Huge surge in home-building
80% where in the suburbs.
Revolution in electronics. Made businesses
more efficient and fueled business expansions.
Aerospace industry also took off.
Revolution in the work force—
white-collar workers exceeds blue-collar for the first
Union membership as percentage of employees
peaks in 1954 and then steadily declines for the rest
of the century.
The Duel Role of Women
1950s cult of domesticity.
Most women retreated to being mothers and
Quiet revolution of women entering the work
Of 40 Million jobs created between 1950-80, 30
Million were in the clerical and service sector.
Women filled the vast majority of these jobs.
Leads to the women’s movement.
Complaints of women in the work force.
Betty Friedan publishes the Feminine
Mystique in 1963; opening bell of the
Attacked the boredom of housewifery and
a system that told women they shouldn’t
Validated women who wanted more than
being a wife and mother.
Rosie the Riveter's Daughters
Consumer Culture In The Fifties
First credit card emerged in 1950 and quickly caught on.
First McDonalds opened in 1950
1955 Disneyland opens
New consumerism based on easy credit, quick and easy
food and other services and new entertainment.
Sports Franchises like the Dodgers and Giants moved to
California and sports were increasingly seen on TV.
Birth of Rock and Roll.
Elvis fuses Blues and Country. Kids love it. Parents hate it.
Democrats in 1952
Prospects for the
Democrats in 1952 were
relatively bleak. Why?
Truman clash with
military deadlock in Korea
whiffs of Scandal
Also, 20 years of
Democrats nominate Adlai
Republicans run Eisenhower
who is immensely popular.
Richard Nixon selected as
Ike leaves the heavy-hitting to
Nixon and the Checkers
Ike goes to Korea before the inauguration
to jump-start the peace talks to no effect.
He gets things going when he threatens
to use nuclear weapons.
Armistice (not a peace treaty) end fighting
and returns the border to the 38th
The border continues to be very tense
and the two Koreas technically remain at
US leaves troops permanently stationed
on the border as a trip wire.
54,000 American dead in the war. 1 Mill.
dead Chinese and Koreans from both
Ike Takes Command
Ike was the right man for the times. People
yearned for Harding’s Normalcy.
Ike was both a soothing figure who would not
challenge the people and would support
As a former General was a comforting man to
have at the helm in the Cold War.
Ike strove to stay above the partisan fray.
But, failed to use his popularity as a tool for
moving and shaping the country. He is a care-
Fall of Joe McCarthy
McCarthy most ruthless anti-
Accusations against George
Ike and the party were afraid to
get in his way
Army McCarthy Hearings are
Loyalty Review Board
Hollywood Ten and the black list
Desegregating The South
In 1950 2/3 of Americas 15
million blacks still lived in the
Jim Crow laws
Only 20% of eligible blacks
were registered to vote.
Treatment of black war vets.
Plessey V. Ferguson
Jim Crow laws
keep blacks in
Blacks Push Back
NAACP use courts to attempt to
invalidates the All-White
1950 Supreme court overturned
“separate but equal” in
1955—Rosa Parks and
Birmingham Bus Boycott
Martin Luther King.
Seeds Of Civil Rights Revolution
Truman integrates the military
Congress stubbornly resists passing Civil Rights
Earl Warren and Supreme Court
Brown v. Board of Education—1954
Little Rock School Integration
Orval Faubus and National Guard
Civil Right Progresses
1957 Congress passes the
first Civil Rights Bill since
1957 King formed the
Goals and Purpose
1960 Sit-in movement
begins in Greensboro
North Car. Becomes an
effective mass movement.
April 1960 Southern Black
students formed the
Often at odds with SCLC.
Eisenhower Republicanism At Home
Eisenhower tried to balance the federal
budget, but was only successful 3 out of 8
Eisenhower and the New Deal.
Interstate Highway Act of 1956
A New Look In Foreign Policy
Ike pledged to roll back
Sec. of State, John Foster Dulles.
Also pledged to reduce military
How to do both?
Strategic long-range bombers.
