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  1. 1. Chapter 23 POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE, 18691889
  2. 2. The “Bloody Shirt” Elects Grant     Grant was immensely popular after the war Nation was weary after war, and eager for a fresh face. Republicans, nevertheless, enthusiastically nominate Grant Grant is singularly unequipped to be President.
  3. 3. Who Shall Rule This American Nation? Who shall rule this American nation? Say, boys, say! Who shall sit in the loftiest station? Say, boys, say! Shall the man who trampled on the banner? They who now their country would betray? They who murder the innocent freed men? Say, boys, say! chorus: No never! no, never! The loyal millions say; They, boys, they! And 'tis they who rule this American nation, Who shall rank as the family royal? Say, boys, say! If not those who are honest and loyal? Say, boys, say! Then shall one elected as our servant In his pride, assume a regal way? Must we bend to the human dictator? Say, boys, say! Shall we tarnish our national glory? Say, boys, say! Blot one line from the wonderful story? Say, boys, say! Did we vainly shed our blood in battle? Did our troops resultless win the day? Was our time and our treasure all squander'd? Say, boys, say!
  4. 4. The “Bloody SHIRT” Elects Grant        Democrats divided between eastern and western democrats. Nominate Horatio Seymour Republicans wave the “Bloody Shirt” Republican Platform Democrats divided over redemption of Bonds. Grants wins easily in the electoral college, but by only 300,000 votes. Impact of Black vote.
  5. 5. The Era Of Good Stealings        Civil War bred corruption and graft. Causes RR corruption Jim Fisk and Jay Gould scheme to corner the gold market. Boss Tweed/Tammany Hall. Democratic political machine Samuel Tilden. “ An honest politician was one that when bought stayed bought”
  6. 6. A Carnival Of Corruption   Grant’s administration was riddled with corrupt officials. Credit Mobilier scandal.     Exposed in 1872. Members of congress given stock “ to look the other way” eventually censured. Vice President implicated. Whiskey Tax scandal.
  7. 7. Liberal Republican Revolt Of 1872      Liberal republicans were tired of corruption “Turn the Rascals Out!” Liberal Republican party. Nominate Horace Greeley Democrats endorse him, too. Why?  Thought he wanted to reunite North and South Campaign very ugly  Atheist, communist, free-lover, vegetarian ,brown bread eater Grant was “ a drunkard, swindler, ignoramus etc.
  8. 8. Grant v. Greeley  Grant wins easily, 286-66, because:       Grant is perceived to be the lesser of two evils Democrats are still stained with fault for the Civil War. Did lead the Republicans to clean their own house. General amnesty Act, lowered tariffs Mild civil-service reform
  9. 9. Depression And Demands For Inflation     Panic of1873 severe recession hits Causes- over production R.R., Mines, farming factories 15,000 businesses went under. Riots in N.Y. City, Collapse of Jay Cooke and Co.
  10. 10. Depression And Demands For Inflation     Debtors advocate inflationary policies. Call for more Greenbacks. Federal government had removed onefourth from circulation. Why? Grant sides with conservatives and signs Resumption Act of 1875 going to withdraw more “greenbacks”
  11. 11. Silver  Debtors advocated the coinage of silver dollars.    Congress had formally dropped silver money in 1873.     Why? Pay back loans with cheaper dollars Reasons No silver was being produced thus no silver dollars Grant rejects call to mint Silver. Consequences of Grant’s policy   Deflation, restored government credit rating Political backlash-Democrats win house 1874, 1878
  12. 12. Bland-Allison Act  Bland-Allison Act.     What does it authorize? Why does it have little inflationary effect. Leads to Democratic backlash in congressional elections. Plants the seeds of the Grange
  13. 13. Pallid Politics In The Gilded Age      Balance of two political parties during the Gilded Age from 1869-99. Majority in Congress flipped back and forth six times in the 11 terms between 1869-91 Few controversial stands Few dramatic policy differences between parties. Voter turnout /voter loyalty.   “Puritan values- Republican not one single morality-Democrats
  14. 14. Republicans v. Democrats  Republicans:     Embodied the old Puritanical ideals. Strict moral codes and belief that government should be an instrument in regulating economic and moral affairs of the community. Strong in Midwest and in rural and small-town New England. Got most of votes from Freedman and from Union Civil War Vets.
