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  • Image: Wikipedia Commons
  • Image in the public domain
  • Map Courtesy of Cal State Humboldt University
  • Source: Foundations for Teaching Economics workshop on "Economic Forces in American History:  The Economics of Slavery" by Dr. Dan Benjamin:
  • Images courtesy of the Library of Congress
  • Source: Library of Congress
  • Images are in the public domain
  • CREDIT: “Horrid massacre in Virginia,” 1831(?). Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Reproduction Number LC-USZ62-38902.
  • Courtesy of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania
  • Wikipedia Commons
  • Wikipedia Commons
  • Source: U.S. State Department
  • Wikipedia Commons "To the friends of Negro Emancipation", celebrating the abolition of slavery in the British Empire
  • Wikipedia Commons
  • Poster is in the public domain
  • Photo is in the public domain
  • Poster is in the public domai
  • Image of Harriet Tubman Wikipedia Commons
    Illustration: public domain


  • 1. AP U.S. History Chapter 16 Slavery in Antebellum America Cotton Gin 1793 Underground Railroad 1808 End of Slave Trade 1800s 1831 Garrison’s Liberator Nat Turner’s Revolt 1831 1847 Douglass’ North Star
  • 2. Theme 1: The rise of “King Cotton” in the South resulted in an explosion of slavery and a complex social order that deeply affected whites as well as blacks.
  • 3. I. Rise of “King Cotton” A. Slavery prior to 1793 B. Eli Whitney’s cotton gin 1. Impact: resulted in the explosion of slavery 2. Cotton kingdom developed into a huge agricultural factory
  • 4. Cotton Exports from the U.S., 1815-1860
  • 6. 3. Huge domestic slave trade emerged
  • 7. -- Importation of slaves from Africa had been abolished in 1808
  • 8. C. Trade 1. Much cotton exported to Britain who was heavily dependent on U.S. supply 2. For a time, prosperity of North and South seemed to rest on slavery 3. Cotton accounted for 57% of all U.S. exports by 1860 -- South produced 75% of the world’s cotton
  • 9. “Peculiar Institution” A. The planter aristocracy 1. Planters dominated politically and economically 2. Carried on early “Cavalier” tradition of early Virginia
  • 10. B. Plantation system 1. Enormous investment of capital in slaves -- Risks 2. One-crop economy 3. Attracted few European immigrants
  • 11. II. The Three South's: Slaves of the Slave System A. Generalizations 1. Further north, the cooler climate meant fewer slaves; less commitment to maintaining slavery 2. Further south, the warmer climate meant more slaves; heavy commitment to maintaining slavery
  • 12. 3. Mountain whites along Appalachian Mountain range were the least committed to slavery 4. Southward flow of slaves continued from 1790 to 1860 5. The South was NOT a monolithic political and cultural entity -- Only interference from outsiders tended to unify southerners
  • 13. The Three Souths
  • 14. B. Border South: DE, MD, KY, MO 1. Fewer plantations than in lower south (tobacco) -- Cotton plantations scarce 2. Unionists overcame disunionists during the Civil War 3. Fewest # of slaves in the South: 17% of population 4. 22% of white families owned slaves
  • 15. C. Middle South: VA, NC, TN, AK 1. Each state: 1 sect like Border; 1 section like Lower South 2. Unionists prevailed when Lincoln was elected; Disunionists prevailed when the war began 3. Slaves = 30% of population 4. 36% of white families owned slaves
  • 16. D. Lower South: SC, FL, GA, AL, MS, LA,TX Known as the Black Belt 1. Most slaves concentrated in “cotton belt” along river valleys 2. Cotton was king; also sugar & rice 3. Disunionists prevailed after Lincoln was elected in 1860 4. Slaves = 47% of population 5. 43% of white families owned slaves
  • 17. G. The White Majority 1. Feared more slave revolts 2. Infuriated by abolitionist propaganda 3. Belief in racial superiority
  • 18. . The White Majority A. Only 25% owned slaves by 1860 B. 75% were non-slaveowners 1. Location & type of farming 2. Conditions 3. Why defend slavery? C. Mountain whites 1. Location & farming 2. Political affiliation
  • 19. Free Blacks:Slaves without Masters A. 250,000 in the South in 1860 -- Border South had the most B. Discrimination in the South C. 250,000 in the North in 1860 -- Philadelphia D. Discrimination in the North -- Often denied education and suffrage; segregation existed in some states
  • 20. D. Afro-American slave culture 1. West-African culture 2. Family 3. Oral traditions 4. Religion 5. Music
  • 21. C. Plantation slavery 1. Nearly 4 million slaves by 1860 a. Slave trade abolished in 1808 b. Increase in slave population due to natural reproduction 2. Slaves seen as valuable “property” a. Slave auctions b. Floggings and Breakers
  • 22. The Value of the Stock of Slaves in the U.S., 1805-1860
  • 23. Value of Slaves in 2004 Dollars Year 1810 - $316, 1820 - $610, 1830 - $577, 1840 - $997 1850 - $1,286, 1860 - $3,059 2004 (adjusted for inflation) $4,490 $11,100 $12,000 $19,300 $25,300 $55,900
  • 24. 3. Brutal punishments 4. New western areas were the harshest
  • 25. E. Burdens of the slave system 1. Denial of individual dignity 2. Slaves denied education 3. Slaves at times sabotaged the master’s plantation 4. Many tried to escape
  • 26. F. Slave revolts 1. Stono Rebellion, 1739 2. Gabriel Prosser, 1800 3. Denmark Vesey, 1822 4. Nat Turner, 1831
  • 27. Theme 2: The abolitionist movement in the North proved unpopular in both the North and the South. Eventually the movement appealed to a growing minority of northerners who came to see slavery as a moral evil and sought to prevent the spread of slavery into the western territories.
