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Go Lions

Go Lions

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  • Encyclopedia Commons
  • public domain
  • Wikipedia Commons
  • From Wikipedia Commons
  • Library of Congress
  • National Archives
  • Library of Congress
  • Public domain
  • public domain
  • Source: Puck Magazine, 1879, Joseph Keppler
  • Public domain
  • Library of Congress Cartoon by Bernhard Gilliam, 1883
  • Wikipedia Commons
  • Wikipedia Commons
  • Wikipedia Commons
  • Library of Congress Puck Magazine, 1904 Udo J. Keppler
  • Courtesy of New York Public Library Originally in The Verdict, January 22, 1900
  • public domain
  • public domain
  • public domain Puck Magazine, August 15, 1883 AV/19cLabor/
  • Library of Congress Puck Magazine Bernhard Gillam January 2, 1882 Illustration shows trade union laborers, some in chains labeled "High Tariff" and "Tariff", and one standing on a block labeled "Trade Unions", being auctioned by a man labeled "Protectionist Statesman" to capitalists and manufacturers, among them are Cyrus W. Field and William H. Vanderbilt; in the background is a row of factories. A sign states "Quotations. Average wage for skilled workman $7 a Week or $359 a Year".
  • Library of Congress Puck Magazine August 4, 1909 Arthur Young
  • Library of Congress
  • Library of Congress AV/19cLabor/
  • public domain
  • public domain
    Wikipedia Commons
  • public domain
  • Transcript

    • 1. AP U.S. History Unit 9.1 Industrialism in the Gilded Age: 1865-1900 Transcontinental Railroad Completed 1869 Edison Develops the Light Bulb 1870 Standard Oil Trust Formed 1879 1889 Carnegie publishes “Gospel of Wealth” Pullman Strike 1894 1901 U.S. Steel Corporation formed
    • 2. Theme #1:  A merica’s “Second Industrial Revolution” in the Gilded Age (18651900) was spurred initially by the transcontinental rail network, and saw large businesses consolidate into giant corporate trusts, as epitomized by the oil and steel industries.
    • 3. * Key to Remembering the 1st Industrial Revolution: T extiles R ailroads I ron C oal
    • 4. * Key to Remembering the 2nd Industrial Revolution (after the Civil War): R ailroads (transcontinental) O il S teel E lectricity
    • 5. Relative Shares of World Manufacturing Output, 1750-1900
    • 6. “The Whittler for the World,” 1899
    • 7. Ste el Railroads y icit ctr Ele Labor king Ban Oil Mec of A haniza gric tion ultu re
    • 8. Ste Labor el Railroads y icit ctr Ele Reconstruction Political Machines Money Issue: 70s & 90s Tariffs: 1880s Populism Progressivism king Ban Oil Mec of A haniza gric tion ultu re “New Immigrants” Job opportunities Social stratification Poverty and Crime Social Gospel Progressivism
    • 9. I. Major ideas A. By 1900, U.S. was most powerful economy in the world 1. U.S. was still a debtor 2. Technological innovations a. Steel b. Oil c. Electricity d. Business technology: telephone, typewriter, cash register, adding machine
    • 10. 3. In 1880, 50% of Americans worked in agriculture; 25% by 1920 4. Class divisions became most pronounced in U.S. history 5. Farmers lost ground a. 1880, 25% of farmers did not own land b. 90% of blacks in the South; 75% were sharecroppers 6. Depressions led to unrest: 1873 & 1893
    • 11. II. Impact of the Civil War on the Economic Expansion A. Republican legislation 1. Pacific Railway Act (1862) 2. National Banking Act (1863) 3. Morrill Tariff (1862) 4. Homestead Act (1862) 5. Morrill Land Grant Act (1862) B. Civil War economy 1. Mass production (e.g. muskets) 2. Capital invested after the war to drive industrial growth
    • 12. Memory Device: Republican Civil War Economic Policies A Abolition of slavery P H istory M akes Me Nauseous Pacific Railway Act Homestead Act Morrill Tariff Morrill Land Grant Act National Banking Act
    • 13. III. Railroad building A. By 1900, U.S. had more railroad mileage than all of Europe combined 1. Gov’t subsidies 2. New cities 3. Growth of railroads sparked the “2nd Industrial Revolution”
