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  • Library of Congress


  • 1. ROAD TO CIVIL WAR: 1848-1861
  • 2. ROAD TO CIVIL WAR: 1848-1861 Review In the wake of the Mexican War, sectional tensions over the Mexican Cession were temporarily eased by the Compromise of 1850.
  • 3. IX. Antislavery literature A. Harriet Beecher Stowe: Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) B. Hinton Helper: The Impending Crisis of the South (1857)
  • 4. X. Election of 1856 A. James Buchanan – Democrat -- Platform: popular sovereignty B. John C. Fremont – Republican -- Platform: non-extension of slavery C. Millard Fillmore -- American (―Know-Nothing‖) Party -- Platform: anti-immigration D. Results: Buchanan victorious
  • 5. Theme #3 The passage of the KansasNebraska Act destroyed the Compromises of 1820 and 1850 and spurred the creation of the Republican party, placing North and South on a direct course toward Civil War. Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • 6. VII. Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854): most important short-term cause of the Civil War A. Stephen Douglas proposed splitting the Nebraska Territory into two: Kansas and Nebraska 1. Response to Gadsden Purchase 2. Wanted Illinois to be the eastern terminus for a new transcontinental railroad Stephen Douglas “The Little Giant”
  • 7. B. Bill passed in 1854 1. Northerners were shocked: saw the Compromise of 1820 as ―sacred‖ a. Many northerners now were unwilling to obey the Fugitive Slave Law b. Anti-extension of slavery movement grew significantly 2. Wrecked the two previous compromises (1820 & 1850)
  • 8. The Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • 9. An 1856 Cartoon An 1856 cartoon depicts a giant freesoiler being held down by James Buchanan and Lewis Cass standing on the Democratic platform marked "Kansas", "Cuba" and "Central America". Franklin Pierce also holds down the giant's beard as Douglas shoves a black man down his throat.
  • 10. C. Birth of the Republican party 1. Formed in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act a. Included Whigs, northern Democrats, Free-Soilers, and some Know Nothings b. Lincoln came out of political retirement and ran for Illinois senate seat 2. Impact: emerged as the nation’s second major party overnight 3. Largely banned in the South
  • 11. Election of 1856
  • 12. VIII. “Bleeding Kansas” A. New England Emigrant Aid Company -- ―Beecher’s Bibles‖ B. Southerners were furious the spirit of the Kansas-Nebraska Act was being violated C. 1855 election in Kansas for the first territorial legislature 1. Missouri ―border ruffians‖ -- ―Vote early and vote often‖ 2. Southerners won the election 3. Northerners boycotted it
  • 13. D. Attack on free-soil Lawrence, Kansas
  • 14. E. Preston Brooks canes Charles Sumner 1. Charles Sumner’s speech 2. Preston Brooks’ attack 3. Significance
  • 15. F. John Brown: Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856 1. Revenge for sack of Lawrence and caning of Sumner 2. A mini-civil war in Kansas broke out that later merged with the Civil War
  • 16. G. Lecompton Constitution (1857) 1. Kansas applied for statehood based on popular sovereignty 2. Southerners drafted a proslavery constitution 3. Free-soilers once again boycotted the election 4. President Buchanan supported the Lecompton Constitution 5. Douglas opposed it 6. Congress sent it back to Kansas 7. Kansas was denied statehood
  • 17. H. Kansas issue split the Democratic party 1. Buchanan’s support for Kansas split the party along sectional lines 2. Douglas’ opposition to Kansas alienated him among southerners 3. Republicans would win the election of 1860 4. Lack of unified national parties meant the Union could not hold
  • 18. President James Buchanan 1857-1861 Democrat
  • 19. Theme #4 Major North-South crises in the late 1850s culminated in the election of Republican Abraham Lincoln to the presidency in 1860. His election caused seven southern states to secede from the Union and form the Confederate States of America.
  • 20. XI. Dred Scott Decision (March, 1857) A. Scott lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin territories -- He sued for his freedom arguing that he had lived on free soil
  • 21. B. Three main questions before Supreme Court 1. As a black man, was Scott a citizen with a right to sue in federal courts? 2. Had prolonged residence in a free state and territory make Scott free? 3. Did Congress have the right to impose the 36˚30’ line to restrict slavery in certain areas of Louisiana Territory?
