Media Development in Korea
Chaerin Lee, Sojeong kim , Laura Cruz
lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
What is Media Development?
•

A system of regulation conducive to freedom of
expression, pluralism and diversity of the me...
History of Media



Japanese Colonial Period

American Military Rule, the First and
Second
Republics





lunes, 2 de ...
Japanese Colonial Period 1910 - 1945
•


direct control of the press as well as other public
institutions
•



Japan-Kor...
The American Military Rule, the First and Second
Republics 1945 – 1961
•

Libertarian Policy of USAMG



Korean press enj...
Military Regimes 1961 –
•

Park Chung Hee Government 1964~1979

Severe restriction on media


Approximately 20 laws cover...
Military Regimes 1961 - 1988
Chun Doo Hwan Government 1980~1988
Severe media restriction
 No. 1 of Article 20 overused as...
Military Regimes 1961 As a result of harsh media policies under
military regimes,
Reorganized media through merger and
cl...
Civilian Governments 1988 - Present
•

The political liberalization of the late 1980s
loosened restraints on media and bro...
lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
After Democratization
•

Capital controls media

•

The Age of keen competitio

•

Concentrated ownership

•

Commercializ...
Deregulation Plan
•

Easing the ban on ‘Cross Media Ownership’

•

Remove conglomerates’ 49% limit of
shareholding in the ...
Overview of Korean Media
•

Newspapers and Printed Press

- 11 general-interest dailies dominating the print
media (in tot...
Overview of Korean Media

•

New Media and the Internet

- 48,636,068 Internet users as of June, 2010
81% of the populati...
Strength & Weakness
lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
<Strength>
-New media
• Internet
• Social media
-Media contents
<Weakness>
- An imbalance between imports and
exports
- In...
New media
<Internet>
- World’s fastest average Internet connection speed.

lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
New media
• South Korea's high internet penetration rate can be
attributed to the government's strong
infrastructural supp...
New media
• South Korea's high internet penetration rate can be
attributed to the government's strong
infrastructural supp...
New media

Mobile internet platform

lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
New media

Mobile internet platform

lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
New media
Samsung
33.3%
LG
12.5%
Pantech
8.3%
Nokia

Mobile internet platform

33.3%
Motorola

12.5%

<Market share of Kor...
New media
Samsung
33.3%
LG
12.5%
Pantech
8.3%
Nokia

Mobile internet platform

33.3%
Motorola

12.5%

<Market share of Kor...
New media
<Social media>
Popular blog hosting sites include:
•Naver Blogs
•Daum blogs
•Egloos
•Blogin
•Tistory

lunes, 2 d...
Media contents
•GDP and culture industry growth: 2007~2011

Other countries

Korea

GDP growth rate

Cultural contents gro...
Media contents
•GDP and culture industry growth: 2007~2011

Other countries

Korea

GDP growth rate

9.2%

3.7%

10
8
6

N...
Weakness
•An imbalance between imports and
exports
•The amount of import is bigger than the
amount of export in broadcast ...
An imbalance between
imports and exports
•An imbalance between importing country and
exporting country is enormity.
•Korea...
An imbalance between
imports and exports
Contents

Export

Import

Total
Total amount Main
•An imbalanceamount Main import...
An imbalance between
imports and exports
•An imbalance between importing country and
exporting country is enormity.
•Korea...
Internet Censorship
The Korean government…
•shut “problematic” websites.
•shut people’s access to “problematic”
twitter ac...
Censorship
•그림!!! 사진!

lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
Censorship
•그림!!! 사진!

al
ion
at
sn
er ty
ng uri
da ec
En
s

lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
Censorship
•그림!!! 사진!

al
ion
at
n
ion
at
rs y
am
ge rit
n
ef
da ecu
rd
be
En
s
Cy

lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
Media ownership &
Concentration
<Newspapers>
The Chosun Daily 24.3%
JoongAng Daily 21.8%
The Dong-Ailbo 18.3%
<Radio>
Terr...
Media ownership &
Concentration
<Wire line
•<Broadcast TV>
communications market>

lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
How developed is
korean media?
lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
FREEDOM HOUSE

