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LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
LOAPUSH 22 custom
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LOAPUSH 22 custom

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Go Lions

Go Lions

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Transcript

  • 1. The Ordeal of Reconstruction Chapter 22
  • 2. The Problems Of Peace  Major questions facing the country  How would the south be rebuilt  How would the liberated Blacks be converted to free citizens  How would southern states be reintegrated into the Union  Who would direct reconstruction, the southern states, the President or Congress  What to do with confederate leaders?
  • 3. Major Problems InThe South         Social and economic system had collapsed. Key Southern cities were devastated. Banking system had collapsed under run-away inflation. Factories were destroyed Transportation system completely broken down Agriculture, major economic force of the south, totally collapsed. Southern rich were suddenly much poorer. Many Southerners were beaten but still defiant and were not yet emotionally prepared to reintegrate with the north.
  • 4. Freedmen Define Freedom     Immediately after war, freedom for Blacks depended on where the army was Many in South rejected validity of Emancipation Proclamation Reaction of Blacks Blacks hit the road    Exodusters Black schools Black churches
  • 5. The Freedmen’s Bureau Congress creates the Freedmen’s Bureau March, 1865.  Purpose?  Greatest success?  Failed to provide land, as authorized  Blacks and labor contracts 
  • 6. Freedmen’s Bureau School
  • 7. Southern View of Freedmen’s Bureau
  • 8. Southern View of Freedmen’s Bur.     Southerners resented the Bureau as northern intrusion. Pres. Johnson didn’t support it. Why? It died in 1872. One of many failures of reconstruction. Plenty to eat and nothing to do.
  • 9. Johnson: The Tailor President       He had started from very humble beginnings. Never attended school. Enters politics in Tenn. Champion of poor whites and mountain whites. As Tenn. Congressman he refused to secede with Tenn. Forced to flee Tenn.
  • 10. Johnson: The Tailor President     Appointed War Governor after Tenn. partially redeemed by Union Army. Appointed VP when Lincoln needs to cement the Union Party and keep the vote of border states and Union democrats. Dogmatic believer in State’s Right and the Constitution. See John Tyler
  • 11. Presidential Reconstruction Lincoln plan proposed before war over.  What is Lincoln’s basic theory  What is the basic condition for states to be redeemed?  Who does Lincoln think should be in charge or reconstruction? Why?  How does Congress feel about his plan? Why?  Lincoln’s 10% Plan. Details 
  • 12. Congress Reacts Congress disagreed with Lincoln’s approach.  Congressional Republican theory?   Who   in charge of readmission?. Radical Republican Goals. Congress passes the Wade-Davis Bill in 1864  What does it say?  What happened to this bill?
  • 13. Johnson’s Pan for Reconstruction   Johnson agreed with Lincoln’s 10% plan. Recognized several 10% governments. Introduced his plan 8/1865.    Disenfranchised southerners with property over $20,000. They could petition him for a pardon called for special state conventions      to repeal declarations of secession, repudiating confederate debts and ratifying 13th Amendment prohibiting slavery Who deals with former slaves? How does Congress React? Why?
  • 14. Black Codes      New states passed Black Codes Harsh Purpose? Southern concerns and motives? Consequences   For blacks politically
  • 15. Congressional Reconstruction 1865. States readmitted by Johnson start sending Congressmen to Washington.  Many are former Confederate politicians and Generals.  Republicans outraged   Why? Congress’ reaction?  This sets up a monumental show-down with Johnson 
  • 16. Johnson Clashes With Congress  Johnson reacts strongly to Congress      What is his concern? Johnson announces that South had satisfied his conditions and Union was restored. Vetoed extension of Freedman’s Bureau. Civil Rights Act.  What does the Act do? What does Johnson do to the bill. What does Congress do in response?
  • 17. Fourteenth Amendment   Why does Congress propose? What does it say?       Conferred Civil Rights except the vote on Freedmen. Reduced representation in Congress of states that did not give the freedmen the vote. Disqualified from federal and state office former confederates who had previously sworn oath to Const. of the US and, thus, had violated it. Repudiated the confederate debt. Extended Due Process to all citizens. Ratified in 1868
  • 18. Johnson’s Back-firing Campaign   1866 Johnson and Congress battle over whether reconstruction would continue with or without the 14th Amendment. The battle-ground became the Congressional elections.      Johnson hoped for a majority in favor of his soft approach. Republicans sought a congress that was veto-proof. Johnson goes on a “give-‘em-hell” campaign swing to try to marshal votes. Johnson’s efforts backfire. Why? Result?
  • 19. SWINGING AROUND THE CIRCLE WITH JOHNSON
  • 20. Republican’s In Charge        Republicans now in the driver’s seat, but split between the radicals and the moderates. Radicals led by Charles Sumner in the Senate and Thaddeus Stevens in the house. Aims of Radicals? Aims of Moderates? Moderates had the upper hand Eventual policies showed influences of both Both recognize that federal power necessary to ensure enfranchisement of blacks.
  • 21. Military Reconstruction   Reconstruction Act (March 1867) What did it do?       Temporarily disenfranchised many southerners— 10,000 Stringent conditions for the readmission of the seceded states States required to ratify Fourteenth Amendment to come back in State constitutions must guarantee vote for slaves Stopped short of giving blacks land or requiring education. Johnson vehemently opposes. What does he do in response?
  • 22. Military Reconstruction Act
  • 23. Military Reconstruction 15th Amendment passed 1869 (ratified in 1870).  Why necessary after Reconstruction Act?  Military reconstruction questionable constitutionally. Why?  By 1870 all states readmitted under terms of Reconstruction Act.  Last federal troops leave in 1877. 
  • 24. Radical Reconstruction In The South       Evolution of attitude toward black enfranchisement. Blacks voting, but many whites weren’t. Union Leagues 14 Black Congressmen; 2 Black Senators. Height of black political power until mid 20th Century. Carpetbaggers and Scalawags. Assessment of reconstruction governments in the South
  • 25. Ku Klux Klan KKK (Invisible Empire of the South)  Used intimidation, fear and force to get upstart Blacks and carpetbaggers to get back in their place.  Founded by Nathan Bedford Forrest.  Undermined the civil rights given to blacks.  Force Act   Effective?
  • 26. Johnson Impeachment Radical Republicans frustrated with Johnson and out for his hide.  Tenure in Office Act (1867). Provisions?  How does Johnson violate the act?  Constitutionality of act?  House vote for impeachment  Factors impacting the Senate vote 
  • 27. The Purchase Of Alaska     One of Johnson’s few successes was the purchase of Alaska. Why were Russians looking to unload Alaska? Sec. of State Seward agrees to purchase for 7.2 Mil in 1867. Dubbed Seward’s Folly. Why was US willing to purchase?

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