AP U.S. History
Unit 9.1

Industrialism in the Gilded
Age: 1865-1900

Transcontinental
Railroad Completed

1869

Edison De...
Theme #1: 

A

merica’s “Second Industrial
Revolution” in the Gilded Age (18651900) was spurred initially by the
transcont...
* Key to Remembering the 1st Industrial
Revolution:

T extiles
R ailroads
I ron
C oal
* Key to Remembering the 2nd Industrial
Revolution (after the Civil War):

R ailroads (transcontinental)
O

il

S teel
E l...
Relative Shares of World Manufacturing Output,
1750-1900
“The Whittler for the World,” 1899
Ste

el

Railroads
y
icit
ctr
Ele

Labor

king
Ban

Oil

Mec
of A haniza
gric tion
ultu
re
Ste

Labor
el

Railroads
y
icit
ctr
Ele

Reconstruction
Political Machines
Money Issue: 70s & 90s
Tariffs: 1880s
Popu...
I. Major ideas
A. By 1900, U.S. was most powerful
economy in the world
1. U.S. was still a debtor
2. Technological innovat...
3. In 1880, 50% of Americans
worked in agriculture; 25% by
1920
4. Class divisions became most
pronounced in U.S. history
...
II. Impact of the Civil War on the
Economic Expansion
A. Republican legislation
1. Pacific Railway Act (1862)
2. National ...
Memory Device: Republican
Civil War Economic Policies

A

Abolition of slavery

P
H istory
M akes
Me
Nauseous

Pacific Rai...
III. Railroad building
A. By 1900, U.S. had more railroad
mileage than all of Europe
combined
1. Gov’t subsidies
2. New ci...
B. Pacific Railway Act, 1862
Act
1. Union Pacific Railroad
a. Land grants for each mile
of track constructed
b. Federal lo...
Railroad Land Grants
3. Central Pacific Railroad
a. Leland Stanford
b. Chinese workers, “coolies”
The First Continental Railroad

Central Pacific Railway
Union Pacific Railway
4. Promontory Point, Utah,
May 10, 1869
"The Last Spike" by Thomas Hill (1881)
A political
poster
criticizing
the extent
of railroad
ownership
of
California
land
5. Significance
a. Linked the entire continent via
railroad and by telegraph
       b. Paved the way for incredible
growth...
6. Other transcontinental lines
-- Great Northern Railroad:
James G. Hill
C. Railroad consolidation and
mechanization
1. Cornelius Vanderbilt
a. Steel rails
b. Near monopoly of eastern rail
traffi...
D. Significance of America’s railroad
network
1. Spurred post-Civil War
industrialization (steel)
2. Continent became conn...
6. Facilitated influx of immigrants
7. Spurred investment from abroad
8. Creation of “time zones”
9. Emergence of a railro...
E. “Robber Barons” and railroad
corruption
1. Jay Gould
2. stock watering
3. Railroad tycoons became the most
powerful men...
Cornelius
Vanderbilt as the
Modern Colossus of
the Railroad
The sign on the right
reads: “All Freight
Moving Sea Bound
MUS...
“The Senatorial
Roundhouse”
Thomas Nast
Harper’s
Weekly
1886
IV. Attempts to regulate railroads
A. Initially, Americans were slow to
react to the excesses of the
railroad oligarchy
1....
2. Slaughterhouse Cases, 1873
a. Protection of labor under the
14th Amendment was a state
responsibility, not federal
b. P...
3. Munn v. Illinois, 1877
a. Upheld one of the “granger
laws”
b. Declared the public has the
power to regulate business
op...
4. Wabash case, 1886
a. Court ruled states had no
power to regulate interstate
commerce
b. In effect, overturned Munn v.
I...
5. 1886, Court ruled that a
corporation was a “person”
under the 14th Amendment
a. It became difficult for the
federal gov...
C. Interstate Commerce Act (1887)
1. First large-scale legislation to
regulate corporations in the
public interest
2. Inte...
V. Industrialism and mechanization
A. Civil war created a class of
millionaires who invested in
industrialism
B. Natural r...
Prototype of the
Sholes and
Glidden
typewriter, 1873,
the first
commercially
successful
typewriter, and
the first with a
Q...
4. Urbanization spurred by the
electric streetcar, electric
dynamo, and refrigerated
railroad car
5. Alexander Graham Bell...
6. Thomas A. Edison
a. Incandescent light bulb,
phonograph, moving pictures
b. Electricity became another
cornerstone of t...
VI. Trusts emerge
A. Vertical integration: Andrew
Carnegie
B. Horizontal integration: John
D. Rockefeller
Vertical Integration
Horizontal Integration
C. Interlocking directorates:
J.P.
Morgan
D. 14th Amendment protection
E. Holding companies
VII. Steel industry emerges
A. Cornerstone of the 2nd Industrial
Revolution
1. Skyscrapers, railroads
2. Typified heavy in...
B. Andrew Carnegie
1. “rags to riches” story
2. Bessemer process
3. Ultimately, produced
25% of U.S. steel
4. 1901, sold c...
The Bessemer Process
C. J. P. Morgan
1. Owned a major Wall Street
banking house
2. 1901, he reorganized the
United States Steel
Corporation
-- ...
VIII. Petroleum industry and other
Trusts
A. John D. Rockefeller
1. Erected his first well in PA in
1859 and launched the
...
Puck Magazine, 1904
“What a funny little government.”
1900
C. Gustavus F. Swift and Philip
Armour
-- Meat industry
D. James Buchanan Duke
1. First to utilize automated
cigarette-mak...
IX. “nouveau riche” (new rich) and
the justification of wealth
A. A super rich “leisure class”
emerged during the second
i...
C. “Captains of Industry” provided
material progress
1. Overall standard of living in U.S.
continued to rise
2. Most goods...
D. Social Darwinism
1. Charles Darwin, Origin of the
Species (1859)
2. Herbert Spencer
a. Applied Darwin’s theory of
natur...
E. Some argued God chose winners
and losers
1. John D. Rockefeller
2. Resembled “divine right of
kings”
3. Argued the exis...
F. Andrew Carnegie: “The Gospel
of Wealth”
1. Synthesized prevailing ideas of
wealth and “survival of the
fittest”
2. Clai...
X. Government regulation of trusts
A. Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
1. Public demand for regulation
2. Forbade combination...
People’s 
Entrance
Closed

