Eisenhower Era
Chapter 37
Economic Boom
 Huge surge in home-building
 80% where in the suburbs.
 Revolution in electronics. Made businesses
more ...
The Duel Role of Women
 1950s cult of domesticity.
 Most women retreated to being mothers and
home-makers.
 Quiet revol...
Feminine Mystique
 Betty Friedan publishes the Feminine
Mystique in 1963; opening bell of the
Feminist Movement.
 Attack...
Consumer Culture In The Fifties
 First credit card emerged in 1950 and quickly caught on.
 First McDonalds opened in 195...
Democrats in 1952
 Prospects for the
Democrats in 1952 were
relatively bleak. Why?
 Truman clash with
MacArthur
 milita...
Ike
 Republicans run Eisenhower
who is immensely popular.
 Richard Nixon selected as
VP. Why?.
 Ike leaves the heavy-hi...
Ike Wins Easily
Ending Korea
 Ike goes to Korea before the inauguration
to jump-start the peace talks to no effect.
 He gets things goin...
Ike Takes Command
 Ike was the right man for the times. People
yearned for Harding’s Normalcy.
 Ike was both a soothing ...
Fall of Joe McCarthy
 McCarthy most ruthless anti-
communist fear-monger,
 McCarthy’s tactics.
 Accusations against Geo...
Red Scare
Loyalty Review Board
House Un-American
Activities
Hollywood Ten and the black list
Desegregating The South
 In 1950 2/3 of Americas 15
million blacks still lived in the
South.
 Jim Crow laws
 Only 20% o...
Plessey V. Ferguson
Jim Crow laws
keep blacks in
virtual slavery
WEB
Jackie Robinson and the
Dodgers take on Segeration
Emit Tills
Blacks Push Back
 NAACP use courts to attempt to
dismantle segregation.
 1944—Supreme Court
invalidates the All-White
pr...
Seeds Of Civil Rights Revolution
 Truman integrates the military
 Congress stubbornly resists passing Civil Rights
legis...
Thurgood Marshall and the
N.A.A.C.P.
Civil Right Progresses
 1957 Congress passes the
first Civil Rights Bill since
Reconstruction. Relatively
mild.
 Provisi...
“Warren Court”
Sit-In Movement
 1960 Sit-in movement
begins in Greensboro
North Car. Becomes an
effective mass movement.
 April 1960 So...
Eisenhower Republicanism At Home
 “Dynamic conservatism”
 Eisenhower tried to balance the federal
budget, but was only s...
A New Look In Foreign Policy
 Ike pledged to roll back
communism.
 Sec. of State, John Foster Dulles.
 Also pledged to ...
Hungary
 1956 Soviets crush a democratic
uprising in Hungary.
 One of the most western-leaning
of the Eastern-European
c...
Hungarian uprising 30,00 killed by Soviet
Union—no help from the United States ( Truman Doctrine?)
Vietnam
 French Indochina
 Causes of domestic communist
movement
 1954 French in Viet Nam facing a
very determined guer...
A False Lull In Europe
 West Germany joins NATO in 1955.
 Soviets form the Warsaw pact.
 US tried to thaw the Cold War ...
WARSAW pact U.S.S.R
forms the WARSAW pact
alliance in response to
West Germany joining
N.A.T.O. in 1955.
“Open Skies”
prop...
The Cold War spreads
Iran and Oil 1953 overthrow of
government
-effects relations today?
Guatemala and land
Menaces In The Middle East
 US fearful of Soviet incursions
into the Middle East.
 Iran became a trouble-spot.
 CIA cou...
The Suez war 1956
U.S.S.R and U.S.A bid to help build
Aswan Dam-U.S withdraws offer
Nasser, (Egyptian Leader), Nationalize...
Eisenhower Doctrine
 Eisenhower Doctrine in 1957.
 Middle East remains a key American strategic
area for the rest of the...
The Voters Still Like “Ike” In 1956
 Hungary and the Suez made voters
concerned about foreign affairs
 Gave Ike a huge a...