•

High participation of Koreans in both traditional and new media

•

The literacy rate is 99%. An the edu...
2013 SCORES FREEDOM HOUSE
FREEDOM ON THE NET STATUS
Partly Free
FREEDOM ON THE NET TOTAL
32
OBSTACLES TO ACCESS
3
LIMITS O...
Korea: highly connected...
•

The survey also showed that Internet usage stands at 74.4 percent for men, compared with 62
...
...but corrupted
•

Large media companies are family owned: Traditional outlook on the
journalistic ethics.

•

The govern...
What should korea do?
As public officers of the ministry of media and
communication in Korea, we are highly concerned
becau...
Recommended policies
Seeing as the major problem lacks on the traditional way of thinking of the Korean society,
we suppor...
Discussion questions
•As

a Korean or a foreigner, do you think
that korea needs to overcome its problem
with corruption a...
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Imc ppt 2

  1. 1. Media Development in Korea Chaerin Lee, Sojeong kim , Laura Cruz lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  2. 2. What is Media Development? • A system of regulation conducive to freedom of expression, pluralism and diversity of the media • Plurality and diversity of media, a level of economic playing field and transparency of ownership • Media as a platform for democratic discourse • Professional capacity building and supporting institutions that underpins freedom of expression, pluralism and diversity • Infrastructural capacity is sufficient to support independent and pluralistic media lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  3. 3. History of Media  Japanese Colonial Period American Military Rule, the First and Second Republics    lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13 Military Regimes Civilian Governments
  4. 4. Japanese Colonial Period 1910 - 1945 •  direct control of the press as well as other public institutions •  Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty 1910 March First Independence Movement 1919 Japanese authorities loosened control over cultural activities and allowed several Korean newspapers to function while maintaining some behind-the-scenes direction over political sensitive issues lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  5. 5. The American Military Rule, the First and Second Republics 1945 – 1961 • Libertarian Policy of USAMG  Korean press enjoyed greater freedom  Increase in the number of newspapers and magazines • Ordinance No. 88 1946  Lee Seung Man’s government continued this policy  Outlawed leftist newspapers  Journalists and publishers were arrested lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  6. 6. Military Regimes 1961 – • Park Chung Hee Government 1964~1979 Severe restriction on media  Approximately 20 laws covering media  Declaration of the State of National Emergency 1971  Penalized criticism of the government Freedom of the Press regarding non-political/nonsensitive social issues  A trend of Sensationalism • Growth in the media industry in subscription and advertising revenue lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  7. 7. Military Regimes 1961 - 1988 Chun Doo Hwan Government 1980~1988 Severe media restriction  No. 1 of Article 20 overused as a means to restrict the media  Basic Press Act 1980  Independent news agencies were absorbed into a single state-run agency  Numerous provincial newspapers were closed  Two independent broadcasting companies were absorbed into the state-run KBS  Ministry of Culture and Information banned hundreds of journalists from writing or editing news • lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  8. 8. Military Regimes 1961 As a result of harsh media policies under military regimes, Reorganized media through merger and closing Ex) Yonhap News Agency Media companies enjoyed oligopoly 700 journalists were dismissed and 172 publications banned • lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  9. 9. Civilian Governments 1988 - Present • The political liberalization of the late 1980s loosened restraints on media and brought about a new generation of journalists  Rapid expansion in coverage  MBC resumed independent broadcasting  No. of radio stations increased from 74 to 111  Ban on North Korean media products were lifted • Media Reform in the 1990s lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  10. 10. lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  11. 11. After Democratization • Capital controls media • The Age of keen competitio • Concentrated ownership • Commercialization and Sensationalism lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  12. 12. Deregulation Plan • Easing the ban on ‘Cross Media Ownership’ • Remove conglomerates’ 49% limit of shareholding in the satellite broadcasting sector • Allow conglomerates to hold up to 49% in a terrestrial DMB business • Foreigners’ shareholding limit in the satellite broadcasting sector will be lifted from 33% to 49% Efficiency/Competition vs. Pluralism/Diversity lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  13. 