Redesigning Schools for  the 21 st  Century
A Changing Economy Makes Education more Important
Expectations for Learning are Changing <ul><li>The new context means new expectations. Most studies include: </li></ul><ul...
NAEP, 8 th  and 12 th  Grade Science <ul><li>1. What two gases make up most of the Earth's atmosphere?   </li></ul><ul><li...
Factory Model High Schools  Cannot Meet Today’s Needs <ul><li>75-80% graduate from high school </li></ul><ul><li>60% of gr...
Why think about redesign? <ul><li>Every organization is perfectly structured  </li></ul><ul><li>to get the results  </li><...
Effectiveness of Education Systems Sources: OECD education at a glance 2002; OECD PISA report 2002; EMB Education Indicato...
What are High-Achieving  Nations Doing? <ul><li>A lean curriculum focused on deep understanding and higher order skills </...
Smaller Redesigned Schools Produce Better Outcomes <ul><li>40 years of research show that smaller high schools with though...
<ul><li>To design a new System it’s important to understand the old system </li></ul><ul><li>And  what you need from the n...
Schools Designed in 1910 Adopted the Factory Model  <ul><li>Schools are often large & bureaucratized </li></ul><ul><li>Stu...
Bureaucratic Management of Teaching Source: The Right to Learn  by Linda Darling-Hammond, p. 200
Within this system: <ul><li>More managerial coordination was needed </li></ul><ul><li>Less money made it to the classroom ...
U.S Schools Spend Education Dollars Differently than do Other High-Achieving Countries <ul><li>52% of US ed. $ reach the c...
Old Assumptions: How is the work to be done? <ul><li>Division of labor by subject / department </li></ul><ul><li>Batch pro...
Old Assumptions:  How much work needs to be done? And how variable is the work to be done? <ul><li>How much work ? Whateve...
New Assumptions:  <ul><li>What Work Needs to Be Done? </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of learning focused on critical thinki...
Studies of Successful School Redesign: Factors influencing new school success <ul><li>1.  Small Size and Personalization  ...
Factors influencing new school success <ul><li>6.  Flexible supports (routinely available) </li></ul><ul><li>Resource room...
Personalization <ul><li>   “ School should not be mass production. It  should be loving and close. This is what kids need;...
“ I had passing grades when I decided to drop-out. Nobody tried to stop me. Nobody cared. None of the counselors paid any ...
In U.S. Schools, there is…  <ul><li>1 adult for every 9 students in schools </li></ul><ul><li>1 professional adult for eve...
Resource Allocation Differences
Typical High School Teacher Schedule Monday Tuesday Wed. Thurs. Friday 8:05-8:49 Planning Planning Planning Planning Plann...
Redesigned Teacher Schedule Monday Tuesday Wed. Thurs. Friday Advisory 8:00-9:00 Planning Planning Planning Planning 9:00-...
Continuous relationships <ul><li>“ Through looping, I’ve had my students in math and science class for two years now. What...
High Standards and Performance Assessment   <ul><li>Clear goals and Common expectations </li></ul><ul><li>School engagemen...
Performance Assessments Include: <ul><li>Performance tasks that ask students to do or demonstrate something specific (e.g....
High School Biology Exam,  Victoria, Australia <ul><li>3. When scientists design drugs against infectious agents, the term...
Analysis and Application of Knowledge <ul><li>B. Design a drug that will be effective against this virus.  In your answer ...
Design and Scientific Inquiry <ul><li>Before a drug is used on humans, it is usually tested on animals. In this case, the ...
Family and community connections <ul><li>“ At our school, there is a true partnership between parents and teachers. It fee...
The district role shifts from   <ul><li>Proliferating programs </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcing procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Ra...
Key Questions for Districts <ul><li>What should be done at the center and what should be done at the schools? </li></ul><u...
