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  • 1. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT AND THE SHADOW OF WAR— 1933-1941 Chapter 34
  • 2. The London Conference  Roosevelt’s willing to be an isolationist if it would help the domestic economy.  66 nations meet. Purpose and primary goal  Roosevelt pulls out. Why?  Roosevelt pulls the rug out from underneath the conference and nothing is accomplished  Results:  World depression gets worse and everyone pursues their own policies.  Leads to an increase in nationalism.  Reduces chances for international cooperation on other issues
  • 3. Philippines and Russia  Why was US ready to give up the Philippines?  Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934—Provided for the independence of the Philippines after a twelve-year period of economic tutelage.  Gave up army bases, but keep Naval bases  1933 US recognized the Bolshevik regime in USSR.  Why?  Anticommunists and Catholics objected.
  • 4. Becoming A Good Neighbor  Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy  Impact in Latin America.  Reasons were somewhat selfish.  Policy receives a test in 1938 when Mexicans seize American oil properties.  Policy was a great success
  • 5. Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (1934)  Secretary of State Cordell Hull.  Aimed at both relief and recovery.  Provision.  Whittled down the worst parts of Hawley-Smoot.  President had authority without consulting Congress. Benefits?  Rationale for Act ?  Get agreements with 21 countries
  • 6. Failures of WW1 Peace Settlement Treaty of Versailles: anger and resentment over terms Germany at Fault Stripped of land and Colonies New government – Weimar Republic No Military War Reparations
  • 7. Rise of Hitler in Germany  Germans economically crushed by Versailles treaty. Desperate and resentful  Hitler a powerful orator and politically aggressive  Germany has a potent industrial base and technological talent.  US made things worse by refusing to ratify the league of nations, thus eliminating the moral strength of that body.
  • 8. Nazis Take over Germany Adolf Hitler WW1 vet, sent to jail for treason writes Mein Kampf Nazism Extreme Nationalism all German speaking people should be united Racial Purification Expansion of empire Depression leads to Nazi party rallies.Brown Shirts or storm troopers 1932—1933 elected Chancellor-dismantles democracy Third Reich would last 1000 years
  • 9. Joseph Stalin, man of steel, transforms Soviet Union command economy- industrial and agricultural growth #1 priority five year plan: all economic activity controlled by the state 1937 # 2 economic power 8-11 million direct deaths millions more died from famine Totalitarian state
  • 10. The Rise of Fascism in Italy Benito Mussolin Italy in depression Fascist; nationalism and state stressed “Il Duce” crushes opposition 1922 takes control
  • 11. Militarist Gain Control of Japan Imperialism for natural resources invade China 1931 League of Nations does nothing
  • 12. Japan and Italy  Japan also a growing threat.  Resentful. Why?  Growing increasingly militaristic  Lusted after space and resources of neighbors. Why?  1934 terminated the naval Treaty and started aggressively building navy. American response?  1935 Mussolini attacks Ethiopia. Easily crushes it.  Seeking glory and empire for Italy in Africa  League of Nation reaction? Reason?
  • 13. Japan seizes Korea and much of Manchuria in 1905, after defeating Russia in the Russo-Japanese War. In 1931, Japan invades and claims the rest of Manchuria Aggression in Asia, Europe and Africa Europe and Asia. Europe notices League of Nations lack of Response 1935 Germany with draws from League of Nations and violates T of Ver. Reoccupies lost Rhineland Mussolini takes Ethiopia 1935-36
  • 14. “come on in. I’ll treat you right. I used to know your daddy The United States Responds Cautiously Two Views on clinging to Isolationism
  • 15. Isolationism  Why didn’t America Act?  Distracted by the depression  Vividly recall the losses of WWI  feel safe behind the protection of two oceans,  largely believed that what happened in the rest of the world didn’t effect them.  Rise of fascists increased desire to avoid entanglement..  Johnson Debt Default Act. Better Keep to the Old Channel
  • 16. Congress Legislates Neutrality  Who does the public now blame for WWI?  Congress passes Neutrality Acts in 1935, 36 and ’37  Basic Rule?