    • 14. B. Pacific Railway Act, 1862 Act 1. Union Pacific Railroad a. Land grants for each mile of track constructed b. Federal loans for each mile of track laid c. Irish workers (“paddies”) d. Credit Mobilier
    • 15. Railroad Land Grants
    • 16. 3. Central Pacific Railroad a. Leland Stanford b. Chinese workers, “coolies”
    • 17. The First Continental Railroad Central Pacific Railway Union Pacific Railway
    • 18. 4. Promontory Point, Utah, May 10, 1869
    • 19. "The Last Spike" by Thomas Hill (1881)
    • 20. A political poster criticizing the extent of railroad ownership of California land
    • 21. 5. Significance a. Linked the entire continent via railroad and by telegraph        b. Paved the way for incredible growth of the Great West.       c. Facilitated a burgeoning trade with the Orient       d. Seen by Americans at the time as a monumental achievement along with the Declaration of Independence and the freeing of the slaves.
    • 22. 6. Other transcontinental lines -- Great Northern Railroad: James G. Hill
    • 23. C. Railroad consolidation and mechanization 1. Cornelius Vanderbilt a. Steel rails b. Near monopoly of eastern rail traffic c. “robber baron”
    • 24. D. Significance of America’s railroad network 1. Spurred post-Civil War industrialization (steel) 2. Continent became connected 3. Created huge domestic market for U.S. raw materials and manufactured goods. 4. Creation of 3 frontiers in the West: farming, mining, ranching 5. Movement toward cities
    • 25. 6. Facilitated influx of immigrants 7. Spurred investment from abroad 8. Creation of “time zones” 9. Emergence of a railroad aristocracy 10. Indians subdued and put on reservations
    • 26. E. “Robber Barons” and railroad corruption 1. Jay Gould 2. stock watering 3. Railroad tycoons became the most powerful men in America 4. corrupt practices a. pools, rebates b. short haul, long haul 5. Cornelius Vanderbilt
    • 27. Cornelius Vanderbilt as the Modern Colossus of the Railroad The sign on the right reads: “All Freight Moving Sea Bound MUST Pass Here and Pay Any Tolls WE Demand.”
    • 28. “The Senatorial Roundhouse” Thomas Nast Harper’s Weekly 1886
    • 29. IV. Attempts to regulate railroads A. Initially, Americans were slow to react to the excesses of the railroad oligarchy 1. Leery of gov’t intrusion in business 2. Americans free enterprise B. Supreme Court decisions 1. Depression of 1870s led farmers to demand state laws to regulate the railroads
    • 30. 2. Slaughterhouse Cases, 1873 a. Protection of labor under the 14th Amendment was a state responsibility, not federal b. Protected businesses from federal regulation if they engaged only in intrastate commerce
    • 31. 3. Munn v. Illinois, 1877 a. Upheld one of the “granger laws” b. Declared the public has the power to regulate business operations in which the public has an interest
    • 32. 4. Wabash case, 1886 a. Court ruled states had no power to regulate interstate commerce b. In effect, overturned Munn v. Illinois decision -- Stimulated public demand for Congress to regulate the railroads
    • 33. 5. 1886, Court ruled that a corporation was a “person” under the 14th Amendment a. It became difficult for the federal gov’t to regulate railroads b. Railroad companies hid behind the decision
    • 34. C. Interstate Commerce Act (1887) 1. First large-scale legislation to regulate corporations in the public interest 2. Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) 3. Prohibited rebates and pools and required published rates 4. Restricted short haul; long haul 5. Without strict enforcement mechanisms, the ICC was largely symbolic
    • 35. V. Industrialism and mechanization A. Civil war created a class of millionaires who invested in industrialism B. Natural resources fed industrialism C. New technologies 1. Patents increased significantly 2. Eli Whitney’s interchangeable parts concept perfected 3. Typewriter, cash registers, and stock tickers facilitated business operations
    • 36. Prototype of the Sholes and Glidden typewriter, 1873, the first commercially successful typewriter, and the first with a QWERTY keyboard.