  15. 15. Republicans v. Democrats  Democrats    More Roman Catholic and Lutheran. South and northern industrial cities Large immigrant base and strong Dem. machines.
  16. 16. Stalwarts v. Halfbreeds   Republicans had two rival factions Stalwarts (Conklingites)    Half-Breeds.    led by NY Sen. Roscoe Conkling). Big believers in patronage. Led by James Blaine. Flirted with civil service. Consequences of this division  stalemate
  17. 17. The Hayes-Tilden Standoff, 1876   Republicans dissuade Grant from running again. Rutherford B. Hayes.   Hayes largely unknown, but a civil war officer Also, importantly, former three-term governor of Ohio.
  18. 18. The Hayes-Tilden Standoff, 1876  Samuel Tildon.    Platform. Attacks against Republicans. Electoral College dispute     Reasons Attempts to resolve Electoral Count Act Further compromise
  19. 19. Hayes-Tilden Disputed Election of 1876
  20. 20. The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction  Compromise was the end of reconstruction.      Hayes becomes President—Satisfies Republicans Withdraw Federal troops from other contested sates Louisiana and South Carolina, build Texas Railroad Literacy tests and poll taxes disenfranchising blacks Civil Rights Cases Crop-Lien System/Share Cropping
  21. 21. The Birth of Jim Crow in the Post-Reconstruction South Jim Crow Laws State level codes of segregation Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) separate but “equal” facilities were constitutional! Lynching's became tool to stop the crime of attempting to be equal (chart page 497 and make sure to look at the photo and caption on page 496)
  22. 22. Sharecropping
  23. 23. Tenancy & the Crop Lien System Furnishing Merchant  Loan tools and seed up to 60% interest to tenant farmer to plant spring crop. Tenant Farmer     Farmer also secures food, clothing, and other necessities on credit from merchant until the harvest. Merchant holds “lien” {mortgage} on part of tenant’s future crops as  Plants crop, harvests in autumn. Turns over up to ½ of crop to land owner as payment of rent. Tenant gives remainder of crop to merchant in payment of debt. Landowner  Rents land to tenant in exchange for ¼ to ½ of tenant farmer’s future crop.
  24. 24. Class Conflicts And Ethnic Clashes  Strikes in the 1870s     Great Rail Road strike Who wins? Why? Government backed the business Chinese in California     Dennis Kearney/Kearneyites Chinese Exclusion Act
  25. 25. Election of 1880 Garfield and Arthur    Hayes administration was not very noteworthy. Did not accomplish much beyond end to reconstruction. “Old 8-7” and “His Fraudulency.” He did not run for reelection and wouldn’t have been renominated had he tried.
  26. 26. Republicans in 1880     Stymied by Stallwart-Halfbreed rivalry and take 35 ballots to settle on a candidate. Chose James Garfield. Dark-Horse. Chester Arthur, was chosen VP. Why? Platform is for higher tariffs and (weakly) for civil service reform
  27. 27. Election of 1880   Democrats chose Winfield Hancock Civil War General, but popular in south      Why?. Both parties shun substantive political issues. Garfield wins by only 40,000, but 214-155 in electoral college. He was besieged by office seekers. Made Blain Sec. of State  Battle raging politically between Stalwarts and HalfBreeds.
  28. 28. Election of 1880
  29. 29. 1881: Garfield Assassinated! Charles Guiteau: I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is President now!
  30. 30. CHESTER ARTHUR TAKES COMMAND     Not many expected much from Arthur. Why? Displayed surprising integrity, intelligence and independence. Arthur threw his support behind reform of spoils system. Pendleton Act of 1883    Details: exams for jobs not connections Unintended consequences? Big Business ran to politicians to “help” them lead
  31. 31. THE BLAINE-CLEVELAND MUDSLINGERS OF 1884   Rep. nominate Blaine Tainted with numerous rumors of scandals.    The “tattooed man” “Mulligan letters” “burn this letter” Mugwumps.
