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Linda Meyer phd thesis 2012 04-13 v 5


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Dr. Linda Meyer

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  • 1. DISCUSSIONS IN EDUCATION: A POSTMODERN APPROACH L. Meyer ThesisPhilosophiae Doctor in the Management of Technology and Innovation The Da Vinci Institute for Technology Management 2012
  • 2. DISCUSSIONS IN EDUCATION: A POSTMODERN APPROACH L. Meyer Student number: 5286Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degreePhilosophiae Doctor in the Management of Technology and Innovation at The Da Vinci Institute for Technology Management Academic supervisor: B. Anderson, PhD Field supervisor: W. Goosen, DBA 2012
  • 3. DeclarationI declare that the research project, Discussions in Education: A Postmodern Approach, is my ownwork and that each source of information used has been acknowledged by means of a completereference. This thesis has not been submitted before for any other research project, degree, orexamination at any university.…………………………………….(Signature of student).............(Date)Johannesburg, South Africaii | P a g e
  • 4. AcknowledgementsMy sincere gratitude to the following individuals without whom this research journey would nothave been possible: To my Academic Supervisor, Professor Ben Anderson, for his leadership, insight and encouragement on my journey of self-discovery and self-directedness; To my Field Supervisor, Dr. Wynand Goosen, who played an instrumental role in stretching the boundaries of normative thinking to the realm of meta-cognition; To my partner, Deonita Eulalia Damons, for the encouragement and support of my academic goals; To my colleagues,Professor M. Mehl,Dr W. Guest-Mouton, Dr K. Deller, Dr. M. Serfontein, Mrs. K. Thusi, Mr. S. Louw, Mr. T. Tshabalala, Mrs. V. Forest, Mrs. A. Roode, andMrs.H. Van Twiskfor sharing their progressive views and encouragement to complete this research study; To the staff and faculty of The Da Vinci Institute; particularly Onicca Maculube, Simon Gathuaand Dr Marthie de Kock who went beyond the call of duty in their support and as true ambassadors of the Institute; and To all research participantswho made this research journey possible.__________________________Initials and surname of studentRandburgCity/town of student’s residenceiii | P a g e
  • 5. AbstractThis research endeavour explored local and global provider accreditation and external moderationframeworks, within the context of the available challenges and best practice models applicable tooccupationally directed education and training provision. The emerging South African diaspora,with specific reference to the legislative and policy frameworks for occupationally directededucation and training, necessitated a robust discourse on pivotal challenges faced by providers inthe accreditation and external moderation domains. The research outcome proposed alternativeframeworks for accreditation and external moderation activities in South Africa.Educational reforms are challenging in the face of historically established traditions that definedacademic quality standards. Innovative learning and assessment themes, which pose a definedvalue proposition in reshaping traditional pre-defined academic standards, are at the heart of theresearcher’s recommendations.Great philosophers, including Plato, Socrates and Osho, have contributed to the debate ofeducational philosophy. More recent, and contemporary, educational experts have authored vitalinputs into the educational milieu. Globally, accreditation and moderation frameworks have beenimplemented to varying degrees of control and self-regulation. Regulatory policies have oftenformed both an enabling and restrictive environment where limited innovation was evident. In aworld where it is impossible to contribute to a knowledge economy without information, manylearners in South Africa remain deprived of access to basic information technology and goodlearning practices.South Africa is currently facing fundamental economic and transformative growth challenges,compounded by an educational system that prepares large numbers of citizens for lifelongstructural underemployment or unemployment. Economic growth must be informed by intelligentaccountability and social and educational transformation. In this context, South Africa requiressustained high impact human capital development systems and a nation of conscious individualswho could facilitate the journey of transformation to a knowledge economy. Human capitaliv | P a g e
  • 6. development is at the axis of social cohesion, affluence, and sustainable employment creation, asthe emphasis and focus on broader aspects of value creation and skills base reforms prepareSouth Africa for participation and positioning as a leading global competitor.The research methodology in this thesis is qualitative in its design. Grounded theory was appliedas a general methodology for developing theory that is grounded in data, which has beenmethodically collected and evaluated through continuous triangulation. Data was collectedthrough focus group engagements, the completion of a research questionnaire, semi-structuredinterviews, and a desktop evaluation of 250 accreditation and 250 external moderation providerreports.This research study advances particular propositions concerning the structural and methodologicalpedagogy of occupationally directed education and training providers’ accreditation and externalmoderation practices. The analysis of the data suggests that the current occupationalaccreditation and external moderation frameworks require significant interventions to redressbureaucratic and punitive processes that significantly inhibit innovative education and trainingdelivery, which could support social and educational transformation.South Africa should prepare a cohesive integrated economic and transformation strategy thatconfirms specific social outcomes, acknowledging the inter-relationships of economic, human andsocial capital. The proposed educational growth path should include the improved performance ofoccupationally directed education and training provision, which in turn should result in economicgrowth. Educational throughput will have a limited impact on skills advancement, and the focusmust transcend to informed learning outcomes that are grounded in innovative practices, criticaland cognitive thinking and capitalise on new technology in a heterogeneous global context.The central theme of a credible and predictable education system is informed by internal andexternal quality assurance structures. Educational reform must advance economic growth(Sahlberg, 2004). Excellent research, tangible achievements and an adaptive and supportiveenvironment that translates into remarkable systems improvements, must inform theoccupationally directed education and training arrangements as a central value proposition.v|Page