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NH DOE Redesigning School

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  • Notes for the facilitator The commonly agreed list of capacities expected of individuals in the modern workplace that is outlined on this and the following slide (from Professor Cheng ’ s paper provided as a pre-reading in the participants ’ handbook) constitutes a key reason for the adoption of the 334 senior secondary reform programme. The new curriculum envisaged in 334 is designed not only to build Hong Kong ’ s knowledge base by ensuring all students receive a full six years of secondary education, but also developing the broader range of knowledge based skills required for success in today ’ s highly competitive global marketplace. (The list continues on the next slide)
  • NH DOE Redesigning School

    1. 1. Redesigning Schools for the 21 st Century
    2. 2. A Changing Economy Makes Education more Important
    3. 3. Expectations for Learning are Changing <ul><li>The new context means new expectations. Most studies include: </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptability to change </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to work in teams </li></ul><ul><li>Preparedness to solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to analyse and conceptualise </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to reflect on and improve performance </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to manage oneself </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to create, innovate and criticise </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to engage in learning new things at all times </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to cross specialist borders </li></ul>Chris Wardlaw, &quot;Mathematics in Hong Kong/China – Improving on Being First in PISA&quot;
    4. 4. NAEP, 8 th and 12 th Grade Science <ul><li>1. What two gases make up most of the Earth's atmosphere?  </li></ul><ul><li>A)  Hydrogen and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>B)  Hydrogen and nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>C)  Oxygen and carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>D)  Oxygen and nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>2.   Is a hamburger an example of stored energy? Explain why or why not. ____________________________________ ____________________________________ </li></ul>
    5. 5. Factory Model High Schools Cannot Meet Today’s Needs <ul><li>75-80% graduate from high school </li></ul><ul><li>60% of graduates go on to college </li></ul><ul><li>40-50% of college entrants finish </li></ul><ul><li>About 25% of the age cohort gets a college degree </li></ul><ul><li>Yet 70% of jobs involve “knowledge work” requiring specialized higher education, and many high-tech jobs are filled by workers trained overseas </li></ul>
    6. 6. Why think about redesign? <ul><li>Every organization is perfectly structured </li></ul><ul><li>to get the results </li></ul><ul><li>that it gets. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Effectiveness of Education Systems Sources: OECD education at a glance 2002; OECD PISA report 2002; EMB Education Indicators, from Chris Wardlaw, &quot;Mathematics in Hong Kong/China – Improving on Being First in PISA&quot; Mean PISA score across reading maths and science literacy Investment in education as % of GDP Investment in education as % of GDP, compared with mean PISA score
    8. 8. What are High-Achieving Nations Doing? <ul><li>A lean curriculum focused on deep understanding and higher order skills </li></ul><ul><li>Performance assessments to gauge progress with classroom-based assessments as part of the system </li></ul><ul><li>Massive investments in initial teacher education and school-level teacher support (including teacher time) </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller schools with continuous relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Equitable spending, with extra investments in high-need schools and students </li></ul>
    9. 9. Smaller Redesigned Schools Produce Better Outcomes <ul><li>40 years of research show that smaller high schools with thoughtful designs produce </li></ul><ul><li>Higher achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Higher graduation rates </li></ul><ul><li>More positive feelings about school </li></ul><ul><li>Greater safety </li></ul><ul><li>More leadership opportunities for students </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>To design a new System it’s important to understand the old system </li></ul><ul><li>And what you need from the new System </li></ul>
    11. 11. Schools Designed in 1910 Adopted the Factory Model <ul><li>Schools are often large & bureaucratized </li></ul><ul><li>Students change teachers each year </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary students see many teachers in large groups (the “platoon” system) </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers do not share students </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers plan & teach alone </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum is fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>Counselors have large case loads </li></ul><ul><li>Parents have no easy way to connect to teachers </li></ul>
    12. 12. Bureaucratic Management of Teaching Source: The Right to Learn by Linda Darling-Hammond, p. 200