1956 Election
Round Two For “Ike”
 Ike in poor health in his second term and
turned a lot of the work over to his
underlings.
 Goes af...
Cold War Takes to the Skies
Nikita Khrushchev: Leader after Stalin
The Race Into Space
 1957, Sputnik.
 Huge PR win for USSR.
 Impact on US psyche
 Concern about “Missile Gap”
 Led to ...
The Continuing Cold War
 Summit at Camp David is
a success,
 U-2 spy plane incident
sours relations again.
 Gary Powers...
U-2 and pilot Gary Powers shot down over U.S.S.R in May 1960
Renewed Confrontation
What U-2?
What Pilot? It
was a weather
balloon!
OH! That U-2--Yea it
is ours but we are
not sorry!!
Castro in Cuba
 Cuban rebels under Castro throw
out the repressive Cuban
dictator, Batista.
 How does he anger US? What
...
Crises over Cuba
Cuban Revolution 1956-59 lead
by Fidel Castro
Castro declares Cuba Communist aligns with
Soviet Union—con...
Kennedy v. Nixon
 In 1960, Nixon is the front-runner.
 Very visible VP; famous debate with Kruschev
in Moscow.
 Reputat...
The Presidential Issues Of 1960
 Kennedy’s Catholicism.
 Kennedy neutralized the issue
 Kennedy charges that Republican...
Nixon vs. Kennedy
First Television debate
Camelot Years
Kennedy Mystique
The Best and the Brightest
LOAPUSH 37 I like Ike
LOAPUSH 37 I like Ike
LOAPUSH 37 I like Ike
LOAPUSH 37 I like Ike
LOAPUSH 37 I like Ike
LOAPUSH 37 I like Ike
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LOAPUSH 37 I like Ike

  1. 1. Eisenhower Era Chapter 37
  2. 2. Economic Boom  Huge surge in home-building  80% where in the suburbs.  Revolution in electronics. Made businesses more efficient and fueled business expansions.  Aerospace industry also took off.  Revolution in the work force—  white-collar workers exceeds blue-collar for the first time.  Union membership as percentage of employees peaks in 1954 and then steadily declines for the rest of the century.
  3. 3. The Duel Role of Women  1950s cult of domesticity.  Most women retreated to being mothers and home-makers.  Quiet revolution of women entering the work force.  Of 40 Million jobs created between 1950-80, 30 Million were in the clerical and service sector. Women filled the vast majority of these jobs.  Leads to the women’s movement.  Complaints of women in the work force.
  4. 4. Feminine Mystique  Betty Friedan publishes the Feminine Mystique in 1963; opening bell of the Feminist Movement.  Attacked the boredom of housewifery and a system that told women they shouldn’t want more.  Validated women who wanted more than being a wife and mother.  Rosie the Riveter's Daughters
  5. 5. Consumer Culture In The Fifties  First credit card emerged in 1950 and quickly caught on.  First McDonalds opened in 1950  1955 Disneyland opens  New consumerism based on easy credit, quick and easy food and other services and new entertainment.  TV exploded.  Sports Franchises like the Dodgers and Giants moved to California and sports were increasingly seen on TV.  Birth of Rock and Roll.  Elvis fuses Blues and Country. Kids love it. Parents hate it.
  6. 6. Democrats in 1952  Prospects for the Democrats in 1952 were relatively bleak. Why?  Truman clash with MacArthur  military deadlock in Korea  War-bred inflation  whiffs of Scandal  Also, 20 years of Democratic presidents  Democrats nominate Adlai Stevenson
  7. 7. Ike  Republicans run Eisenhower who is immensely popular.  Richard Nixon selected as VP. Why?.  Ike leaves the heavy-hitting to Nixon.  Nixon and the Checkers Speech
  8. 8. Ike Wins Easily
  9. 9. Ending Korea  Ike goes to Korea before the inauguration to jump-start the peace talks to no effect.  He gets things going when he threatens to use nuclear weapons.  Armistice (not a peace treaty) end fighting and returns the border to the 38th parallel.  The border continues to be very tense and the two Koreas technically remain at war.  US leaves troops permanently stationed on the border as a trip wire.  54,000 American dead in the war. 1 Mill. dead Chinese and Koreans from both sides.