Strategic Air Command (SAC)
Ike also sought, with only
limited success, to thaw the
1956 Soviets crush a democratic
uprising in Hungary.
One of the most western-leaning
of the Eastern-European
America had no way to intervene.
Reaffirms fears that Soviets are
out to create a communist
Reveals the problem with security
based on massive retaliation.
Hungarian uprising 30,00 killed by Soviet
Union—no help from the United States ( Truman Doctrine?)
Causes of domestic communist
1954 French in Viet Nam facing a
very determined guerrilla
US was financing about 80% of the
March 1954 French garrison at
International conference divides
US backs the south with economic
and military aid
A False Lull In Europe
West Germany joins NATO in 1955.
Soviets form the Warsaw pact.
US tried to thaw the Cold War by getting
arms control agreements.
Hopes for a real thaw were dashed,
though, by Soviet “invasion” of Hungary.
WARSAW pact U.S.S.R
forms the WARSAW pact
alliance in response to
West Germany joining
N.A.T.O. in 1955.
proposed in Geneva
in 1955-rejected by
The Cold War spreads
Iran and Oil 1953 overthrow of
-effects relations today?
Guatemala and land
Menaces In The Middle East
US fearful of Soviet incursions
into the Middle East.
Iran became a trouble-spot.
CIA coup; Shah, Mohammed
President Nasser of Egypt—Arab
The Suez war 1956
U.S.S.R and U.S.A bid to help build
Aswan Dam-U.S withdraws offer
Nasser, (Egyptian Leader), Nationalizes
Canal-no ships allowed for Israel. The
Canal was built and owned by G.B and
France. They seize the canal and Israel
This leads to the Eisenhower
Doctrine. U.S. will defend
Eisenhower Doctrine in 1957.
Middle East remains a key American strategic
area for the rest of the century.
Keep Soviets out so that they cannot control the oil.
Keep the Arab nations friendly to US so that continue
to supply oil.
Give them lots of economic and military.
The Voters Still Like “Ike” In 1956
Hungary and the Suez made voters
concerned about foreign affairs
Gave Ike a huge advantage in 1956
Democrats re-nominate Stevenson.
Ike trounces Stevenson even worse than
the last time, 457-73.
Ike has no coat-tails and Congress
remains in the hands of the Democrats.
Round Two For “Ike”
Ike in poor health in his second term and
turned a lot of the work over to his
Goes after labor unions; had increasingly
been found to be corrupt and infiltrated by
Worst example was the Teamsters Union.
Cold War Takes to the Skies
Nikita Khrushchev: Leader after Stalin
The Race Into Space
Huge PR win for USSR.
Impact on US psyche
Concern about “Missile Gap”
Led to put renewed emphasis
on science and math
training in schools.
Led to space race.
The Continuing Cold War
Summit at Camp David is
U-2 spy plane incident
sours relations again.
Gary Powers is paraded
U-2 and pilot Gary Powers shot down over U.S.S.R in May 1960
What Pilot? It
was a weather
OH! That U-2--Yea it
is ours but we are
Castro in Cuba
Cuban rebels under Castro throw
out the repressive Cuban
How does he anger US? What
does US do?.
USSR backs Castro.
Cuba seen as Soviet proxy.
Latin American Marshall Plan
Impact on US foreign policy in
Crises over Cuba
Cuban Revolution 1956-59 lead
by Fidel Castro
Castro declares Cuba Communist aligns with
Soviet Union—containment failed
Kennedy v. Nixon
In 1960, Nixon is the front-runner.
Very visible VP; famous debate with Kruschev
Reputation as a nasty politician and a
Democratic race is close in the primaries,
but John F. Kennedy wins out over
Lyndon Johnson, Senator from Texas.
LBJ is nominated for VP.
The Presidential Issues Of 1960
Kennedy neutralized the issue
Kennedy charges that Republicans have
caused a missile gap.
Television played an important role.
Kennedy won relatively easily in the
electoral college, but by only 100,000
votes in the popular vote.