    13. 13. Within this system: <ul><li>More managerial coordination was needed </li></ul><ul><li>Less money made it to the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum & staff effort became more fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships became less personalized </li></ul><ul><li>There was less front-line accountability for outcomes </li></ul>
    14. 14. U.S Schools Spend Education Dollars Differently than do Other High-Achieving Countries <ul><li>52% of US ed. $ reach the classroom vs. 80% in high-achieving European and Asian countries </li></ul><ul><li>43% of US education employees are classroom teachers vs. 70-80% in other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers’ work is more discontinuous (1 subject for one semester or year vs. 2 subjects for >1 yr.) </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers have much less time to work together to create a coherent, high-quality program </li></ul>
    15. 15. Old Assumptions: How is the work to be done? <ul><li>Division of labor by subject / department </li></ul><ul><li>Batch processing of students </li></ul><ul><li>(batches of 25 to 30; 5 times per day) </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated teachers in egg crate classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation of curriculum (tracking) </li></ul><ul><li>Add on programs to handle problems </li></ul>
    16. 16. Old Assumptions: How much work needs to be done? And how variable is the work to be done? <ul><li>How much work ? Whatever amount fits into the designated structures and can be done in four years </li></ul><ul><li>How variable is the work ? If kids vary in their ‘ability,’ curriculum content should be watered down for them, but time, resources, and work design do not vary </li></ul>
    17. 17. New Assumptions: <ul><li>What Work Needs to Be Done? </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of learning focused on critical thinking for all students </li></ul><ul><li>How is the Work to Be Done? </li></ul><ul><li>Organized around clear standards and assessments of real performance </li></ul><ul><li>What needs to change? …. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Studies of Successful School Redesign: Factors influencing new school success <ul><li>1. Small Size and Personalization </li></ul><ul><li>Small classes; reduced pupil load </li></ul><ul><li>Advisement relationships </li></ul><ul><li>2. Teams working continuously with students </li></ul><ul><li>3. Coherent, purposeful curriculum tied to </li></ul><ul><li>4. Performance Assessments & exhibitions </li></ul><ul><li>5. Adaptive pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit teaching of key skills </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple strategies for active learning </li></ul><ul><li>Real-world connections </li></ul>
    19. 19. Factors influencing new school success <ul><li>6. Flexible supports (routinely available) </li></ul><ul><li>Resource room </li></ul><ul><li>Tutoring; homework time </li></ul><ul><li>Saturday School </li></ul><ul><li>“ Labs” or foundation courses alongside heterogenous courses </li></ul><ul><li>7. Collaborative planning & professional development w/ regularly scheduled time </li></ul>
    20. 20. Personalization <ul><li>  “ School should not be mass production. It should be loving and close. This is what kids need; you need love to learn.” </li></ul><ul><li>-- a student at Vanguard HS, New York City </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller classes </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Pupil Loads </li></ul><ul><li>Advisories </li></ul><ul><li>Reallocation of Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Less Fragmented Schedules </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    21. 21. “ I had passing grades when I decided to drop-out. Nobody tried to stop me. Nobody cared. None of the counselors paid any attention to me. The only time I ever saw the principal was when I got sent to him, which I never stayed around for. The individual classes were too big for students to learn, students should have longer exposure to individual teachers. If students could have the same subject teachers throughout their high school careers, this would allow teachers to get to know students better. No high school should have more than 400 students max, and all on one floor. Who needs seven floors in a school?” -- A recent city school dropout
    22. 22. In U.S. Schools, there is… <ul><li>1 adult for every 9 students in schools </li></ul><ul><li>1 professional adult for every 13 students </li></ul><ul><li>1 classified teacher for every 18 students </li></ul><ul><li>Average class size of 25 </li></ul><ul><li>Average pupil load in high schools of </li></ul><ul><li>1:120 to 180 </li></ul>
    23. 23. Resource Allocation Differences
    24. 24. Typical High School Teacher Schedule Monday Tuesday Wed. Thurs. Friday 8:05-8:49 Planning Planning Planning Planning Planning 8:54-9:36 Class Class Class Class Class 9:40-10:25 Class Class Class Class Class 10:30-11:12 Duty Duty Duty Duty Duty 11:17-12:00 Lunch Lunch Lunch Lunch Lunch 12:00-12:45 Class Class Class Class Class 12:50-1:35 Class Class Class Class Class 1:40-2:25 Class Class Class Class Class
    25. 25. Redesigned Teacher Schedule Monday Tuesday Wed. Thurs. Friday Advisory 8:00-9:00 Planning Planning Planning Planning 9:00-11:00 Humanities Humanities Team Meeting Humanities Humanities Humanities 11:00-12:00 Humanities Team Meeting Humanities Meetings, Planning Humanities 12:00-1:00 House Meeting 2x month @ lunch Lunch 1:00-1:45 Lunch Elective Lunch Elective Lunch 1:45-3;00 Advisory Elective Advisory Elective Staff Meeting