  10. 10. Ike Takes Command  Ike was the right man for the times. People yearned for Harding’s Normalcy.  Ike was both a soothing figure who would not challenge the people and would support business  As a former General was a comforting man to have at the helm in the Cold War.  Ike strove to stay above the partisan fray.  But, failed to use his popularity as a tool for moving and shaping the country. He is a care- taker president.
  11. 11. Fall of Joe McCarthy  McCarthy most ruthless anti- communist fear-monger,  McCarthy’s tactics.  Accusations against George Marshall  Ike and the party were afraid to get in his way  Army McCarthy Hearings are his undoing.
  12. 12. Red Scare Loyalty Review Board House Un-American Activities Hollywood Ten and the black list
  13. 13. Desegregating The South  In 1950 2/3 of Americas 15 million blacks still lived in the South.  Jim Crow laws  Only 20% of eligible blacks were registered to vote.  Treatment of black war vets.  Emmett Till  1944—An American Dilemma  Jackie Robinson
  14. 14. Plessey V. Ferguson Jim Crow laws keep blacks in virtual slavery
  15. 15. WEB
  16. 16. Jackie Robinson and the Dodgers take on Segeration
  17. 17. Emit Tills
  18. 18. Blacks Push Back  NAACP use courts to attempt to dismantle segregation.  1944—Supreme Court invalidates the All-White primary  1950 Supreme court overturned “separate but equal” in professional schools  1955—Rosa Parks and Birmingham Bus Boycott  Martin Luther King.
  19. 19. Seeds Of Civil Rights Revolution  Truman integrates the military  Congress stubbornly resists passing Civil Rights legislation.  Earl Warren and Supreme Court  Brown v. Board of Education—1954  Little Rock School Integration  Orval Faubus and National Guard
  20. 20. Thurgood Marshall and the N.A.A.C.P.
  21. 21. Civil Right Progresses  1957 Congress passes the first Civil Rights Bill since Reconstruction. Relatively mild.  Provisions.  1957 King formed the Southern Christian Leadership conference (SCLC)  Goals and Purpose
  22. 22. “Warren Court”
  23. 23. Sit-In Movement  1960 Sit-in movement begins in Greensboro North Car. Becomes an effective mass movement.  April 1960 Southern Black students formed the Student Non-Violent coordinating Committee (SNCC).  Often at odds with SCLC.
  24. 24. Eisenhower Republicanism At Home  “Dynamic conservatism”  Eisenhower tried to balance the federal budget, but was only successful 3 out of 8 years.  Eisenhower and the New Deal.  Interstate Highway Act of 1956
  25. 25. A New Look In Foreign Policy  Ike pledged to roll back communism.  Sec. of State, John Foster Dulles.  Also pledged to reduce military spending.  How to do both?  Strategic long-range bombers.  Strategic Air Command (SAC)  Ike also sought, with only limited success, to thaw the Cold War.
  26. 26. Hungary  1956 Soviets crush a democratic uprising in Hungary.  One of the most western-leaning of the Eastern-European countries.  America had no way to intervene.  Reaffirms fears that Soviets are out to create a communist empire.  Reveals the problem with security based on massive retaliation.
  27. 27. Hungarian uprising 30,00 killed by Soviet Union—no help from the United States ( Truman Doctrine?)
  28. 28. Vietnam  French Indochina  Causes of domestic communist movement  1954 French in Viet Nam facing a very determined guerrilla movement.  US was financing about 80% of the French costs.  March 1954 French garrison at Dienbienphu defeated.  International conference divides Viet Nam.  US backs the south with economic and military aid
  29. 29. A False Lull In Europe  West Germany joins NATO in 1955.  Soviets form the Warsaw pact.  US tried to thaw the Cold War by getting arms control agreements.  Hopes for a real thaw were dashed, though, by Soviet “invasion” of Hungary.