TE
 SENA
his is a
T
TS
POLIS
MONO
 
nd
of the
lists a
onopo
 M
by the
ISTS
OPOL
 MON
for the

“...
“The Rising of the
Usurpers”, Thomas
Nast, Harpers Weekly,
July 27, 1889
"Trusts--The Main
Issue"
Woman's headband
says "Liberty"
Tablet held by ape says
"Republicanism"
Arrow shot into ape
reads...
XI. The “New South”
A. Changing South after the Civil War
1. Political
2. Social
3. “Redeemers”
B. Growth of southern indu...
4. Coal mining industry grew in
Appalachia
5. Tobacco trust
6. Iron and steel production:
Birmingham, Alabama
7. Thousands...
D. Results of southern industrialization
1. By 1900, southern manufacturing
remained 10% of national total
-- Same as in 1...
E. The “Lost Cause” and “Redemption”
1. Southerners remained proud of their
defiance in defense of states’ rights
during t...
XII. 2nd Industrial Revolution’s impact
A. Standard of living ultimately rose
B. Urbanization
C. American agriculture ecli...
Theme #2:
 

Industrialization dramatically changed

the condition of American working
people, but workers’ attempts to de...
THE SLAVE MARKET OF TO-DAY
"Going - going - lower - lower!"
Puck Magazine, January 2, 1882
  

 

                                                   

THE GALLEY
Dedicated to the States where Child Labor is Still ...
XIII. Rise of Labor
A. Working conditions for urban
industrial workers were tough
1. Low-skilled jobs made workers
expenda...
B. Civil War boosted labor unions
1. Drain of human resources put
more value on labor
2. Rising cost of living led to
form...
C. National Labor Union (1866)
1. Sought to bring craft unions
together into one big union
2. Lasted 6 years; 600,000 work...
D. Molly Maguires
1. Formed in 1875 by PA anthracite
coal workers
2. Violence
3. Owners called in Pinkertons
4. Mollies ev...
F. Knights of Labor (1881)
1. Continued the work of the NLU
a. Led by Terence Powderly
b. Initially a secret society
2. “O...
Top of Pole: “Tobacco, wine, 
higher wages, ham , bread”
Flags: “Knights of Labor, Pittsburgh 
Free Strikers”
Pole: “Greas...
An American Autocrat.
He Ties Up Railroads
and Exposes the Public
to Inconvenience and
Danger Whenever He is
Obliged to Do...
4. Demise of Knights of Labor due
to the “Great Upheaval” and
Haymarket Square Riot (May
4, 1886)
a. Anarchists hanged or
...
Thomas Nast,
“Liberty is not
Anarchy”,
Harper’s Weekly,
Sept. 4, 1886
F. American Federation of Labor
(AFL)
1. Samuel Gompers
2. Organization
3. “Bread and butter”
issues
4. Closed shop
5. Wal...
AF of L
membership
between 1881 and
1911
G. Major Strikes
1. Homestead Strike, 1892
Strike
a. 20% pay cut enacted
b. Workers went on strike
and kept scabs out
c. F...
2. Pullman Strike, 1894
Strike
a. Company town in Chicago
b. Wages cut by 1/3
c. Eugene Debs, American
Railway Union
d. Pr...
Debs: 
American 
Railway 
Union