    • 37. 4. Urbanization spurred by the electric streetcar, electric dynamo, and refrigerated railroad car 5. Alexander Graham Bell: telephone (1876) a. Nationwide network created within a few years b. Job opportunity for young (middle class) women
    • 38. 6. Thomas A. Edison a. Incandescent light bulb, phonograph, moving pictures b. Electricity became another cornerstone of the second industrial revolution • Edison Electric Company • Cities became lit; electric streetcars
    • 39. VI. Trusts emerge A. Vertical integration: Andrew Carnegie B. Horizontal integration: John D. Rockefeller
    • 40. Vertical Integration Horizontal Integration
    • 41. C. Interlocking directorates: J.P. Morgan
    • 42. D. 14th Amendment protection E. Holding companies
    • 43. VII. Steel industry emerges A. Cornerstone of the 2nd Industrial Revolution 1. Skyscrapers, railroads 2. Typified heavy industry 3. By 1900, U.S. produced more steel than Britain and Germany combined
    • 44. B. Andrew Carnegie 1. “rags to riches” story 2. Bessemer process 3. Ultimately, produced 25% of U.S. steel 4. 1901, sold company to J. P. Morgan for $400 million  
    • 45. The Bessemer Process
    • 46. C. J. P. Morgan 1. Owned a major Wall Street banking house 2. 1901, he reorganized the United States Steel Corporation -- America’s first billion dollar corporation D. Charles Schwab
    • 47. VIII. Petroleum industry and other Trusts A. John D. Rockefeller 1. Erected his first well in PA in 1859 and launched the petroleum industry 2. Refined petroleum: kerosene B. Standard Oil Company, 1870 1. First trust in U.S.: Owned 95% of U.S. oil refineries 2. Horizontal integration -- monopoly
    • 48. Puck Magazine, 1904
    • 49. “What a funny little government.” 1900
    • 50. C. Gustavus F. Swift and Philip Armour -- Meat industry D. James Buchanan Duke 1. First to utilize automated cigarette-making machine 2. American Tobacco Co. monopolized cigarette market E. Andrew Mellon 1. Venture capitalist 2. Aluminum Co. of America 3. Oil and coal in early 20th century
    • 51. IX. “nouveau riche” (new rich) and the justification of wealth A. A super rich “leisure class” emerged during the second industrial revolution B. Resented by traditional aristocracy 1. Patrician families losing ground 2. Economic liberty & community involvement overshadowed by monopoly and political machines 3. Some became anti-trust crusaders
    • 52. C. “Captains of Industry” provided material progress 1. Overall standard of living in U.S. continued to rise 2. Most goods were cheaper 3. Provided millions of jobs
    • 53. D. Social Darwinism 1. Charles Darwin, Origin of the Species (1859) 2. Herbert Spencer a. Applied Darwin’s theory of natural selection to human society b. “survival of the fittest” 3. William Graham Sumner: “millionaires were a product of natural selection”
    • 54. E. Some argued God chose winners and losers 1. John D. Rockefeller 2. Resembled “divine right of kings” 3. Argued the existing hierarchy was just and decreed by God 4. Those who stayed poor were “lazy” or “lacked enterprise” a. Some “new rich” had come from modest beginnings b. Rev. Russell Conwell: “Acres of Diamonds” lectures
    • 55. F. Andrew Carnegie: “The Gospel of Wealth” 1. Synthesized prevailing ideas of wealth and “survival of the fittest” 2. Claimed the rich should donate most of their wealth for the public good a. Criticized “nouveau riche” b. Traitor to his class? c. Rockefeller 3. Argued against cash handouts
