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Go Lions

Go Lions

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  • Images: Wikipedia Commons
  • Images: Wikipedia Commons
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  • Transcript

    • 1. AP U.S. History Ch. 12 The war of 1812
    • 2. Theme Napoleon’s diplomatic maneuvering and the demands of western war hawks drew President Madison into the War of 1812 with Great Britain. The two-and-ahalf-year conflict ended in a military stalemate although the U.S. nearly lost the war. Meanwhile, New England Federalist opposition to the war led to the destruction of the party.
    • 3. President James Madison 1809-1817 Democratic Republican
    • 4. Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Abraham Lincoln Franklin Roosevelt George Washington Theodore Roosevelt Harry Truman John Kennedy Thomas Jefferson Dwight Eisenhower Woodrow Wilson Ronald Reagan Lyndon Johnson James Polk Andrew Jackson James Monroe 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Bill Clinton William McKinley John Adams George H.W. Bush John Quincy Adams James Madison Grover Cleveland Gerald Ford Ulysses Grant William Taft Jimmy Carter Calvin Coolidge Richard Nixon James Garfield 29. Zachary Taylor 30. Benjamin Harrison 31. Martin Van Buren 32. Chester Arthur 33. Rutherford Hayes 34. Herbert Hoover 35. John Tyler 36. George W. Bush 37. Millard Fillmore 38. Warren Harding 39. William Harrison 40. Franklin Pierce 41. Andrew Johnson 42. James Buchanan
    • 5. I. President Madison drifts towards war. A. James Madison: strong Jeffersonian B. Macon’s Bill No. 2 (1810) 1. Situation: Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 would expire within a year. 2. Purpose: entice Britain and France to respect U.S. shipping -- U.S. would maintain its embargo on the country that didn’t sign an agreement 3. Napoleon agreed. Why? 4. Tensions increased between U.S. and Britain
    • 6. B. War Hawks 1. 1811, new Congress differed from past Congresses a. Characteristics b. Henry Clay: Speaker of the House c. John C. Calhoun
    • 7. 2. Battle of Tippecanoe a. Western war hawks sought to wipe out renewed Indian attacks on white settlements on the frontier
    • 8. b. Shawnee Indians: Tecumseh & the Prophet (Tenskwatawa) -- Americans feared British aid to the Shawnee Tecumseh was the military leader of the Shawnee Confederation and one of it’s main political leaders The Prophet (Tenskwatawa), Tecumseh’s brother, was a religious and political leader of the Shawnee
    • 9. c. Battle of Tippecanoe (Nov, 1811) -- General William H. Harrison d. Significance: effectively ended the Amerindian threat in the northwest territory U.S. General William H. Harrison An illustration of the Battle of Tippecanoe
    • 10. 3. War hawks sought to conquer Canada a. It would remove other Amerindian threats b. Canada appeared vulnerable as Britain was preoccupied in fighting Napoleon 4. Southern expansionists desired Spanish Florida (Spain was Britain’s ally) 5. War hawks were outraged over British impressment & the Order in Council
    • 11. D. War with Britain was opposed by Daniel Webster
    • 12. The “Great Triumvirate” Clay Webster Calhoun
    • 13. E. US declared war on Britain: June, 1812 1. Opposition to war 2. Why fight Britain instead of France? a. War Hawks b. Republican views c British impressments & arming of Indians d. Chesapeake-Leopard Affair e. Lure of Canada
    • 14. II. “Mr. Madison’s War” A. Overview 1. Small war: 6,000 American casualties 2. One of US’s worst-fought wars on land a. Nation was militarily unprepared b. Attack on Canada a complete failure c. Washington, D.C. burned by the British d. Britain nearly won large territories in the North
    • 15. Dolly Madison, First Lady While the British were invading Washington, D.C., Dolly Madison saved some important works of art in the White House and fled just before the British arrived and torched the White House.
    • 16. Washington Burned GB marched on and captured D.C.—set the capital a fire
    • 17. 3. National disunity --Federalists undermined the war effort (e.g. Hartford Convention, 1814)
    • 18. 4. American victories a. U.S. Navy out-performed the Royal Navy on the Great Lakes i. Lake Erie -- Oliver Hazard Perry Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry led U.S. forces to victory in Lake Erie
    • 19. b. Fort McHenry (Sept. 1814) -- Francis Scott Key: “Star Spangled Banner”
    • 20. The flag that flew at Fort McHenry the night of the British bombardment The flag has been restored and is on display at the Smithsonian National History Museum in Washington, D.C.