Highway of Trade

“King Debs”, 
Harper’s Weekly, 
1894
Memory Device for the Labor
Movement: 1865-1900
3 Big Unions

3 Big Strikes

National Labor Union
Knights of Labor
America...
H. By 1900 Unions had largely failed to
achieve their goals
1. Wages remained almost the same
compared to 1865
2. Work hou...
4. Most unions were either broken or
severely weakened by owner or
government actions (e.g. Knights
of Labor, American Rai...
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  • Encyclopedia Commons
  • public domain
  • Wikipedia Commons http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObjectDetails?artobj=107728&handle=li
  • From Wikipedia Commons
  • Library of Congress
  • National Archives
  • Library of Congress
  • Public domain
  • public domain
  • http://econ161.berkeley.edu/Econ_Articles/carnegie/delong_moscow_paper2.html
  • Source: Puck Magazine, 1879, Joseph Keppler
  • Public domain
  • Library of Congress Cartoon by Bernhard Gilliam, 1883
  • Wikipedia Commons
  • Wikipedia Commons
  • http://www.atrium-incorporators.com/uk-holding-companies/
  • Wikipedia Commons
  • Library of Congress Puck Magazine, 1904 Udo J. Keppler
  • Courtesy of New York Public Library Originally in The Verdict, January 22, 1900
  • public domain
  • public domain
  • public domain Puck Magazine, August 15, 1883 wwwlib.gsu.edu/spcoll/Collections/ AV/19cLabor/19clabor29.ht
  • Library of Congress Puck Magazine Bernhard Gillam January 2, 1882 Illustration shows trade union laborers, some in chains labeled "High Tariff" and "Tariff", and one standing on a block labeled "Trade Unions", being auctioned by a man labeled "Protectionist Statesman" to capitalists and manufacturers, among them are Cyrus W. Field and William H. Vanderbilt; in the background is a row of factories. A sign states "Quotations. Average wage for skilled workman $7 a Week or $359 a Year".
  • Library of Congress Puck Magazine August 4, 1909 Arthur Young
  • Library of Congress
  • Library of Congress wwwlib.gsu.edu/spcoll/Collections/ AV/19cLabor/19clabor29.ht
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  • NOTE: ANIMATION COVERS SOME TEXT SEE THE SLIDE FIRST IN SLIDESHOW MODE BEFORE MAKING ANY CHANGES
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  • NOTE: ANIMATION COVERS SOME TEXT SEE THE SLIDE FIRST IN SLIDESHOW MODE BEFORE MAKING ANY CHANGES
    Wikipedia Commons
  • public domain
  • LOAPUSH 23