  • 7. Table of contents1. Chapter 1 – Contextualisation ...................................................................................................... 161.1 Rationale ...................................................................................................................................... 161.1.1 Human capital development in the broader South African environment ..................................... 161.1.2 Regulatory framework for quality management of education, training and development in South Africa .................................................................................................................................. 181.1.3 Quality assurance of accreditation and external moderation ....................................................... 201.2 Description of the research problem ............................................................................................ 221.3 Research purpose ......................................................................................................................... 251.4 Research objectives ...................................................................................................................... 261.5 Research questions....................................................................................................................... 281.6 Research methods used ............................................................................................................... 281.6.1 Theoretical framework ................................................................................................................. 281.6.2 Research methodology ................................................................................................................. 301.6.3 Population and sampling method................................................................................................. 301.7 Quality of data .............................................................................................................................. 321.8 Delineations and limitations ......................................................................................................... 321.9 Outline of the thesis ..................................................................................................................... 331.9.1 Chapter two – Literature review................................................................................................... 331.9.2 Chapter three – The global educational context ........................................................................... 331.9.3 Chapter four – Research methodology ......................................................................................... 331.9.4 Chapter five – Research report ..................................................................................................... 351.9.5 Chapter six – Analysis and interpretation ..................................................................................... 351.9.6 Chapter seven – Recommendations for practice and further research ........................................ 351.10 Conclusion of chapter one ............................................................................................................ 352. Chapter 2 – Literature Review ...................................................................................................... 382.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 382.2 The modernist / postmodernist debate........................................................................................ 392.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 40vi | P a g e
  • 8. 2.2.2 Modernist philosophy .................................................................................................................. 412.2.3 Postmodernist philosophy ............................................................................................................ 442.2.4 Conclusion: link to this study ........................................................................................................ 512.3 The revolution and philosophy of education ................................................................................ 532.3.1 Socrates (470 BC – 399 BC) ........................................................................................................... 542.3.2 Plato (424 BC - 347 BC) ................................................................................................................. 572.3.3 Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) ........................................................................................................... 582.3.4 Avicenna (980 - 1037) ................................................................................................................... 622.3.5 Descartes (1595 - 1650) ................................................................................................................ 632.3.6 Locke (1632 - 1704) ...................................................................................................................... 642.3.7 Rousseau (1712 - 1778) ................................................................................................................ 652.3.8 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 662.4 Self-directedness in learning ........................................................................................................ 