13. Overview of Korean Media • Newspapers and Printed Press - 11 general-interest dailies dominating the print media (in total there are 290 dailies) - Big three are Chosun, Dong-A, Joong-ang Daily - Sell 1.5~2million copies each - National News agency: Yonhap • Radio and Television - Four major radio stations: KBS, MBC, SBS, EBS - Three major TV networks: KBS, MBC, SBS lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  14. 14. Overview of Korean Media • New Media and the Internet - 48,636,068 Internet users as of June, 2010 81% of the population - 77% of the population aged six and over use Internet-related services - Internet-based media and cable television vs. the traditional print media and the broadcast media - Social Media : Blogs, SNS, Micro Blogs lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  15. 15. Strength & Weakness lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  16. 16. <Strength> -New media • Internet • Social media -Media contents <Weakness> - An imbalance between imports and exports - Internet censorship - Media ownership & Concentration lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  17. 17. New media <Internet> - World’s fastest average Internet connection speed. lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  18. 18. New media • South Korea's high internet penetration rate can be attributed to the government's strong infrastructural support. • Asia’s highest internet penetration rates. lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  19. 19. New media • South Korea's high internet penetration rate can be attributed to the government's strong infrastructural support. • Asia’s highest internet penetration rates. lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  20. 20. New media Mobile internet platform lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  21. 21. New media Mobile internet platform lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  22. 22. New media Samsung 33.3% LG 12.5% Pantech 8.3% Nokia Mobile internet platform 33.3% Motorola 12.5% <Market share of Korea company in LTE lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  23. 23. New media Samsung 33.3% LG 12.5% Pantech 8.3% Nokia Mobile internet platform 33.3% Motorola 12.5% <Market share of Korea company in LTE lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  24. 24. New media <Social media> Popular blog hosting sites include: •Naver Blogs •Daum blogs •Egloos •Blogin •Tistory lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  25. 25. Media contents •GDP and culture industry growth: 2007~2011 Other countries Korea GDP growth rate Cultural contents growth rate 9.2% 3.7% 10 8 6 National Economy Cultural Contents 4 2 US Source: Culture Industry White Paper(2011) lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13 Canada UK France China Source: Global Entertainment and Media Outlook: 2007~2011
  26. 26. Media contents •GDP and culture industry growth: 2007~2011 Other countries Korea GDP growth rate 9.2% 3.7% 10 8 6 National Economy Cultural Contents 4 2 AN RE KO VE A W US Source: Culture Industry White Paper(2011) lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13 Cultural contents growth rate Canada UK France China Source: Global Entertainment and Media Outlook: 2007~2011
  27. 27. Weakness •An imbalance between imports and exports •The amount of import is bigger than the amount of export in broadcast industry and movie industry. *Deficit (2011) Broadcast industry : $ 64 million Movie industry: $ 60 million lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  28. 28. An imbalance between imports and exports •An imbalance between importing country and exporting country is enormity. •Korea’s media export is limited to such countries as countries in Asia. lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  29. 29. An imbalance between imports and exports Contents Export Import Total Total amount Main •An imbalanceamount Main importing country and between of export exporting of export importing country exporting country is enormity. Broadcasting 118,595 (+independent producer) •Korea’s media Movie 14,122 (Except as countries in animation) Music 31,269 Game Japan (62%) North America (89%) export is limited to such countries Japan(42%) 73,646 North America Southeast Asia Asia. 1,240,856 (21%) Japan (69%) China(35%) Japan(27%) lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13 182.927 country (86%) 11,936 Europe(57%) 332,250 Japan(20%) -