    26. 26. Continuous relationships <ul><li>“ Through looping, I’ve had my students in math and science class for two years now. What strikes me most is the progress of students who often get lost in the system – the shy ones who now ask questions because they trust me, the unmotivated ones who now come in for help because they know I’ll be supportive, and the defiant ones who now recognize that I’m an ally who cares for them. These are the kids who need adults’ support the most, but it takes them the longest to develop relationships. Looping gives us the time to make these relationships happen.” </li></ul><ul><li>-- a teacher at Benjamin Franklin Intermediate School, Daly City, California </li></ul>
    27. 27. High Standards and Performance Assessment <ul><li>Clear goals and Common expectations </li></ul><ul><li>School engagement in standard-setting </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on student work </li></ul><ul><li>Performance and exhibition </li></ul><ul><li>High Standards for Adults as well as Students </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for revision and redemption </li></ul><ul><li>“ When you take a test you don’t feel like you need to know it after it’s done. The portfolio stuff sticks in your brain better.”    </li></ul><ul><li>-- a New York City student </li></ul>
    28. 28. Performance Assessments Include: <ul><li>Performance tasks that ask students to do or demonstrate something specific (e.g. research a problem, design a computer program, conduct an experiment) </li></ul><ul><li>Student work samples that are scored based </li></ul><ul><li>on standards – e.g. math solutions, essays </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolios that collect & evaluate work over time </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibitions that are evaluated by outside jurors </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher documentation based on observation of </li></ul><ul><li>performance (e.g. miscue analyses, reading records) </li></ul>
    29. 29. High School Biology Exam, Victoria, Australia <ul><li>3. When scientists design drugs against infectious agents, the term “designed drug” is often used. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Explain what is meant by this term. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists aim to develop a drug against a particular virus that infects humans. The virus has a protein coat and different parts of the coat play different roles in the infective cycle. Some sites assist in the attachment of the virus to a host cell; others are important in the release from a host cell. The structure is represented in the following diagram: </li></ul><ul><li>The virus reproduces by attaching itself to the </li></ul><ul><li>surface of a host cell and injecting its DNA into the host </li></ul><ul><li>cell. The viral DNA then uses the components of host cell </li></ul><ul><li>to reproduce its parts and hundreds of new viruses bud off </li></ul><ul><li>from the host cell. Ultimately the host cell dies. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Analysis and Application of Knowledge <ul><li>B. Design a drug that will be effective against this virus. In your answer outline the important aspects you would need to consider. Outline how your drug would prevent continuation of the cycle of reproduction of the virus particle. Use diagrams in your answer. Space for diagrams is provided on the next page. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>
    31. 31. Design and Scientific Inquiry <ul><li>Before a drug is used on humans, it is usually tested on animals. In this case, the virus under investigation also infects mice. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Design an experiment, using mice, to test the effectiveness of the drug you have designed. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>
    32. 32. Family and community connections <ul><li>“ At our school, there is a true partnership between parents and teachers. It feels like we are both raising the same child.” </li></ul><ul><li>-- A parent at San Francisco Community School </li></ul><ul><li>Families as experts and partners </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at student work together </li></ul><ul><li>Regular meetings with advisors </li></ul><ul><li>Student-led conferences </li></ul>
    33. 33. The district role shifts from <ul><li>Proliferating programs </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcing procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Rationing educational opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing and excusing failure </li></ul><ul><li>Creating hierarchies of staff to manage compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Rewarding staff for “Doing things right” </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing effort </li></ul><ul><li>Building capacity & skills </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding successful programs </li></ul><ul><li>Re-allocating resources to prevent or remedy failure </li></ul><ul><li>Creating quality teams to manage improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Rewarding staff for “Doing the right things” </li></ul>
    34. 34. Key Questions for Districts <ul><li>What should be done at the center and what should be done at the schools? </li></ul><ul><li>What district structures are working to support school learning and improvement? </li></ul><ul><li>What functions are currently fragmented or dysfunctional and need re-examination? </li></ul><ul><li>What gets rewarded in your system? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the incentives for change? </li></ul>

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