  • 17. Effect of Neutrality Acts  Is an abandonment of Americas traditional policy of freedom of the high seas and the right of Americans to ship to both sides in a war.  Effectively removed America from the arena as an agent that can stop or blunt war and aggression. Made America reactive and at the mercy of world events.  Encouraged totalitarian regimes and hurt democratic ones, because they received no aid from US.
  • 18. America Dooms Loyalist Spain  The Spanish Civil War (1936-39) shows fallacy of Neutrality policy  Franco and other fascist rebels tried to overthrow the left-leaning but democratic government of Spain. Franco is aided by Hitler and Mussolini.  Congress prohibits aid to EITHER side.  Condemns democratic Spain to slow strangulation  Dictators believe that Democracies will not take action to stop them.
  • 19. Francisco Franco leads Fascist revolt in Spain private individuals react to try and stop Franco Western powers remain “neutral Hitler/Mussolini back Franco; create friendship 1939 Franco wins
  • 20. Fascist ALLIANCE is formed Rome- Berlin alliance
  • 21. Whittling Down the Big Stick  State of American military compared to Germany and Japan.  Americans attitude toward navy.  Effect of depression  Reaction to FDR’s call for increased military preparedness
  • 22. Appeasing Japan  1937 Japan invades Manchuria with the intent of making it a Japanese colony. Why?  Roosevelt refuses to call this a war. Why?  Fall 1937 Roosevelt makes famous Quarantine Speech  What does he call for?  How does Congress and Country react.  Dec. 1937, USS Panay.  Japan abuses Americans in China. Thinks US wimpy
  • 23. Hitler on the Rise  1935 breaches Versailles treaty by reintroducing the draft.  1936 marches troops into the demilitarized Rhineland  Britain and France reaction.  Hitler begins to persecute and discriminate against the Jews.  1937 starts building the military at an aggressive pace,  March 1938 Hitler marches without resistance into Austria  Hitler then begins making demands for the Sudetenland
  • 24. War In Europe Austria and Czechoslovakia Fall Union with Austria March 1938
  • 25. Munich Conference  Allies desperate to avoid war.  Munich Conference 9/38  Democracies have no real leverage. Appeasement  Germany gets Sudetenland. What does it promise?  Neville Chamberlain: “Peace in our time”
  • 26. Bargaining for the Sudetenland Nazi's use propaganda to stir up Germany France and Great Britain pledge support for Czech. France and G.B meet with Hitler in Munich Germany. Appease Hitler Peace in our time declared by Chamberlain. Angers Winston Churchill
  • 27. Hitler-Stalin Pact  France-England attempt to negotiate a mutual defense pact with Stalin.  Why don’t they get one?  August, 1939, Stalin-Hitler sign a non- aggression pact.  Stalin’s motive?  Seals the fate of Europe.  Poland.  Hitler’s demand on Poland.
  • 28. WWII Begins  Poland refuses and Germany marches in unleashing its Blitzkrieg 9/1/39.  WWI has begun.  Stalin moves into Eastern Poland  England and France declare war, but can’t do much about Poland, which surrenders in three weeks.
  • 29. Non-Aggression Pact
  • 30. Poland's fate is sealed! Blitzkrieg in Poland Sept. 1st September 3rd 1939 WW2 starts. France and Britain declare war on Germany Use fast overwhelming force, 3 weeks Poland is done. (U.S.S.R also attacks Poland ; takes the Baltic States and Finland in the next few months)
  • 31. US Reaction to Fall of Poland  Roosevelt issues proclamation of hostilities. Consequences?  US attitude toward war.  Roosevelt wants to amend Neutrality Acts  Knows that European democracies are woefully unprepared and will not win on their own.  Wants to lift the arms-sale restrictions entirely.  But, knows that neither the nation nor Congress is ready for that.