  • 28. VI. Early Abolitionism A. First abolition movements: Quakers in Pennsylvania This is the cover page to the "Constitution and Minutes of the Pennsylvania Society for promoting the Abolition of Slavery and the relief of Free Negroes unlawfully held in Bondage" (PAS) when it reorganized in 1787.
  • 29. Early Emancipation in the North
  • 30. Legal Status of Slavery, 1861
  • 31. B. American Colonization Society founded in 1817 1. Sought to recolonize freed slaves overseas 2. Liberia 3. Supporters of colonization
  • 32. C. Rise of abolitionism in 1830’s 1. Most important reform movement of the Second Great Awakening -- Reformers saw slavery as a sin 2. Abolitionists were inspired by Britain’s freeing of its slaves in 1833
  • 33. Radical abolitionism 1. Sought immediate and uncompensated abolition of slavery 2. William Lloyd Garrison a. The Liberator, 1831 Liberator b. Views
  • 34. “I am in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD.” -- William Lloyd Garrison, 1831
  • 35. 3. American Anti-Slavery Society a. Founded by radical abolitionists b. Theodore Weld -- American Slavery As It Is (1839) Icon of the American AntiSlavery Society (18321865)
  • 36. c. Wendell Phillips (“abolition’s golden trumpet”)
  • 37. d. Angelina and Sarah Grimke i. Only white southern female abolitionists ii. Some traditionalists were opposed to females playing a public role in the movement e. Arthur and Lewis Tappan -- Funded the American AntiSlavery Society and the Liberator f. The movement eventually split along gender lines
  • 38. 3. David Walker: Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World (1829) 4. Sojourner Truth 5. Elijah Lovejoy 6. Martin Delaney Wood engraving of a mob in Alton, Illinois destroying the warehouse containing Lovejoy’s printing press
  • 39. 7. Frederick Douglass a. Greatest of the black abolitionists -- North Star b. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (1845) c. Sought practical approach compared radical abolitionists d. Looked to politics to end slavery to
  • 40. 8. Eventually, most abolitionists favored war to end slavery
  • 41. The South lashes back A. Pre-1830s, more abolitionism in South than North B. Abolitionism silenced after 1830 C. Causes for southern concern 1. Nat Turner 2. Nullification crisis of 1832 3. Increased abolitionist literature circulating in the South
  • 42. D. Abolitionist literature was banned in the Southern mail system E. Defense of slavery 1. Bible & Aristotle 2. Good for “barbaric” Africans 3. Master-slave relationships resembled family
  • 43. 4. George Fitzhugh -- Slaves were better-off than “northern wage slaves”
  • 44. F. Gag resolution, 1836 U.S. Congressman and former president John Quincy Adams led the eight-year fight to kill the Gag Resolution
  • 45. Abolitionist impact in the North A. Abolitionists unpopular in many parts of the North 1. Reverence for Constitution 2. Ideal of Union 3. Economic dependence on South B. Mob outbursts in response to extreme abolitionists
  • 46. C. Most politicians avoided the issue of abolitionism. Why? D. Effect on northern mind by 1850 1. A significant minority saw slavery as a moral evil and undemocratic 2. The “Free-Soil” Party emerged by 1848 based on the antiextension of slavery into the western territories -- “ Free-soil” movement morphed into the Republican part in the 1850s
  • 47. 3. Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842) -- “personal liberty laws 4. By 1850, southerners demanded a new stronger fugitive slave law
  • 48. E. Underground Railroad 1. Chain of anti-slavery homes used to aid runaway slaves 2. Harriet Tubman