  32. 32. Grover Cleveland  Democrats nominate Grover Cleveland.     Reputation for reform and honesty. Cleveland’s Bastard. One of the ugliest campaigns in American history New York the key state  Rum, Romanism and Rebellion
  33. 33. Election of 1884
  34. 34. Old Grover Takes Over  First Dem. president since Buchanan   Cleveland’s political philosophy   Issues raised by this? Civil service reform? Last Jeffersonian Democrat? Laissez-faire and government should not support the people Named two former confederates to his cabinet, helping to heal the north-south divide
  35. 35.    Tariffs and Pensions Cleveland and office seekers—fires 2/3 of republican federal employees make room for “deserving Democrats” Military Pension issue Tariffs  Country was running at a surplus because of high tariffs.  Republicans had little motivation to reduce these tariffs. They owned the factories that profited from tariffs  Cleveland’s two choices? Pork barrel spending or lower tariffs  He favored reducing tariffs. Why?  Cleveland makes tariff reduction his number-one issue.  Created a real political difference between the parties just in time for the election of 1888.
  36. 36. Harrison Ousts Cleveland    Dems renominate Cleveland. Rep. turn to Benjamin Harrison, grandson of William Henry Harrison. Primary issue?     Tariffs Republicans use fear of British against Cleveland. Republicans raise a huge war chest. How? Harrison wins electoral vote but looses the popular vote.
  37. 37. 1888 Presidential Election
  38. 38. Cleveland and History    Cleveland the first sitting president to be voted out of office since Van Buren in 1840. (Others: J. Adams, J.Q. Adams, Harrison, Hoover, Carter, Bush) Cleveland last to win popular vote and lose electoral college until Gore. Cleveland only president to have two nonconsecutive terms.
  39. 39. Billion Dollar Congress The Republicans Return Under Harrison   Benj. Harrison in the White House. Republicans eager for patronage.     Blaine is Secretary of State. Teddy Roosevelt Civil Service Commission. Republican quorum problem in the House Speaker Thomas Reed Czar Reed
  40. 40. Political Gravy For All     Billion Dollar Congress Pension Act of 1890 Sherman Anti-Trust Act Tariffs and Silver    Easterners wanted a higher tariff Westerners and farmers wanted more silver minted buying high priced “American manufactured goods but selling on unprotected world markets They bolt from the Republican party
  41. 41. Tariff Ire   Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 McKinley Tariff Bill    raised tariff rates to their highest peace-time level—48% Farmers hated the new tariff. Why? Republicans punished in 1890 congressional election.  Lose nearly 60 seats and Dems have a huge majority in Congress
  42. 42. 1892 Presidential Election Drumbeat of Discontent Grover Cleveland again! * (DEM) Benjamin Harrison (REP)
  43. 43. Populists  Populists emerge as a potent third party.    Officially the People’s Party Nominate James B. Weaver Populist Agenda:         free and unlimited coinage of silver at the ratio of sixteen to one graduated income tax Gov’t ownership of telephone, telegraph and RR direct election of US senators one-term limit on presidency use of the initiative and referendum to allow citizens to propose and review legislation. Shorter work day-to appeal to labor restriction on immigration—to appeal to labor
  44. 44. Populists     Labor is mad and are ripe for wooing by Populists. Homestead strike Populists poll over one-million votes and become one of the few third parties to win electoral votes Populists problems with Blacks  Grandfather Clause south reinforces poll taxes and literacy test to deny black the ballot .This disfranchisement, more restrictive Jim Crow laws, and increased lynching's achieves the goals of the white southerners.
  45. 45. 1892 Presidential Election
  46. 46. OLD GROVER CLEVELAND and Depression AGAIN   Depression of 1893 Causes:       Over-building and over-speculation labor unrest agricultural depression from low commodity prices reduction of US credit abroad because of Silver Purchase Act Problems with overseas banks, which were forced to call in US loans. Cleveland does next to nothing— laissez faire
  47. 47. Gold Problem      Treasury was running a deficit because of the Silver Purchase Act. Reasons Cleveland saw no choice but to repeal the Silver Purchase Act. Endless chain gold operation William Jennings Bryan Cleveland forced to issue bonds to raise money in order to buy gold J.P. Morgan deal  Public reaction
  48. 48. Cleveland Breeds a Backlash         McKinley Tariff causes deficit Democrats propose bill to reduce tariff but add income tax Senate tacks on lots of provisions to help special interests. Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act of 1894. Cleveland refused to sign it, but can’t veto. Supreme Court throws out income tax Public opinion hates the bill and blame Dems. Democrats hammered in 1894 mid-term election.