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Manifest destiny

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  • Emanuel Leutze, Westward the Course of Empire takes its Way, 1860 Wikipedia Commons
    Image of Santa Anna: Wikipedia Commons
    Image of Zachary Taylor: Painted by Joseph H. Bush Courtesy of White House Historical Association www.whitehousehistory.org/whha.../presidentshouse_taylor-01.html
    Map of Oregon Territory: Wikipedia Commons
  • Wikipedia Commons
  • Public domain Wikipedia Commons
  • Public domain
  • Wikipedia Commons
  • Public domain
  • Source: Wikipedia Commons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Oregoncountry.png
  • Wikipedia Commons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wpdms_republic_of_texas.svg
  • Painted by Joseph H. Bush Courtesy of White House Historical Association www.whitehousehistory.org/whha.../presidentshouse_taylor-01.html
  • Wikipedia Commons
  • Wikipedia Commons Author: Kaidor
  • Wikipedia Commons General Scottt’s entrance into Mexico in the Mexican-American War. Hand-colored lithograph; original size of painted area: 43.2×28.2 cm. 1851
  • Wikipedia Commons
  • Courtesy of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin
  • LOAPUSH ch 17

    1. 1. UNIT 7 Manifest Destiny in the 1840s
    2. 2. THEME Emboldened with a spirit of “Manifest Destiny” the United States acquired vast territories in the 1840s. The acquisition of Texas and half of the Oregon Territory was followed by the Mexican War that yielded the U.S. the vast Mexican Cession and reignited the slavery issue.
    3. 3. MANIFEST DESTINY IN THE 1840s I. President John Tyler A. Death of President Harrison, 1841 -- Vice President Tyler ascended to the presidency President William Henry Harrison had only been in office one month when he died of pneumonia.
    4. 4. President John Tyler 1841-1845 Whig
    5. 5. B. Tyler had Jacksonian views -- Thwarted Webster & Clay C. Signed bill to end Independent Treasury System D. Vetoed Clay’s attempt at a new BUS E. Tyler was expelled from his party and his entire cabinet resigned
    6. 6. II. Manifest Destiny A. Many Americans believed they were destined to conquer the continent 1. Really began with Jackson’s Indian removal policies in 1830s 2. Definition coined by John L. O’Sullivan
    7. 7. B. Election of 1844 1. Democrats nominated James K. Polk -- Sought to annex Texas and take control of the Oregon Territory 2. Whigs nominated Henry Clay -- Clay’s mistaken strategy 3. Liberty Party 4. James K. Polk d. Henry Clay
    8. 8. Emmanuel Leutze: “Westward the Course of Empire”, 1861
    9. 9. John Gast, “American Progress,” 1872
    10. 10. Manifest Destiny = “TOM” T exas, 1845 O regon, 1846 M exican Cession (CA, UT territory, NM territory), 1848
    11. 11. President James K. Polk 1845-1849 Democrat
    12. 12. III. Texas joins the Union A. Republic of Texas lasted 9 years B. Texas was the leading issue of the 1844 presidential campaign C. Tyler pushed for annexation and got a joint resolution from Congress (during his lame-duck period) D. Mexico refused to recognize the annexation
    13. 13. IV. President James K. Polk A. One of the most successful oneterm presidents in U.S. history B. Polk’s 4-point program 1. Walker Tariff of 1846: Lowered rate from 32% to 25% 2. Restoration of Independent Treasury System (1846) 3. Acquisition of California 4. Settlement of the Oregon dispute with Britain
    14. 14. Polk’s Presidency: “COIL” C alifornia O regon I ndependent Treasury System L ower Tariff (Walker Tariff, 1846)
    15. 15. C. Oregon 1. British and U.S. claims -- John Jacob Astor: American Fur Company 2. Americans migrated by the thousands into Oregon south of the Columbia River a. Oregon Trail b. British concerns c. Polk abandoned the 54˚40’ campaign pledge
    16. 16. The Oregon Trail
    17. 17. ALBERT BIERSTADT (1830-1902) The Oregon Trail, 1869
    18. 18. The Oregon Boundary Dispute
    19. 19. 3. Oregon Treaty, 1846: U.S. received land below the 49th parallel
    20. 20. D. Causes of the Mexican War 1. Polk sought to buy California from Mexico a. California was the gateway to the Pacific b. Mexico severed diplomatic relations with U.S. after Texas annexation c. Border dispute: -- Nueces River vs. Rio Grande
    21. 21. Texas Border Dispute
    22. 22. d. U.S. (Texas) claims against Mexico: $3 million e. John Slidell failed to purchase California
    23. 23. 2. Declaration of war against Mexico a. January, 1846: Polk sent Gen. Zachary Taylor across the Nueces River to the Rio Grande Zachary Taylor became America’s biggest war hero after the Mexican War and was elected president the year it ended in 1848
    24. 24. General Zachary Taylor crossed the Nueces River and built a fort on the northern bank of the Rio Grande before Mexico attacked. Fort Brown where the war began
    25. 25. b. April, 1846: Mexican forces crossed the Rio Grande and attacked U.S. forces i. Polk sent a war message to Congress ii. Congress overwhelmingly voted for war A U.S. officer is killed defending Fort Texas (Fort Brown) during the Mexican siege of the fort in early May, 1846
    26. 26. c. “Conscience Whigs: a majority of Whigs opposed the war in principle (although only 14 voted against declaring war) i. “Spot resolutions”: Abe Lincoln ii. Emerson: “Mexico will poison us!” iii. Henry David Thoreau: “Civil Disobedience” (1849)
    27. 27. 3. U.S. invaded Mexico with a threepronged attack a. California by land b. California by sea c. Invasion of central Mexico i. General Zachary Taylor General Santa Anna, who had been defeated by Texas in 1836, seized power in Mexico again in 1846 and led Mexico’s failed efforts to repel the U.S. invasion.
    28. 28. Major Battles of the Mexican War
    29. 29. ii. Gen. Winfield Scott occupies Mexico City
    30. 30. 4. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Feb, 1848) a. Provisions: i. U.S. purchased California for $15 million ii. U.S. gained New Mexico and Utah Territories iii. U.S. gov’t to pay for Mexican damages to Texas property b. Senate ratification occurred despite bitter debate -- “Mexican Whigs”
    31. 31. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848
    32. 32. U.S. Territorial Gains: 1845-1854
    33. 33. 4.Results of Mexican War a. Slavery issue reignited (most important short-term result) b. Wilmot Proviso, 1848 c. U.S. land increased by 1/3 d. 13,000 Americans died (mostly due to disease) e. Increased expansionist sentiment f. Negative turning point in relations with Latin America g. U.S. military experience increased scope of Civil War
    34. 34. From the cover of “A Voice from the South, 1847”