    • 21. c. General Andrew Jackson i. Horseshoe Bend, 1814 -- Defeat of Creek Indians
    • 22. ii. Battle of New Orleans, 1815 Orleans
    • 23. Map of Battle of New Orleans
    • 24. Battle of New Orleans
    • 25. An American War Hero General Andrew Jackson
    • 26. 5. Treaty of Ghent (1815) a. Both sides agreed to stop fighting and restore conquered territory b. No mention of pre-war grievances 6. America gained respect diplomatically & militarily -- “Second War for Independence” 7. Fall of the Federalists a. Mainly due to opposing the war b. Temporary reduction of sectionalism
    • 27. 8. Large Native-American losses during the war -- Especially in lands north of the Ohio River 9. Beginning of the American Industrial Revolution
    • 28. . Hartford Convention (1814) A. Attended by New England Federalists B. Sought financial compensation for losses during the war C. A small minority urged secession
    • 29. D. Recommended amendments to the Constitution 1. Repeal 3/5 compromise 2. 2/3 vote in Congress for an embargo, admission of western states, or for declaration of war. 3. Limit the term of the president 4. Deny naturalized citizens the right to vote E. Battle of New Orleans & Treaty of Ghent made their pleas moot
    • 30. F. Results 1. Death of the Federalist party a.1816 election, James Monroe crushed his Federalist opponent b. Exaggerated accounts of treason doomed the Federalists -- More talk of nullification and secession in New England than any other section up until this point c. Anti-war effort also hurt the party
    • 31. IV. New Era of American Nationalism A. War heroes 1. Andrew Jackson: Battle of New Orleans 2. Stephen Decatur: naval victories 3. William H. Harrison: Battle of the Great Lakes B. Americans now looked westward toward settlement of the West C. U.S. no longer worried over European intervention in North America
    • 32. Ch. 12 “ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS”
    • 33. ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS: 1816-1824 The aftermath of the War of 1812 produced a strong surge of American nationalism that was reflected in economics, law, and foreign policy. The rising nationalistic spirit was only temporarily threatened by the first severe sectional dispute over slavery that was settled with the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
    • 34. Nascent Nationalism A. Causes 1. Victories in War of 1812 (esp. Battle of New Orleans) 2. Less Federalist sectionalism and states’ rightism 3. Less economic and political dependence on Europe 4. Westward expansion and optimism about the future 5. Many Americans see themselves as
    • 35. B. New western states continued to enter the Union 1. New states: IN, IL, MS, AL
    • 36. 2. Indian removal continued to make way for westward-moving settlers 3. Eventually, a strong belief in “Manifest Destiny” developed by the the 1840s 4. Davy Crockett – America’s first pop icon
    • 37. Davy Crockett became America’s first pop culture hero throughout the country for his hunting and fighting skills in the west.
    • 38. Henry Clay’s “American System” A. Second National Bank (1816) 1. No BUS during War of 1812: impact 2. Modeled after first BUS, but larger 3. Jeffersonian support 4. Federalist opposition (why now?) The Second Bank of the United States, Philadelphia
    • 39. B. Tariff of 1816 1. Purpose: protect U.S. businesses from British competition a. First protective tariff in U.S. history b. Began a protectionist trend in U.S. 2. Sectional battle over tariff a. John C. Calhoun – South ► Opposed the tariff b. Daniel Webster – North ► Opposed the tariff
    • 40. 3. Henry Clay – West a. Believed the tariff would benefit Eastern manufacturers b. Tariff revenues would fund internal improvements c. Foodstuffs and raw materials from the South and West would flow into the North and East
    • 41. Increased Tariff Rates in the 1820s
    • 42. U.S. Tariff Rates, 1820-2005
    • 43. C. Internal improvements (did not pass) 1. Calhoun’s Bonus Bill (1817) would have funded internal improvements a. Vetoed by Madison & Monroe ► Strict construction: states responsible for internal improvements not the federal government b. Jeffersonian opposition: saw it as states’ rights issue c. Federalist opposition: feared westward expansion and growth 2. Prior to the Civil War most internal improvements (except railroads) were paid for by the states (e.g. Erie Canal in New York)
    • 44. Memory Device for Clay’s American System: “BIT” BUS Internal Improvements Tariff
    • 45. “Era of Good Feelings” so called A. Monroe elected President in 1816 1. Continued the “Virginia dynasty” 2. Death of Federalist party
    • 46. President James Monroe 1817-1825 Democratic-Republican
    • 47. B. “Era of Good Feelings”: one-party rule -- Term is misleading: 1. Emerging sectionalism (South, West, & East) 2. Tariff issue 3. Internal improvements 4. 2nd Bank of the United States 5. Sale of public lands in West 6. Panic of 1819 7. Slavery issue: Missouri Compromise 8. Republican party factions
    • 48. C. Two major issues during Monroe’s Presidency: 1. Panic of 1819 2. Missouri Compromise of 1820
    • 49. Panic of 1819 A. Financial panic and a subsequent depression hit in 1819 B. Causes: 1. Immediate cause: overspeculation on frontier lands by banks (esp. the BUS) 2. Inflation from the war and economic downturn after the war 3. Significant budget deficit (U.S. drained of specie) 4. “Wildcat” western banks foreclosed on western farms