    1. 1. AP U.S. History Unit 9.1 Industrialism in the Gilded Age: 1865-1900 Transcontinental Railroad Completed 1869 Edison Develops the Light Bulb 1870 Standard Oil Trust Formed 1879 1889 Carnegie publishes “Gospel of Wealth” Pullman Strike 1894 1901 U.S. Steel Corporation formed
    2. 2. Theme #1:  A merica’s “Second Industrial Revolution” in the Gilded Age (18651900) was spurred initially by the transcontinental rail network, and saw large businesses consolidate into giant corporate trusts, as epitomized by the oil and steel industries.
    3. 3. * Key to Remembering the 1st Industrial Revolution: T extiles R ailroads I ron C oal
    4. 4. * Key to Remembering the 2nd Industrial Revolution (after the Civil War): R ailroads (transcontinental) O il S teel E lectricity
    5. 5. Relative Shares of World Manufacturing Output, 1750-1900
    6. 6. “The Whittler for the World,” 1899
    7. 7. Ste el Railroads y icit ctr Ele Labor king Ban Oil Mec of A haniza gric tion ultu re
    8. 8. Ste Labor el Railroads y icit ctr Ele Reconstruction Political Machines Money Issue: 70s & 90s Tariffs: 1880s Populism Progressivism king Ban Oil Mec of A haniza gric tion ultu re “New Immigrants” Job opportunities Social stratification Poverty and Crime Social Gospel Progressivism
    9. 9. I. Major ideas A. By 1900, U.S. was most powerful economy in the world 1. U.S. was still a debtor 2. Technological innovations a. Steel b. Oil c. Electricity d. Business technology: telephone, typewriter, cash register, adding machine
    10. 10. 3. In 1880, 50% of Americans worked in agriculture; 25% by 1920 4. Class divisions became most pronounced in U.S. history 5. Farmers lost ground a. 1880, 25% of farmers did not own land b. 90% of blacks in the South; 75% were sharecroppers 6. Depressions led to unrest: 1873 & 1893
    11. 11. II. Impact of the Civil War on the Economic Expansion A. Republican legislation 1. Pacific Railway Act (1862) 2. National Banking Act (1863) 3. Morrill Tariff (1862) 4. Homestead Act (1862) 5. Morrill Land Grant Act (1862) B. Civil War economy 1. Mass production (e.g. muskets) 2. Capital invested after the war to drive industrial growth
    12. 12. Memory Device: Republican Civil War Economic Policies A Abolition of slavery P H istory M akes Me Nauseous Pacific Railway Act Homestead Act Morrill Tariff Morrill Land Grant Act National Banking Act
    13. 13. III. Railroad building A. By 1900, U.S. had more railroad mileage than all of Europe combined 1. Gov’t subsidies 2. New cities 3. Growth of railroads sparked the “2nd Industrial Revolution”
    14. 14. B. Pacific Railway Act, 1862 Act 1. Union Pacific Railroad a. Land grants for each mile of track constructed b. Federal loans for each mile of track laid c. Irish workers (“paddies”) d. Credit Mobilier
    15. 15. Railroad Land Grants
    16. 16. 3. Central Pacific Railroad a. Leland Stanford b. Chinese workers, “coolies”
    17. 17. The First Continental Railroad Central Pacific Railway Union Pacific Railway
    18. 18. 4. Promontory Point, Utah, May 10, 1869
    19. 19. "The Last Spike" by Thomas Hill (1881)
    20. 20. A political poster criticizing the extent of railroad ownership of California land
    21. 21. 5. Significance a. Linked the entire continent via railroad and by telegraph        b. Paved the way for incredible growth of the Great West.       c. Facilitated a burgeoning trade with the Orient       d. Seen by Americans at the time as a monumental achievement along with the Declaration of Independence and the freeing of the slaves.
    22. 22. 6. Other transcontinental lines -- Great Northern Railroad: James G. Hill
    23. 23. C. Railroad consolidation and mechanization 1. Cornelius Vanderbilt a. Steel rails b. Near monopoly of eastern rail traffic c. “robber baron”
    24. 24. D. Significance of America’s railroad network 1. Spurred post-Civil War industrialization (steel) 2. Continent became connected 3. Created huge domestic market for U.S. raw materials and manufactured goods. 4. Creation of 3 frontiers in the West: farming, mining, ranching 5. Movement toward cities
    25. 25. 6. Facilitated influx of immigrants 7. Spurred investment from abroad 8. Creation of “time zones” 9. Emergence of a railroad aristocracy 10. Indians subdued and put on reservations
    26. 26. E. “Robber Barons” and railroad corruption 1. Jay Gould 2. stock watering 3. Railroad tycoons became the most powerful men in America 4. corrupt practices a. pools, rebates b. short haul, long haul 5. Cornelius Vanderbilt