  30. 30. WARSAW pact U.S.S.R forms the WARSAW pact alliance in response to West Germany joining N.A.T.O. in 1955. “Open Skies” proposed in Geneva in 1955-rejected by Soviet Union.
  31. 31. The Cold War spreads Iran and Oil 1953 overthrow of government -effects relations today? Guatemala and land
  32. 32. Menaces In The Middle East  US fearful of Soviet incursions into the Middle East.  Iran became a trouble-spot.  CIA coup; Shah, Mohammed Reza Pahlevi  Suez Canal  President Nasser of Egypt—Arab Nationalist
  33. 33. The Suez war 1956 U.S.S.R and U.S.A bid to help build Aswan Dam-U.S withdraws offer Nasser, (Egyptian Leader), Nationalizes Canal-no ships allowed for Israel. The Canal was built and owned by G.B and France. They seize the canal and Israel invades This leads to the Eisenhower Doctrine. U.S. will defend Middle East
  34. 34. Eisenhower Doctrine  Eisenhower Doctrine in 1957.  Middle East remains a key American strategic area for the rest of the century.  Goals:  Keep Soviets out so that they cannot control the oil.  Protect Israel.  Keep the Arab nations friendly to US so that continue to supply oil.  Give them lots of economic and military.
  35. 35. The Voters Still Like “Ike” In 1956  Hungary and the Suez made voters concerned about foreign affairs  Gave Ike a huge advantage in 1956 election.  Democrats re-nominate Stevenson.  Ike trounces Stevenson even worse than the last time, 457-73.  Ike has no coat-tails and Congress remains in the hands of the Democrats.
  36. 36. 1956 Election
  37. 37. Round Two For “Ike”  Ike in poor health in his second term and turned a lot of the work over to his underlings.  Goes after labor unions; had increasingly been found to be corrupt and infiltrated by the mob.  Worst example was the Teamsters Union.  Landrum-Griffin Act
  38. 38. Cold War Takes to the Skies Nikita Khrushchev: Leader after Stalin
  39. 39. The Race Into Space  1957, Sputnik.  Huge PR win for USSR.  Impact on US psyche  Concern about “Missile Gap”  Led to put renewed emphasis on science and math training in schools.  Led to space race.
  40. 40. The Continuing Cold War  Summit at Camp David is a success,  U-2 spy plane incident sours relations again.  Gary Powers is paraded around Moscow.
  41. 41. U-2 and pilot Gary Powers shot down over U.S.S.R in May 1960
  42. 42. Renewed Confrontation What U-2? What Pilot? It was a weather balloon! OH! That U-2--Yea it is ours but we are not sorry!!
  43. 43. Castro in Cuba  Cuban rebels under Castro throw out the repressive Cuban dictator, Batista.  How does he anger US? What does US do?.  USSR backs Castro.  Cuba seen as Soviet proxy.  Khrushchev threat.  Latin American Marshall Plan  Impact on US foreign policy in Latin America
  44. 44. Crises over Cuba Cuban Revolution 1956-59 lead by Fidel Castro Castro declares Cuba Communist aligns with Soviet Union—containment failed
  45. 45. Kennedy v. Nixon  In 1960, Nixon is the front-runner.  Very visible VP; famous debate with Kruschev in Moscow.  Reputation as a nasty politician and a somewhat unprincipled.  Democratic race is close in the primaries, but John F. Kennedy wins out over Lyndon Johnson, Senator from Texas.  LBJ is nominated for VP.
  46. 46. The Presidential Issues Of 1960  Kennedy’s Catholicism.  Kennedy neutralized the issue  Kennedy charges that Republicans have caused a missile gap.  Television played an important role.  Nixon-Kennedy Debate.  Kennedy won relatively easily in the electoral college, but by only 100,000 votes in the popular vote.
  47. 47. Nixon vs. Kennedy First Television debate
  48. 48. Camelot Years Kennedy Mystique The Best and the Brightest
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