  30. 30. An imbalance between imports and exports •An imbalance between importing country and exporting country is enormity. •Korea’s media export is limited to such countries as countries in Asia. lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  31. 31. Internet Censorship The Korean government… •shut “problematic” websites. •shut people’s access to “problematic” twitter accounts •request user private information from portal, without the user’s knowledge lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  32. 32. Censorship •그림!!! 사진! lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  33. 33. Censorship •그림!!! 사진! al ion at sn er ty ng uri da ec En s lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  34. 34. Censorship •그림!!! 사진! al ion at n ion at rs y am ge rit n ef da ecu rd be En s Cy lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  35. 35. Media ownership & Concentration <Newspapers> The Chosun Daily 24.3% JoongAng Daily 21.8% The Dong-Ailbo 18.3% <Radio> Terrestrial broadcaster- MBC Religious radio broadcasting- CBS Regional radio lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  36. 36. Media ownership & Concentration <Wire line •<Broadcast TV> communications market> lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  37. 37. How developed is korean media? lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  38. 38. FREEDOM HOUSE • High participation of Koreans in both traditional and new media • The literacy rate is 99%. An the education system highly supports freedom of media • Censorship and restriction of media outlets by government are not rare lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  39. 39. 2013 SCORES FREEDOM HOUSE FREEDOM ON THE NET STATUS Partly Free FREEDOM ON THE NET TOTAL 32 OBSTACLES TO ACCESS 3 LIMITS ON CONTENT 13 VIOLATIONS OF USER RIGHTS 16 lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  40. 40. Korea: highly connected... • The survey also showed that Internet usage stands at 74.4 percent for men, compared with 62 percent of women. • With 30.67 million Net surfers, according to the report, Korea became the fifth country in the world to join the 30 million club, following the United States, China, Japan and Germany. • More than 45 percent of respondents said they are a member of at least one Internet community and 37.1 percent of use instant messaging. • Korean Internet users spend an average of 11.5 hours a week on the Web, an hour less than six months ago. Seventy-three percent surf mainly to search for information, 54 percent play online games and 33 percent use e-mail. • More than 95 percent of those aged 6 to 29 periodically go online, compared with 86.4 percent of those in their thirties, 58.3 percent of people in their forties and just 27.6 percent of those in their fifties. • South Korea has the highest number of broadband connections per capita in the world. By early 2005, around 25% of the population, or 75% of households, were broadband subscribers. • South Korea is considered a leader in Third generation (3G) mobile technology and has the world’s highest percentage of mobile users on 3G. lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  41. 41. ...but corrupted • Large media companies are family owned: Traditional outlook on the journalistic ethics. • The government undermines freedom of speech even if it’s guaranteed by the constitution. • Corruption and bribery runs along the whole Korean media system • Abuse of power and connections due to political faction • However, there are two institutions that regulate media disputes: ➡ Korea Press Ethics Commission ➡ the Press Arbitration Commission. lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  42. 42. What should korea do? As public officers of the ministry of media and communication in Korea, we are highly concerned because even though our society has a highly developed media and communication system in what infrastructure is concerned, it is rather lacking when we go into freedom and access. Corruption, censorship, bribery must be overcome in order to set ourselves as a completely democratic social media society. lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  43. 43. Recommended policies Seeing as the major problem lacks on the traditional way of thinking of the Korean society, we support the following policies: 1. Education of Korean society on the right of freedom, right of privacy, right of expression 2. The government should apply closely the constitution and if it’s incapable of doing so, this issues should be also taken by the affected to the Constitutional Court of Korea. 3. The importance of freedom of media should be highly fomented in the society. It does us not good to have an amazing media industry if it is still living in the 20th century. 4. Focus on the new generation, the youth that are gradually opening their minds and see the action of censorship and bribery as incorrect. Things will be on their hands in a few years, and even if the change is slow it is worth the wait. 5. Tighten the law and the punishment for bribery, corruption and censorship. lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
  44. 44. Discussion questions •As a Korean or a foreigner, do you think that korea needs to overcome its problem with corruption and censorship? why? •do you think that the problems of korean media system its bad for its development? why? •What impact did the political liberalization in the 1980’s have on media of South Korea? THANK YOU! lunes, 2 de diciembre de 13
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