    • 50. Growing Pains of the West Resulted in calls for reform and increased democracy 1. Western farmers’ views 2. Stimulated the “New Democracy”: desire for more responsive gov’t 3. Land Act of 1820: New trend in land legislation 4. Calls to end debtors’ prisons
    • 51. Slavery and Sectional Balance A. Missouri asked Congress to enter the union in 1819 ► Tallmadge Amendment B. Southern states feared destruction of sectional balance 1. Jefferson: crisis was like “a firebell in the night” 2. Northern growth was dramatic ► Senate still balanced 11 to 11 3. Future of the slave system seemed to be in peril 4. The Senate killed the bill
    • 52. Missouri Compromise of 1820 1. Henry Clay “The Great Compromiser” 2. Provisions: a. Missouri entered the Union as a slave state b. Maine entered the Union as a free state c. Henceforth, slavery would not be allowed above the 36˚30’ line 3. Reaction on both sides
    • 53. Missouri Compromise
    • 54. D. Legacy of the Compromise 1. Lasted 34 years (until the KansasNebraska Act of 1854) 2. Henceforth, slavery issue became a dominant issue in U.S. politics 3. The South developed a sectional nationalism of its own. 4. Clay later criticized by northerners as an “appeaser”
    • 55. John Marshall and Judicial Nationalism A. Marshall is the most significant chief justice in U.S. history 1. Strengthened the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison, 1803) 2. His decisions greatly increased the power of the federal government over the states 3. Federalist philosophy; Hamiltonian
    • 56. B. Fletcher v. Peck (1810) 1. Dealt with the protection of property rights against popular pressures 2. Issue: Yazoo land controversy 3. Significance: Constitution forbids states from “impairing contracts” ► One of earliest examples of the Court asserting its right to invalidate state laws.
    • 57. C. Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee (1816) 1. Issue: Virginia sought to nullify provisions in Treaty of Paris (1783) & Jay Treaty regarding Loyalist property. 2. Decision: Court upheld “Supremacy Clause” of Constitution and rejected the “compact theory.”
    • 58. D. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) 1. Issue: Maryland sought to tax the BUS 2. Marshall: declared the BUS constitutional ► Loose construction; “elastic clause” 3. Denied Maryland the right to tax the bank (blow to states’ rights) ► “The power to tax involves the power to destroy.”
    • 59. E. Dartmouth College v. Woodward , 1819 (Protection of property rights from the states) 1. Issue: New Hampshire sought to change a charter that had been granted in 1769 ► Dartmouth defended by Daniel Webster 2. Ruling: the charter was a contract and could not be invalidated 3. Significance: a. Positive: safeguarded businesses from domination from the states b. Negative: corporations could escape
    • 60. F. Cohens v. Virginia (1821) 1. Significance: U.S. Supreme Court overturned a Virginia Supreme Court decision. G. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) “steamboat case” 1. Issue: NY granted monopoly of Hudson River trade to Ogden’s steamboat company. 2. Significance: Only Congress had right to control Interstate commerce.
    • 61. H. Daniel Webster: he “ghost wrote” some of Marshall’s decisions
    • 62. Oregon and Florida A.  Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) ►Disarmament of U.S.-Canadian border B. Convention of 1818 with England (negotiated by John Quincy Adams) 1. 49th parallel became AmericanCanadian border from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. 2. 10 year joint occupation of Oregon country 3. Americans could share Newfoundland fisheries
    • 63. Convention of 1818
    • 64. C. U.S. gains Florida from Spain 1. Andrew Jackson invaded Florida during the First Seminole War (1816-1818) 2. Monroe’s ultimatum to Spain (urged by J.Q. Adams) 3. Adams-Onis Treaty (Florida Purchase Treaty of 1819) a. Spain ceded Florida & claims to Oregon territory b. U.S. abandoned claims to Texas
    • 65. Florida Purchase Treaty, 1819
    • 66. D. Monroe Doctrine 1. European monarchies opposed Latin American revolutions. 2. Americans alarmed at European hostility to democracy in Latin America 3. Great Britain sought an alliance with the U.S. to protect its interests in Latin America
    • 67. Monroe Doctrine (1823) a. Written by John Quincy Adams b. Stern warning to Europeans (especially Russia) i. No new colonies in Latin America ii. Leave existing independent countries in Latin America to govern themselves c. American reaction was positive due to rising nationalism
    • 68. d. Foreign reaction i. British reaction was mixed ii. Autocratic Europeans angered at perceived U.S. arrogance iii. Latin America saw the U.S. merely protecting its own interests e. Contemporary significance: small f. Long-term significance: cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy in late-19th and 20th centuries
    • 69. 6. John Quincy Adams: one of the most significant secretaries of state in U.S. history: a. Convention of 1818 b. Adams-Onis Treaty (Florida Purchase Treaty) c. Monroe Doctrine
    • 70. By the late-19th century, the U.S. had enough military to enforce the Monroe Doctrine with regard to major powers such as Britain and Germany.