  • 32. The United States Sleeps while the Phony War goes on for several months
  • 33. Cash and Carry  FDR calls a special session of Congress; passes Neutrality Act of 1939  Cash-and-Carry  Selling point of Cash and Carry?  Purchases from England and France help lift US economy
  • 34. Hitler Runs Amok  April 1940 Hitler attacks Denmark and Norway.  May attacks Netherlands and Belgium, then France.  June 1940 France is forced to surrender  Miracle of Dunkirk  Very significant because saves a huge chunk of British army.  US shocked by quick fall of France  Impact on public attitude  Threat to US of German domination Europe
  • 35. US Starts to Arm  FDR calls for building of huge air fleet and a two- ocean navy that would check both Germany and Japan.  Congress approves 37 Billion  More than the cost of WWI and 5-times larger than any annual budget for New Deal.  Congress passes a conscription law, Sept. 1940.  America’s first peace-time draft.  Havana Conference of 1940
  • 36. “We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and the oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.” Winston Churchill, the new prime minister summed up the British attitude:
  • 37. Battle of Britain  August 1940 Battle of Britain begins  Battle rages for months.  German advantages  British advantages.  British planes chew up Luftwaffe
  • 38. Battle of Britain in US  Edward R. Murrow.  Impact of radio reports on Battle of Britain on US public opinion.  Hitler eventually indefinitely postpones invasion—huge mistake.
  • 39. Fortress America?  Issue: Whether to provide scarce resources to GB or to husband all resources so that available to US  What do supporters of aid argue?  What do those against aid argue?  America First Committee.
  • 40. Destroyer Deal  British in desperate need of destroyers. Why?  Destroyer Deal. Details  Isolationists scream  Is a clear departure from neutrality  But public opinion supported all aid to GB short of war.
  • 41. Wilkie?  In 1940 Republicans nominate Wendell Wilkie. Why such a surprise?  Background.  Personality  Attitude toward New Deal  foreign policy.  Wilkie does not exploit resentment against FDR among isolationists
  • 42. FDR Three-peat  FDR keeps the country in suspense, but decides to run for a third term.  FDR pledges that “Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars.”  FDR wins easily, but not as triumphantly as the first two times.  FDR might not have won if not for war. Also might not have run.
  • 43. Lend-Lease  By late 1940 Cash and Carry not working for Britain. Why?  FDR knows that Congress will not approve cash loans to allies.  Proposes Lend-lease. How does it work?  FDR proposes making the US the arsenal of democracy.  This bill is vigorously debated throughout the nation.  Passes in March, 1941. Was a clear declaration of hostility to Hitler.  May, 1941 Germans sink first US merchant ship
  • 44. Atlantic Charter  June 1941 Hitler invades the Soviet Union and opens up a second front in his rear.  Takes the pressure off GB and divides his army.  What is he thinking?  Soviets are on the edge of defeat.  Roosevelt extends lend-Lease to Soviets. Extends 1 Bill. of what will eventually be 11 Billion.  Atlantic Conference-8/41. First of a series of meetings between Churchill and Roosevelt.
  • 45. Atlantic Charter  Leads to 8-point plan for post-war world. Atlantic Charter. Similar to Wilson’s 14 points  Pledges that countries will not have borders changed  Self determination and return to pre-war governments  League of nations type organization.
  • 46. U.S. Destroyers And Hitler’s U-boats  Lend-Lease to GB was faltering. Why?  FDR response.  Clashes with Subs—  9/41—Greer attacked without damage  10/41—Kearny attacked but not sunk  10/41—Reuben James sunk with loss of more than 100.  Congress pulls Neutrality legislation and authorizes the arming of Merchant ships.
  • 47. In the meantime……out in the Pacific  Japan is mired in China. US is pressuring them to get out,  Japan is heavily dependent on US steel, oil, gasoline and other war supplies. If US cuts them off, Japan is toast.  FDR reluctant to impose sanctions. Why?  Late 1940 US does impose sanctions.  1941 freeze Japanese assets and ends all oil shipments.  Japan’s choices  US has broken code and knows that Japan plans to attack somewhere.  Warnings from US to Pearl Harbor are late in arriving.
  • 48. Pearl Harbor  December 7, 1941 Japanese aircraft carriers launch waves of attack planes. Destroy most of US Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor.  8 battleships, most of aircraft, 3000 casualties.  But, three US carriers were out to sea and were spared.  Japanese failed to destroy repair facilities, allowing US to stay at Pearl and repair the fleet. Big mistake.  Next day—Congress declares war.  Japan and Germany are allies—Germany and Italy then declare war on US. U.S. declares war on Germany. We are in.
  • 49. December 7th 1941
  • 50. F.D.R. Dec.8th speech “ A Day that will live in Infamy”
  • 51. FDR Signs Declaration of War