682.4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 682.4.2 Edward De Bono (1933 - ) ............................................................................................................. 692.4.3 Reuven Feuerstein (1921 - ).......................................................................................................... 702.4.4 Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980) ............................................................................................................. 712.4.5 Merlyn Mehl (1956 - )................................................................................................................... 722.4.6 Maria Montessori (1870 – 1952) .................................................................................................. 742.4.7 Rudolf Steiner (1861 – 1925) ........................................................................................................ 752.4.8 Osho (1931 – 1990) ...................................................................................................................... 762.4.9 Lev Vygotsky (1896 - 1934) ........................................................................................................... 792.4.10 Carl Jung (1875 – 1961) ................................................................................................................ 802.4.11 Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 – 1519) .................................................................................................. 842.4.12 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 852.5 Principal approaches to learning models ...................................................................................... 852.5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 852.5.2 Behaviourism................................................................................................................................ 862.5.3 Cognitivism ................................................................................................................................... 872.5.4 Connectivism ................................................................................................................................ 872.5.5 Constructivism.............................................................................................................................. 88vii | P a g e
  • 9. 2.5.6 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 902.6 Teaching styles versus learning styles........................................................................................... 912.6.1 Teaching styles ............................................................................................................................. 912.6.2 Learning styles .............................................................................................................................. 922.6.3 Kolb’s learning styles inventory .................................................................................................... 952.6.4 Honey and Mumfords learning styles .......................................................................................... 972.6.5 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 992.7 Conclusion of chapter two ............................................................................................................ 993. Chapter 3 – The Global Educational Context .............................................................................. 1033.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 1033.2 South African youth unemployment .......................................................................................... 1053.3 South African labour and education legislative context.............................................................. 1063.4 The South African qualifications sub-frameworks ...................................................................... 1073.4.1 Primary and secondary education .............................................................................................. 1083.4.2 Further Education and Training (FET) ......................................................................................... 1093.4.3 Higher Education and Training (HET) .......................................................................................... 1123.4.4 National Skills Development Strategy III (NSDS III) ..................................................................... 1123.5 Accreditation models ................................................................................................................. 1143.5.1 International accreditation models and guidelines..................................................................... 1143.5.2 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) .......................................... 1153.5.3 The International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education (INQAAHE) ..... 1163.5.4 The Association of African Universities (AAU) ............................................................................ 1173.5.5 The Asia-Pacific Quality Network (APQN) ................................................................................... 1193.5.6 Global Initiative on Quality Assurance Capacity (GIQAC) ............................................................ 1203.5.7 European Higher Education Qualifications Framework .............................................................. 1213.5.8 Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) ........................................................... 1263.5.9 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................. 1273.6 Country accreditation models .................................................................................................... 1293.6.1 The South African accreditation framework ............................................................................... 129viii | P a g e
