyal League gathered 400,000 signatures on petitions asking Congress to pass a constitutional amendment prohibiting slavery.
    56. 56. XII. No Women Voters (cont.) – War over and the Thirteenth Amendment passed: • Feminist leaders believed the time had come • Reeled with shock when the wording of the Fourteenth Amendment: – which defined equal citizenship – Inserted the word male into the Constitution in referring to a citizen’s right to vote • Both Stanton and Anthony campaigned actively against the Fourteenth Amendment: – Despite pleas from Frederick Douglass, who supported woman suffrage, but believed this was “the Negro’s hour.”
    57. 57. XII. No Women Voters (cont.) – When the Fifteenth proposed to prohibit denial of the vote on the basis of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude,” Stanton and Anthony wanted the word sex added to the list: • They lost this battle, too • Fifty years would pass before the Constitution granted women the right to vote.
    58. 58. Table 22-2 p477
    59. 59. XIII. The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South • Blacks now had freedom, of a sort: – Congress, haltingly and belatedly, secured the franchise for them – Presidents Lincoln and Johnson proposed to give the ballot gradually: • To select blacks • Who qualified for it through: – Education, property ownership, or military service. – Moderates and many radicals first hesitated to bestow suffrage on the freedman.
    60. 60. XIII. The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South (cont.) • The Fourteenth Amendment was the heart of the Republican program for Reconstruction: – Fallen short of guaranteeing the right to vote: – It envisioned for blacks and women—citizenship without voting rights – Northern states withheld the ballot from their tiny black minorities – Southerners concluded that the Republicans were hypocritical in insisting that Blacks in the South be allowed to vote.
    61. 61. XIII. The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South (cont.) • Union League: – Black men seized the initiative to organize politically: • Freedmen turned the League into a network of political clubs • Mission included building black churches and schools • Representing black grievances before local employers and government • Recruiting militias to protect black communities from white retaliation.
    62. 62. XIII. The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South (cont.) • African American women’s roles: – They did not obtain the right to vote – They faithfully attended parades and rallies common in black communities – Helped assemble mass meetings in the newly constructed black churches – Showed up at constitutional convention, monitoring the proceeding and participating in informal votes outside the convention halls.
    63. 63. XIII. The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South (cont.) • African American men’s roles: – Black men elected as delegates to state constitutional convention held the greater political authority: • Formed the backbone of the black political communities • At conventions, they sat down with whites to hammer out new state constitutions—that provided for universal male suffrage – While no blacks were governors or majorities in state senates, their power increased exponentially.
    64. 64. XIII. The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South (cont.) • Scalawags and carpetbaggers: – Onetime masters who lashed out with fury at the freemen’s white allies: • Scalawags—were Southerners, former Unionists and Whigs • Carpetbaggers—were supposedly sleazy Northerners who packed all their worldly goods into a carpetbag suitcase at war’s end and had come to seek personal power and profit: – Most were former Union soldiers, Northern businessmen, who wanted to play a role in modernizing the “New South.”
    65. 65. XIII. The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South (cont.) • Radical regimes (legislatures) rule: • Passed desirable legislation • Introduced many sorely needed reforms • Took steps toward establishing adequate public schools • Tax systems were streamlined • Public works were launched • Property rights were granted to women – These welcome reforms were retained by the all-white “Redeemer” government that later returned to power.
    66. 66. XIII. The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South (cont.) • Despite achievements corruption ran rampant: • Especially true in South Carolina and Louisiana • Conscienceless promoters and pocket-padders used inexperienced blacks as pawns • The worst “black-and-white” legislatures purchased: – As “legislative supplies,” such “stationery” as hams, perfumes, suspenders, bonnets, corsets, champagne, and a coffin. • This type of corruption was by no means confined to the South in these postwar years.
    67. 67. p478
    68. 68. p479
    69. 69. XIV. The Ku Klux Klan – Reactions: • Deeply embittered, some Southern whites resorted to savage measures against “radical” rule • Whites resented the success of black legislators • Secret organizations mushroomed • Most notorious—“Invisible Empire of the South”: – Ku Klux Klan, founded in Tennessee in 1866 – Used fright, tomfoolery, and terror against “upstart” Blacks – Those “upstarts” who persisted were flogged, mutilated, and murdered – The Klan became a refuge for numerous bandits and cutthroats. Any scoundrel could don a sheet.
    70. 70. XIV. The Ku Klux Klan (cont.) • Force Acts (1870-1871): – Used to stamp out much of the “last law.” • White resistance: • Undermined attempts to empower blacks politically • The white South flouted the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments • Wholesale disfranchisement of blacks in 1890: – Achieved by intimidation, fraud, and trickery – Underhanded schemes: literacy tests, unfairly administered by whites to the advantage of illiterate whites – The goal of white supremacy fully justified these devices.