  • 22. C. Roger B. Taney’s Decision 1. Scott was a slave & not a citizen -- Result: All blacks, North & South, were no longer citizens! 2. Slaves could not be taken away from owners without due process of law (5th Amendment) -- Slaves could be taken into any territory and held there
  • 23. 3. Missouri Compromise was ruled unconstitutional -- Congress couldn’t forbid slavery in the territories even if the territories wished it
  • 24. D. Impact 1. Contributed to the split in the Democratic party a. Northern Democrats who favored popular sovereignty were horrified (e.g. Stephen Douglas) b. Southern proslavers were overjoyed and saw the possibility for the creation of several new slave states in the territories
  • 25. 2. Republicans were infuriated a. Many claimed that the decision was merely an ―opinion‖ and that it was non-binding b. Southern proslavers saw the Republican view as further evidence that the North would not obey the Constitution
  • 26. XII. Financial Crash of 1857 A. Causes 1. Overspeculation on railroads and land 2. Inflation due to California ―Gold Rush‖ 3. Overproduction of grain (Crimean War)
  • 27. B. Results 1. Industrial North was hardest hit -- Southerners boasted that ―King Cotton‖ was superior to the flawed northern economy 2. Renewed demand for free farms in the West 3. Demand for higher tariffs
  • 28. XIII. Lincoln-Douglas Debates A. Republican Abraham Lincoln vs. Stephen Douglas for Illinois’ national senate seat 1. Douglas was one of the most powerful politicians in the country 2. Lincoln’s ―House Divided‖ Speech: given during his acceptance of his nomination *See next slide for excerpt
  • 29. ―A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently, half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing or all the other. Either the opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in the course of ultimate extinction; or its advocates will push it forward, till it shall become alike lawful in all the States, old as well as new — North as well as South.‖ Abraham Lincoln, 1858
  • 30. B. Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of seven debates 1. Douglas advocated for popular sovereignty 2. Lincoln advocated nonextension of slavery 3. Debates received national attention
  • 31. C. Freeport Doctrine 1. Lincoln insisted Douglas address the Dred Scott case 2. Douglas declared a territory could pass laws to undermine slavery 3. Douglas’ position further split the Democratic party and damaged his run for president in 1860
  • 32. D. Results 1. Douglas’ popular sovereignty position prevailed 2. Steppingstone for Lincoln’s presidential ambitions 3. Cost Douglas the presidency in 1860
  • 33. XIV. John Brown attacks Harper’s Ferry, 1859 A. Brown’s scheme: invade Virginia and start a massive slave rebellion B. Attack failed; several were killed and Brown was captured and executed U.S. forces, led by Capt. Robert E. Lee, attack Brown’s position.
  • 34. C. Northern abolitionists viewed Brown as a martyr D. Viewed as ominous in southern eyes 1. Brown seen as an agent of northern abolitionism and antislavery conspiracy 2. Southern states began to arm 3. Perhaps the most important cause of disunion (except for Lincoln’s election)
  • 35. XV. Election of 1860 A. Nominating conventions of 1860 1. Democratic party split in two a. Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas b. Southern Democrats nominated John C. Breckenridge 2. Constitutional-Union Party: John Bell
  • 36. 3. Republicans nominated Lincoln a. Republican platform  Non extension of slavery  Protective tariffs  Transcontinental railroad  Internal improvements  Free homesteads  No loss of rights for immigrants b. Southerners threatened secession if Lincoln was elected
  • 37. An 1860 Republican campaign flag
  • 38. Lincoln and Stephen Douglas struggle to control the northern and western states while John C. Breckinridge claims the south and John Bell attempts to glue the map back together.
  • 39. Bell: “Bless my soul I give up” Breckenridge: “ That long legged abolitionist is getting ahead of us all Douglas: “I never run so in my life”
  • 40. B. Election Results 1. Lincoln elected with only 40% of the vote -- Most sectional election in U.S. history
  • 41. 2. The Democrats still had control of both houses of Congress which was dominated by the South -- A majority of Supreme Court justices were southerners
  • 42. President Abraham Lincoln 1861-1865 Republican
  • 43. XVI. Southern states secede from the Union A. December 1860, South Carolina unanimously voted to secede from the Union B. 6 other states seceded during Buchanan’s ―lame duck‖ period: MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, TX C. Confederate States of America -- Jefferson Davis D. Buchanan’s response
  • 44. E. Reasons for southern secession 1. Political balance seemed to favor the North 2. Hated victory of the Republican party that seemed anti-South 3. Angry over free-soil criticism & abolitionism, northern interference (Underground RR), and John Brown’s raid 4. Many southerners thought secession would be unopposed 5. Desired end to dependence on the North 6. South had the moral high ground
  • 45. XVII. Crittenden Compromise 1. Motive: appease the South 2. Provisions 3. Lincoln’s response
  • 46. XVII. Crittenden Compromise 1. Motive: appease the South 2. Provisions 3. Lincoln’s response