  • 10. 3.6.2 The German accreditation framework ....................................................................................... 1573.6.3 The United States of America accreditation framework ............................................................. 1653.6.4 The Canadian accreditation framework...................................................................................... 1693.6.5 The United Kingdom accreditation framework........................................................................... 1733.6.6 The Singaporean accreditation framework................................................................................. 1773.7 Country moderation models ...................................................................................................... 1833.7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 1833.7.2 The German moderation framework.......................................................................................... 1833.7.3 The United Kingdom moderation framework ............................................................................. 1853.7.4 The Singaporean moderation framework ................................................................................... 1883.7.5 The Canadian moderation framework ........................................................................................ 1903.7.6 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................. 1933.8 The South African moderation model......................................................................................... 1943.8.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 1943.8.2 Umalusi quality assurance and assessment ................................................................................ 1953.8.3 The South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) .................................................................... 1993.8.4 Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs) and Education and Training Quality Assurance bodies (ETQAs) .......................................................................................................... 2033.9 Conclusion of chapter three ....................................................................................................... 2174. Chapter 4 Research Methodology ............................................................................................ 2194.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 2194.2 Research objective ..................................................................................................................... 2214.3 Research questions..................................................................................................................... 2224.4 Qualitative research outline ....................................................................................................... 2234.4.1 Objectivity .................................................................................................................................. 2294.4.2 Reliability .................................................................................................................................... 2304.4.3 Validity ....................................................................................................................................... 2324.5 Grounded theory ........................................................................................................................ 2334.6 Research population and sampling............................................................................................. 2344.7 Data collection methods............................................................................................................. 236ix | P a g e
  • 11. 4.8 Data analysis............................................................................................................................... 2434.8.1 Research rationale...................................................................................................................... 2494.8.2 Purposive and narrow sampling ................................................................................................. 2504.8.3 Rationale for selected data collection methods in this research................................................. 2504.9 Conclusion of chapter four ......................................................................................................... 2515. Chapter 5 – Research Report ...................................................................................................... 2535.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 2535.2 The research design stages: ........................................................................................................ 2535.2.1 Focus group ................................................................................................................................ 2555.2.2 Desktop evaluation of 250 accreditation reports ....................................................................... 2575.2.3 Desktop evaluation of 250 external moderation reports ............................................................ 2585.2.4 The research questionnaire ........................................................................................................ 2595.2.5 The semi-structured interviews .................................................................................................. 2615.2.6 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................. 2625.3 Conclusion of chapter five .......................................................................................................... 2636. Chapter 6 – Analysis and Interpretation ..................................................................................... 2666.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 2666.2 The accreditation process........................................................................................................... 2686.2.1 Theme 1: Quality Management Systems ................................................................................... 2686.2.2 Theme 2: Industry specifications and requirements .................................................................. 2716.2.3 Theme 3: Provider capacity ....................................................................................................... 