    27. 27. Cornelius Vanderbilt as the Modern Colossus of the Railroad The sign on the right reads: “All Freight Moving Sea Bound MUST Pass Here and Pay Any Tolls WE Demand.”
    28. 28. “The Senatorial Roundhouse” Thomas Nast Harper’s Weekly 1886
    29. 29. IV. Attempts to regulate railroads A. Initially, Americans were slow to react to the excesses of the railroad oligarchy 1. Leery of gov’t intrusion in business 2. Americans free enterprise B. Supreme Court decisions 1. Depression of 1870s led farmers to demand state laws to regulate the railroads
    30. 30. 2. Slaughterhouse Cases, 1873 a. Protection of labor under the 14th Amendment was a state responsibility, not federal b. Protected businesses from federal regulation if they engaged only in intrastate commerce
    31. 31. 3. Munn v. Illinois, 1877 a. Upheld one of the “granger laws” b. Declared the public has the power to regulate business operations in which the public has an interest
    32. 32. 4. Wabash case, 1886 a. Court ruled states had no power to regulate interstate commerce b. In effect, overturned Munn v. Illinois decision -- Stimulated public demand for Congress to regulate the railroads
    33. 33. 5. 1886, Court ruled that a corporation was a “person” under the 14th Amendment a. It became difficult for the federal gov’t to regulate railroads b. Railroad companies hid behind the decision
    34. 34. C. Interstate Commerce Act (1887) 1. First large-scale legislation to regulate corporations in the public interest 2. Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) 3. Prohibited rebates and pools and required published rates 4. Restricted short haul; long haul 5. Without strict enforcement mechanisms, the ICC was largely symbolic
    35. 35. V. Industrialism and mechanization A. Civil war created a class of millionaires who invested in industrialism B. Natural resources fed industrialism C. New technologies 1. Patents increased significantly 2. Eli Whitney’s interchangeable parts concept perfected 3. Typewriter, cash registers, and stock tickers facilitated business operations
    36. 36. Prototype of the Sholes and Glidden typewriter, 1873, the first commercially successful typewriter, and the first with a QWERTY keyboard.
    37. 37. 4. Urbanization spurred by the electric streetcar, electric dynamo, and refrigerated railroad car 5. Alexander Graham Bell: telephone (1876) a. Nationwide network created within a few years b. Job opportunity for young (middle class) women
    38. 38. 6. Thomas A. Edison a. Incandescent light bulb, phonograph, moving pictures b. Electricity became another cornerstone of the second industrial revolution • Edison Electric Company • Cities became lit; electric streetcars
    39. 39. VI. Trusts emerge A. Vertical integration: Andrew Carnegie B. Horizontal integration: John D. Rockefeller
    40. 40. Vertical Integration Horizontal Integration
    41. 41. C. Interlocking directorates: J.P. Morgan
    42. 42. D. 14th Amendment protection E. Holding companies
    43. 43. VII. Steel industry emerges A. Cornerstone of the 2nd Industrial Revolution 1. Skyscrapers, railroads 2. Typified heavy industry 3. By 1900, U.S. produced more steel than Britain and Germany combined
    44. 44. B. Andrew Carnegie 1. “rags to riches” story 2. Bessemer process 3. Ultimately, produced 25% of U.S. steel 4. 1901, sold company to J. P. Morgan for $400 million  
    45. 45. The Bessemer Process
    46. 46. C. J. P. Morgan 1. Owned a major Wall Street banking house 2. 1901, he reorganized the United States Steel Corporation -- America’s first billion dollar corporation D. Charles Schwab
    47. 47. VIII. Petroleum industry and other Trusts A. John D. Rockefeller 1. Erected his first well in PA in 1859 and launched the petroleum industry 2. Refined petroleum: kerosene B. Standard Oil Company, 1870 1. First trust in U.S.: Owned 95% of U.S. oil refineries 2. Horizontal integration -- monopoly
    48. 48. Puck Magazine, 1904
    49. 49. “What a funny little government.” 1900
    50. 50. C. Gustavus F. Swift and Philip Armour -- Meat industry D. James Buchanan Duke 1. First to utilize automated cigarette-making machine 2. American Tobacco Co. monopolized cigarette market E. Andrew Mellon 1. Venture capitalist 2. Aluminum Co. of America 3. Oil and coal in early 20th century