    71. 71. p479
    72. 72. XV. Johnson Walks the Impeachment Plank • Radicals attempt to remove Johnson from office: – Initial step—Tenure of Office Act (1867)— • Passed over Johnson’s veto • The new law required the president to secure the consent of the Senate before he could remove his appointees once they had been approved – One purpose was to freeze into the cabinet the secretary of war, Edwin M. Stanton – A holdover from Lincoln’s administration – Who secretly was serving as a spy and informer for radicals.
    73. 73. XV. Johnson Walks the Impeachment Plank (cont.) • Impeachment: – Johnson abruptly dismissed Stanton early 1868 – House immediately voted 126 to 47 to impeach Johnson: • For “high crimes and misdemeanors” as required by the Constitution • Charging him with various violations of the Tenure of Office Act • Two additional articles related to Johnson’s verbal assaults on Congress – Involving “disgrace, ridicule, hatred, contempt, reproach.”
    74. 74. p481
    75. 75. XVI. A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson • Court of Johnson’s trial: – The House conducted the prosecution: • Johnson kept his dignity, sobriety and maintained a discreet silence – His attorneys argued that the president was testing the constitutionality of the Tenure of Office Act by firing Stanton – House prosecutors had a harder time building a compelling case for impeachment – May 16, 1868, by a margin of one vote, the radicals failed to muster a two-thirds majority to remove Johnson – Seven independent-minded Republicans senators voted “not guilty.”
    76. 76. XVI. A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson (cont.) • Several factors shaped the outcome: • Fears of creating a destabilizing precedent: • Principled opposition to abusing the constitutional mechanism of checks and balances • Political considerations: – his successor would have been radical Republican Benjamin Wade, the president pro tempore of the Senate – Wade was disliked by the business community for his hightariff, soft-money, pro-labor views – Was also distrusted by the moderate Republicans.
    77. 77. XVI. A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson (cont.) • Diehard radicals: – Infuriated by their failure to secure the 2/3 votes to remove Johnson – The nation accepted the verdict with a good temper that showed political maturity – The nation narrowly avoided a dangerous precedent that would have gravely weakened one of the three branches of the federal government.
    78. 78. XVII. The Purchase of Alaska • Johnson’s administration: – Though feeble at home – Had achieved its most enduring success in the field of foreign relations: • Russians wanted to sell Alaska – In case of war with Britain Russia would have lost to the sea-dominant British – Alaska had been ruthlessly “furred out” and was a growing economic liability – Russians were eager to unload their “frozen asset”
    79. 79. XVII. The Purchase of Alaska (cont.) – They preferred the United States , primarily because they wanted to strength the American Republic as a barrier against the ancient enemy, Britain. • 1867 Secretary of State William Seward, an ardent expansionist, signed a treaty with Russia: – That transferred Alaska to the United States for the bargain price of $7.2 million (see Map 22.2) – Steward’s enthusiasm was not shared by his ignorant and uninformed countrymen, who called it: Seward’s Folly, “Seward’s icebox,” “Frigidia,” and “Walrussian.”
    80. 80. XVII. The Purchase of Alaska (cont.) • Why did the United States purchase Alaska? • Russia alone among the powers had been conspicuously friendly to the North during the recent Civil War • America did not think they could offend their great and good friend, the tsar • The territory had furs, fish, and gold and other natural resources, including oil and gas • So Congress accepted “Seward’s Polar Bear Garden.”
    81. 81. Map 22-2 p482
    82. 82. XVIII. The Heritage of Reconstruction • White Southerners regarded Reconstruction as a more grievous wound than the war itself: • Left scars that took generations to heal • Resented the upending of their social and racial system • Resented the political empowerment of blacks and the insult of federal intervention in their affairs • The wonder, given all the feelings, etc, that Reconstruction was not far harsher than it was.
    83. 83. XVIII. The Heritage of Reconstruction (cont.) • No one knew at the end what federal policy toward the South should be • Republicans acted from a mixture of idealism and political expediency: – They wanted to protect the freed slaves – Promote the fortunes of the Republican party – In the end their efforts backfired badly. • Reconstruction: – conferred only fleeting benefits on blacks and – virtually destroyed the Republican Party in the South for nearly one hundred years.
    84. 84. XVIII. The Heritage of Reconstruction (cont.) • Moderate Republicans: • Never fully appreciated the extensive effort to make the freed slaves completely independent citizens • Nor the lengths to which Southern whites would go to preserve the system of racial dominance • Despite good intentions by Republicans, the Old South was more resurrected than reconstructed, spelled continuing woe for generations of southern blacks.
    85. 85. p482
    86. 86. p485