2726.2.4 Theme 4: Market demand and barriers to entry ....................................................................... 2746.3 The external moderation process ............................................................................................... 2766.3.1 Theme 1: Quality Management Systems ................................................................................... 2766.3.2 Theme 2: Peer review mechanisms ........................................................................................... 2786.3.3 Theme 3: Industry validation ..................................................................................................... 2806.3.4 Theme 4: Maturity status validation .......................................................................................... 2816.4 An alternative accreditation framework ..................................................................................... 2836.5 An alternative external moderation framework ......................................................................... 2846.6 Conclusion of chapter six ............................................................................................................ 284x|Page
  • 12. 7. Chapter 7 – Recommendations for Practice and Further Research ............................................ 2867.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 2867.2 Recommendations for practice .................................................................................................. 2887.3 Proposed further research ......................................................................................................... 2897.4 Limitations of the study .............................................................................................................. 2897.5 Conclusion of chapter seven....................................................................................................... 2907.6 Thesis conclusion........................................................................................................................ 2927.6.1 Contextualisation ....................................................................................................................... 2937.6.2 Literature review ........................................................................................................................ 2937.6.3 Global educational context......................................................................................................... 2947.6.4 Research methodology ............................................................................................................... 2957.6.5 Research report .......................................................................................................................... 2957.6.6 Analysis and interpretation ........................................................................................................ 2957.6.7 Recommendations for practice and further research ................................................................. 2968. Works Cited ............................................................................................................................... 2979. Appendices ................................................................................................................................ 33510. Appendix A – Research questionnaire sample .......................................................................... 33611. Appendix B – The focus group stage.......................................................................................... 34012. Appendix C – Semi-structured interview reports ...................................................................... 34413. Appendix D – The desktop evaluation of 250 accreditation and 250 external moderation report14. Appendix E – Research questionnaire findings ......................................................................... 42915. Appendix F – SAQA 8 core criteria for provider accreditation .................................................. 43516. Appendix G – UK external verifiers (National occupational standards directory). ................... 441xi | P a g e
  • 13. List of tablesTable 2.1 Modernist versus postmodernist thought ......................................................................... 43Table 2.2 Socratic method versus academic tradition ....................................................................... 55Table 2.3 Implications of education – Jung’s ten pillars of education ................................................ 84Table 2.4 Characteristics of constructivism (Murphy, 1997).............................................................. 90Table 3.1 NSDS III – Vicissitudes ...................................................................................................... 113Table 3.2 NSDS III – Priorities .......................................................................................................... 113Table 3.3 NSDS III – Determinants supported by NSDS III................................................................ 114Table 3.4 South African Quality Councils and NQF levels ................................................................ 131Table 4.1 Research phases undertaken ........................................................................................... 221Table 4.2 A modified policy cycle incorporating macro constraint and micro agency ..................... 223Table 4.3 Features of qualitative and quantitative research: (Neil, 2007) ....................................... 226Table 4.4 Correlations between the various types of interviews ..................................................... 239Table 4.5 The ten laws of interviewing ............................................................................................ 241Table 4.6 The components of data analysis..................................................................................... 244Table 10.1 Research questionnaire ................................................................................................... 338vi | P a g e