    51. 51. IX. “nouveau riche” (new rich) and the justification of wealth A. A super rich “leisure class” emerged during the second industrial revolution B. Resented by traditional aristocracy 1. Patrician families losing ground 2. Economic liberty & community involvement overshadowed by monopoly and political machines 3. Some became anti-trust crusaders
    52. 52. C. “Captains of Industry” provided material progress 1. Overall standard of living in U.S. continued to rise 2. Most goods were cheaper 3. Provided millions of jobs
    53. 53. D. Social Darwinism 1. Charles Darwin, Origin of the Species (1859) 2. Herbert Spencer a. Applied Darwin’s theory of natural selection to human society b. “survival of the fittest” 3. William Graham Sumner: “millionaires were a product of natural selection”
    54. 54. E. Some argued God chose winners and losers 1. John D. Rockefeller 2. Resembled “divine right of kings” 3. Argued the existing hierarchy was just and decreed by God 4. Those who stayed poor were “lazy” or “lacked enterprise” a. Some “new rich” had come from modest beginnings b. Rev. Russell Conwell: “Acres of Diamonds” lectures
    55. 55. F. Andrew Carnegie: “The Gospel of Wealth” 1. Synthesized prevailing ideas of wealth and “survival of the fittest” 2. Claimed the rich should donate most of their wealth for the public good a. Criticized “nouveau riche” b. Traitor to his class? c. Rockefeller 3. Argued against cash handouts
    56. 56. X. Government regulation of trusts A. Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) 1. Public demand for regulation 2. Forbade combinations in restraint of trade (monopoly) 3. Lacked enforcement mechanism 4. Ironically used by trusts weaken labor unions B. Interstate Commerce Act, 1887 (see above)
    57. 57. People’s  Entrance Closed TE  SENA his is a T TS POLIS MONO   nd of the lists a onopo  M by the ISTS OPOL  MON for the “The Bosses of the Senate”, Joseph Keppler, Puck, Jan. 23, 1889 From right to left: Nail Trust, Steel Beam Trust, Copper Trust, Standard Oil Trust, Iron Trust, Sugar Trust, Tin Trust, Coal,  Paper Bag Trust, Envelope Trust, Salt Trust
    58. 58. “The Rising of the Usurpers”, Thomas Nast, Harpers Weekly, July 27, 1889
    59. 59. "Trusts--The Main Issue" Woman's headband says "Liberty" Tablet held by ape says "Republicanism" Arrow shot into ape reads "Democracy"  The Verdict, July 10,  1899, cartoon by C.  Gordon Moffat
    60. 60. XI. The “New South” A. Changing South after the Civil War 1. Political 2. Social 3. “Redeemers” B. Growth of southern industry   1. Henry Grady 2. Major challenges to southern industrialization 3. Cotton industry further developed a. Mill towns b. Vertical integration c. Gov’t incentives
    61. 61. 4. Coal mining industry grew in Appalachia 5. Tobacco trust 6. Iron and steel production: Birmingham, Alabama 7. Thousands of miles of railroads built C. Agriculture still dominant   1. Absentee land ownership 2. Crop-lien system/ sharecropping
    62. 62. D. Results of southern industrialization 1. By 1900, southern manufacturing remained 10% of national total -- Same as in 1860 2. Per capita income only 60% of national average 3. Average income only 40% of average income in the North 4. Sharecropping still dominated southern agriculture (black and white) 5. South still largely dependent on North for banking resources and manufactured goods
    63. 63. E. The “Lost Cause” and “Redemption” 1. Southerners remained proud of their defiance in defense of states’ rights during the Civil War (“War of Northern Aggression”) 2. “Redemption” resulted in Confederate memorials and cemeteries commemorating the “Lost Cause” 3. Joel Chandler Harris, Uncle Remus (1880) -- Nostalgic view of a glorious antebellum South
    64. 64. XII. 2nd Industrial Revolution’s impact A. Standard of living ultimately rose B. Urbanization C. American agriculture eclipsed by industrialism D. Monopolies/trusts emerged E. Regimented impersonal work-place F. Woman achieved more social and economic independence G. Social stratification H. Foreign trade developed I. Rise of the labor movement
    65. 65. Theme #2:   Industrialization dramatically changed the condition of American working people, but workers’ attempts to develop effective labor organizations failed to match the corporate forms of business and their political allies.
    66. 66. THE SLAVE MARKET OF TO-DAY "Going - going - lower - lower!" Puck Magazine, January 2, 1882
    67. 67.                                                          THE GALLEY Dedicated to the States where Child Labor is Still Permitted. Puck Magazine, August 4, 1909 Sign on wall reads, "Child-labor Investigators, Sentimentalists, Charity Organizations, and all  Meddling Old Women Keep Out".