    • 56. X. Government regulation of trusts A. Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) 1. Public demand for regulation 2. Forbade combinations in restraint of trade (monopoly) 3. Lacked enforcement mechanism 4. Ironically used by trusts weaken labor unions B. Interstate Commerce Act, 1887 (see above)
    • 57. People’s  Entrance Closed TE  SENA his is a T TS POLIS MONO   nd of the lists a onopo  M by the ISTS OPOL  MON for the “The Bosses of the Senate”, Joseph Keppler, Puck, Jan. 23, 1889 From right to left: Nail Trust, Steel Beam Trust, Copper Trust, Standard Oil Trust, Iron Trust, Sugar Trust, Tin Trust, Coal,  Paper Bag Trust, Envelope Trust, Salt Trust
    • 58. “The Rising of the Usurpers”, Thomas Nast, Harpers Weekly, July 27, 1889
    • 59. "Trusts--The Main Issue" Woman's headband says "Liberty" Tablet held by ape says "Republicanism" Arrow shot into ape reads "Democracy"  The Verdict, July 10,  1899, cartoon by C.  Gordon Moffat
    • 60. XI. The “New South” A. Changing South after the Civil War 1. Political 2. Social 3. “Redeemers” B. Growth of southern industry   1. Henry Grady 2. Major challenges to southern industrialization 3. Cotton industry further developed a. Mill towns b. Vertical integration c. Gov’t incentives
    • 61. 4. Coal mining industry grew in Appalachia 5. Tobacco trust 6. Iron and steel production: Birmingham, Alabama 7. Thousands of miles of railroads built C. Agriculture still dominant   1. Absentee land ownership 2. Crop-lien system/ sharecropping
    • 62. D. Results of southern industrialization 1. By 1900, southern manufacturing remained 10% of national total -- Same as in 1860 2. Per capita income only 60% of national average 3. Average income only 40% of average income in the North 4. Sharecropping still dominated southern agriculture (black and white) 5. South still largely dependent on North for banking resources and manufactured goods
    • 63. E. The “Lost Cause” and “Redemption” 1. Southerners remained proud of their defiance in defense of states’ rights during the Civil War (“War of Northern Aggression”) 2. “Redemption” resulted in Confederate memorials and cemeteries commemorating the “Lost Cause” 3. Joel Chandler Harris, Uncle Remus (1880) -- Nostalgic view of a glorious antebellum South
    • 64. XII. 2nd Industrial Revolution’s impact A. Standard of living ultimately rose B. Urbanization C. American agriculture eclipsed by industrialism D. Monopolies/trusts emerged E. Regimented impersonal work-place F. Woman achieved more social and economic independence G. Social stratification H. Foreign trade developed I. Rise of the labor movement
    • 65. Theme #2:   Industrialization dramatically changed the condition of American working people, but workers’ attempts to develop effective labor organizations failed to match the corporate forms of business and their political allies.
    • 66. THE SLAVE MARKET OF TO-DAY "Going - going - lower - lower!" Puck Magazine, January 2, 1882
    • 67.                                                          THE GALLEY Dedicated to the States where Child Labor is Still Permitted. Puck Magazine, August 4, 1909 Sign on wall reads, "Child-labor Investigators, Sentimentalists, Charity Organizations, and all  Meddling Old Women Keep Out".