  • 14. List of figuresFigure 2.1: Periods related to epistemological approach ..................................................................... 41Figure 2.2: Osho’s five dimensions of education .................................................................................. 78Figure 2.3: Kolb’s learning styles .......................................................................................................... 96Figure 2.4: Honey and Mumford’s learning cycle and learning styles .................................................. 98Figure 4.1: Research process.............................................................................................................. 220Figure 4.2: Elements of a research study ........................................................................................... 228Figure 4.3: Aspects of data analysis ................................................................................................... 249Figure 5.1: Summary of the research process .................................................................................... 255Figure 6.1 Proposed occupationally directed education and training provider accreditation framework 244Figure 6.2: Proposed occupationally directed education and training provider external moderation framework ................................................................................................... 284vii | P a g e
  • 15. List of acronymsAAU Association of African UniversitiesABA American Bar AssociationABET Accreditation Board for Engineering and TechnologyABET Adult Basic Education and TrainingABET-CAC Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Computing Accreditation CommissionACS American Chemical SocietyACSB Accounting Standards BoardAET Adult Education and TrainingAICE Association of International Credentials EvaluatorsALS American Law SchoolsAMA-CME American Medical Association, Council on Medical EducationAMC American Medical CollegesAMS American Meteorological SocietyANC African National CongressAPL Accreditation of Prior LearningAPQN Asia-Pacific Quality NetworkAQF Australian Qualifications FrameworkAQP Assessment Quality PartnerASME Association of Mechanical EngineersASTD American Society of Training and DevelopmentATR Annual Training ReportBAC British Accreditation CouncilBANKSETA Banking Sector Education and Training AuthorityBIBB Bundesinstitut fur BerufsbildungBTEC Business and Technology Education CouncilCAR Cumulative Assessment RecordCASS Continuous Assessmentviii | P a g e
  • 16. CAT Credit Accumulation and TransferCBT Competency Based TrainingCCEA Council for Curriculum Examinations and AssessmentCCMA Commission for Conciliation, Mediationand ArbitrationCEP Community of Expert PractitionersCETA Construction Education and Training AuthorityCETAC Canadian Education and Training Accreditation CommissionCHE Council on Higher EducationCHEA Council for Higher Education AccreditationCICIC Canadian Information Centre for International CredentialsCOSATU Congress of South African Trade UnionsCPD Continuous Professional DevelopmentCPIP Continuing Performance Improvement ProgrammeCTE Career and Technical EducationCTFL SETA Clothing, Textile, Footwear and Leather Sector Education and Training AuthorityCTS Conformance to SpecificationsCUMSA Curriculum Model for Education in South AfricaCVCP Committee of Vice-Chancellors and PrincipalsDATAD Database of African Theses and DissertationsDCELLS Department for Children, Education, Lifelong Learning and SkillsDETC (USA) Distance Education and Training Council (USA)DHET Department of Higher Education and TrainingDOE Department of EducationDOL Department of LabourDQP Development Quality PartnerEAAB Estate Agency Affairs BoardECTS European Credit Transfer SystemECVET European Credit for Vocational Education and TrainingEFMD European Foundation for Management DevelopmentEFQM European Foundation for Quality Managementix | P a g e
  • 17. EHEA European Higher Education AreaEQARF European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for Vocational Education and TrainingEQF European Qualifications FrameworkEQUIS European Quality Improvement SystemESSEC Ecole Superieure des Sciences Economiques et CommericalesETD Education,Training, and DevelopmentETDP Education, Training, and Development PractitionerETDQA Education, Training, and Development SETA Quality AssurancebodyETQAs Education and Training Quality Assurance bodiesETQC Education and Training Quality CouncilFEDUSA Federation of Unions of South AfricaFET Further Education and TrainingFETC Further Education and Training CertificateFETI Further Education and Training InstituteFHEQ Framework for Higher Education QualificationsGCE General Certificate of EducationGENFETQA General and Further Education and Training Quality AssuranceGET General Education and TrainingGIQAC Global Initiative on Quality Assurance CapacityHDI Historically Disadvantaged IndividualHE Higher EducationHEI Higher Education InstitutionHEQC Higher Education Quality CouncilHEQF Higher Education Qualifications FrameworkHET Higher Education and TrainingHNC Higher National CertificateHRD Human Resource DevelopmentHSRC Human Sciences Research CouncilIEB Independent Examinations Boardx|Page
  • 18. IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic EngineersILO International Labour OrganizationINQAAHE InternationalNetwork for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher EducationINSEAD Institut Europeen d’Administration des AffairesISCO International Standard Classification of OccupationsISO International Organization for StandardizationITB Industry Training BoardITE Institute for Technical EducationKMK KultusministerkonferenzLCME Liaison Committee on Medical EducationLMS Learner Management SystemLQW Lernerorientierte Qualitatstestierung in der WeiterbildungLSI Learning Styles InventoryLSQ Learning Styles QuestionnaireMAPPP SETA Media, Advertising, Publishing, Printing, Packaging Sector Education and Training AuthorityMIS Management Information SystemMIT Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyMoU Memorandum of UnderstandingMQA Mining Qualifications AuthorityMTEF Medium Term Expenditure FrameworkNACES National Association of Credential Evaluation ServicesNAMB National Artisan Moderation BodyNATED National Association for Tertiary EducationNCV National Certificate (Vocational)NDAQ National Database of Accredited QualificationsNEDLAC National Economic Development and Labour CouncilNLRD National Learners’ Records DatabaseNOPF National Occupational Pathway FrameworkNOS National Occupational Standardsxi | P a g e