    68. 68. XIII. Rise of Labor A. Working conditions for urban industrial workers were tough 1. Low-skilled jobs made workers expendable 2. Working conditions often dismal 3. Recourse for workers was minimal due to the power of industrialists a. Strikes often broken by “scabs” b. “yellow dog” contracts c. Public grew tired of strikes
    69. 69. B. Civil War boosted labor unions 1. Drain of human resources put more value on labor 2. Rising cost of living led to formation of labor unions 3. Collective bargaining: workers sought to vote for their own representatives to negotiate on their behalf with company owners
    70. 70. C. National Labor Union (1866) 1. Sought to bring craft unions together into one big union 2. Lasted 6 years; 600,000 workers -- Led by William Sylvis 3. Focused on social reform, 8-hour work day, and arbitration of labor disputes 4. Colored National Labor Union founded in 1869 as a branch of the NLU 5. NLU killed by the Panic of 1873
    71. 71. D. Molly Maguires 1. Formed in 1875 by PA anthracite coal workers 2. Violence 3. Owners called in Pinkertons 4. Mollies eventually destroyed E. Great Railroad Strike (1877) 1. Railroads announced 10% pay cut for 2nd time since 1873 2. First nation-wide strike resulted 3. President Hayes called in troops 4. Greenback Labor Party
    72. 72. F. Knights of Labor (1881) 1. Continued the work of the NLU a. Led by Terence Powderly b. Initially a secret society 2. “One big union” included skilled, unskilled, female, & black workers 3. Sought economic and social reform a. Replace the wage system b. 700,000 members
    73. 73. Top of Pole: “Tobacco, wine,  higher wages, ham , bread” Flags: “Knights of Labor, Pittsburgh  Free Strikers” Pole: “Greased” Bucket: “Monopoly Grease” Men sitting: Vanderbilt, Gould Caption: First Annual Picnic of the "Knights of Labor" - More Fun for the Spectators than for the Performers. Puck Magazine, June 21, 1882
    74. 74. An American Autocrat. He Ties Up Railroads and Exposes the Public to Inconvenience and Danger Whenever He is Obliged to Do Something to Earn His Salary. Puck, August 20, 1890
    75. 75. 4. Demise of Knights of Labor due to the “Great Upheaval” and Haymarket Square Riot (May 4, 1886) a. Anarchists hanged or imprisoned b. Knights were unfairly seen as associated with anarchy c. Inclusion of both skilled and unskilled workers proved fatal
    76. 76. Thomas Nast, “Liberty is not Anarchy”, Harper’s Weekly, Sept. 4, 1886
    77. 77. F. American Federation of Labor (AFL) 1. Samuel Gompers 2. Organization 3. “Bread and butter” issues 4. Closed shop 5. Walk out; boycott “Eight hours for work, eight hours for rest, eight hours for what we will..”
    78. 78. AF of L membership between 1881 and 1911
    79. 79. G. Major Strikes 1. Homestead Strike, 1892 Strike a. 20% pay cut enacted b. Workers went on strike and kept scabs out c. Frick called in Pinkertons d. Governor called in troops e. Union and strike were broken f. Demonstrated a strong employer could break a union with gov’t support This 1892 drawing from  Illustrated Weekly depicts the  labor troubles at Homestead,  Pennsylvania, and the "Attack of  the strikers and their  sympathizers on the  surrendered Pinkerton men" 
    80. 80. 2. Pullman Strike, 1894 Strike a. Company town in Chicago b. Wages cut by 1/3 c. Eugene Debs, American Railway Union d. President Cleveland’s response -- Strike crushed; union broken e. First time the federal gov’t used a court injunctionto break a strike
    81. 81. Debs:  American  Railway  Union Highway of Trade “King Debs”,  Harper’s Weekly,  1894
    82. 82. Memory Device for the Labor Movement: 1865-1900 3 Big Unions 3 Big Strikes National Labor Union Knights of Labor American Federation of Labor Great Railroad Strike, 1877 Homestead Strike, 1892 Pullman Strike, 1894
    83. 83. H. By 1900 Unions had largely failed to achieve their goals 1. Wages remained almost the same compared to 1865 2. Work hours remained high in most industries 3. Working conditions remained oppressive
    84. 84. 4. Most unions were either broken or severely weakened by owner or government actions (e.g. Knights of Labor, American Railway Union) 5. American Federation of Labor was among the few unions that remained intact and saw modest improvements for its workers 6. After 1900, the fortune for unions improved

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