    • 68. XIII. Rise of Labor A. Working conditions for urban industrial workers were tough 1. Low-skilled jobs made workers expendable 2. Working conditions often dismal 3. Recourse for workers was minimal due to the power of industrialists a. Strikes often broken by “scabs” b. “yellow dog” contracts c. Public grew tired of strikes
    • 69. B. Civil War boosted labor unions 1. Drain of human resources put more value on labor 2. Rising cost of living led to formation of labor unions 3. Collective bargaining: workers sought to vote for their own representatives to negotiate on their behalf with company owners
    • 70. C. National Labor Union (1866) 1. Sought to bring craft unions together into one big union 2. Lasted 6 years; 600,000 workers -- Led by William Sylvis 3. Focused on social reform, 8-hour work day, and arbitration of labor disputes 4. Colored National Labor Union founded in 1869 as a branch of the NLU 5. NLU killed by the Panic of 1873
    • 71. D. Molly Maguires 1. Formed in 1875 by PA anthracite coal workers 2. Violence 3. Owners called in Pinkertons 4. Mollies eventually destroyed E. Great Railroad Strike (1877) 1. Railroads announced 10% pay cut for 2nd time since 1873 2. First nation-wide strike resulted 3. President Hayes called in troops 4. Greenback Labor Party
    • 72. F. Knights of Labor (1881) 1. Continued the work of the NLU a. Led by Terence Powderly b. Initially a secret society 2. “One big union” included skilled, unskilled, female, & black workers 3. Sought economic and social reform a. Replace the wage system b. 700,000 members
    • 73. Top of Pole: “Tobacco, wine,  higher wages, ham , bread” Flags: “Knights of Labor, Pittsburgh  Free Strikers” Pole: “Greased” Bucket: “Monopoly Grease” Men sitting: Vanderbilt, Gould Caption: First Annual Picnic of the "Knights of Labor" - More Fun for the Spectators than for the Performers. Puck Magazine, June 21, 1882
    • 74. An American Autocrat. He Ties Up Railroads and Exposes the Public to Inconvenience and Danger Whenever He is Obliged to Do Something to Earn His Salary. Puck, August 20, 1890
    • 75. 4. Demise of Knights of Labor due to the “Great Upheaval” and Haymarket Square Riot (May 4, 1886) a. Anarchists hanged or imprisoned b. Knights were unfairly seen as associated with anarchy c. Inclusion of both skilled and unskilled workers proved fatal
    • 76. Thomas Nast, “Liberty is not Anarchy”, Harper’s Weekly, Sept. 4, 1886
    • 77. F. American Federation of Labor (AFL) 1. Samuel Gompers 2. Organization 3. “Bread and butter” issues 4. Closed shop 5. Walk out; boycott “Eight hours for work, eight hours for rest, eight hours for what we will..”
    • 78. AF of L membership between 1881 and 1911
    • 79. G. Major Strikes 1. Homestead Strike, 1892 Strike a. 20% pay cut enacted b. Workers went on strike and kept scabs out c. Frick called in Pinkertons d. Governor called in troops e. Union and strike were broken f. Demonstrated a strong employer could break a union with gov’t support This 1892 drawing from  Illustrated Weekly depicts the  labor troubles at Homestead,  Pennsylvania, and the "Attack of  the strikers and their  sympathizers on the  surrendered Pinkerton men" 
    • 80. 2. Pullman Strike, 1894 Strike a. Company town in Chicago b. Wages cut by 1/3 c. Eugene Debs, American Railway Union d. President Cleveland’s response -- Strike crushed; union broken e. First time the federal gov’t used a court injunctionto break a strike
    • 81. Debs:  American  Railway  Union Highway of Trade “King Debs”,  Harper’s Weekly,  1894
    • 82. Memory Device for the Labor Movement: 1865-1900 3 Big Unions 3 Big Strikes National Labor Union Knights of Labor American Federation of Labor Great Railroad Strike, 1877 Homestead Strike, 1892 Pullman Strike, 1894
    • 83. H. By 1900 Unions had largely failed to achieve their goals 1. Wages remained almost the same compared to 1865 2. Work hours remained high in most industries 3. Working conditions remained oppressive
    • 84. 4. Most unions were either broken or severely weakened by owner or government actions (e.g. Knights of Labor, American Railway Union) 5. American Federation of Labor was among the few unions that remained intact and saw modest improvements for its workers 6. After 1900, the fortune for unions improved