  • 19. NQF National Qualifications FrameworkNSA National Skills AuthorityNSC National Senior CertificateNSDS III National Skills Development Strategy ThreeNSFAS National Student Financial Aid Scheme of South AfricaNSPE National Society of Professional EngineersNSRS National Skills Recognition SystemNUS National University of SingaporeNVQ National Vocational QualificationN3 National Certificate level 3OCR Oxford and Cambridge and RSA exam boardOE Occupational EducationOECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOFL Occupational Foundational LearningOFO Organising Framework for OccupationsPISA Programme for International Student AssessmentPoE Portfolio of EvidencePSLE Primary School Leaving ExaminationPVE Professional and Vocational EducationQA Quality Assurance AgencyQALA Quality Assurance of Learner AchievementsQCF Qualificationsand Credit FrameworkQCTO Quality Council for Trades and OccupationsQMS Quality Management SystemQP Quality PartnerQPU Quality Promotion UnitROI Return on InvestmentRPL Recognition of Prior LearningSABPP South African Board for People PracticesSACP South African Communist PartySADC Southern African Development Communityxii | P a g e
  • 20. SAICA South African Institute of Chartered AccountantsSAIVCET South African Institute of Valuers - Continued Education andTrainingSAQA South African Qualifications AuthoritySAQI South African Quality InstituteSC Senior CertificateSDA Skills Development ActSETA Sector Education and Training AuthoritySETQAA Services SETA Quality Assurance bodySLA Service Level AgreementSMME Small,Mediumor Micro EnterpriseSSETA Services Sector Education and Training AuthorityTAFE Technical and Further EducationTEFSA Tertiary Education Fund of South AfricaTETA Transport Sector Education and Training AuthorityTQEC Teaching Quality Enhancement CommitteeTQM Total Quality ManagementTVET Technical and Vocational Education and TrainingUK United KingdomUNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationUSA United States of AmericaVET Vocational Education and TrainingW and R SETA Wholesale and RetailSector Education and Training AuthorityWDA Workforce Development AgencyWE Workforce EducationWPE Workplace EducationWSP Workplace Skills PlanWSQ Workforce Skills QualificationsZPD Zone of Proximal Developmentxiii | P a g e
  • 21. Definition of Key TermsArticulate To provide for learners, on successful completion of accredited prerequisites, movement between components of the delivery system.Assessment tools/instruments The nature of the assessment tasks given to the learner to do. Guidelines for the Assessment of NQF registered Unit Standards and Qualifications (South African Qualifications Authority, 2000).Credits The credentialing of learning as associated with the requirements for a qualification. (South African Qualifications Authority , 2000).Higher Education Refers to education that normally takes place in universities and other higher education institutions, both public and private, which offer qualifications on the Higher Education Qualifications Framework (HEQF). (Department of Higher Education and Training, 2012).Further Education Refers to education offered in Further Education and Training (FET) colleges and similar programmes in other vocational colleges. The Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) is considering renaming the FET colleges Vocational Education and Training Colleges, but since no final decision has beentaken in this regard, the existing name is used. (Department of Higher Education and Training, 2012).Occupationally directed education, Training that principally is conducted in the workplace. It is alsotraining and development referred to as ‘on the job training’, ‘workplace training’, ’vocational education and training or ‘career-oriented education’ (Wessels, 2005).Occupational Education Refers to educational programmes that arefocused on preparation for specific occupations, as well as ongoing professional development and training in the workplace (Department of Higher Education and Training, 2012).xiv | P a g e
  • 22. Professional Education Refers to educational programmes that lead to professional registration.Quality Assurance The sum of activities that assure the quality of services against clear pre-determined and described standards. Guidelines for the Assessment of NQF registered Unit Standards and Qualifications (SAQA; 2000: 11, 20, 21, 30 – 35).Vocational Education Refers to a middle level of education, which provides knowledge and skills to enter the economy through a general, broad orientation in vocational areas, as well as general learning in essential areas such as Language and Mathematics.(Department of Education and Training, 2012).Strategy Formulation “The formulation of strategy can develop competitive advantage only to the extent that the process can give meaning to workers in the trenches.” (Hirst, 1995:02).xv | P a g e
  • 23. 1. Chapter 1–Contextualisation “There is only one education, and it has only one goal - the freedom of the mind. Anything that needs an adjective, be it civics education, or socialist education, or Christian education, orwhatever-you-like education, is not education, and it has some different goal.The very existence ofmodified "educations" is testimony to the fact that their proponents cannot bring about what they want in a mind that is free. An "education" that cannot do its work in a free mind, and so must"teach" by homily and precept in the service of these feelings and attitudes and beliefs rather than those, ispure and unmistakable tyranny.” Mitchell1.1 RationaleThe impetus for embarking on this research studywas to document the researcher’s combinationof subjective, academic, and applied intentions, supported by the researcher’s experiences ineducation and skills development in the preceding twenty years. The researcher embarked on apersonal journey of discovery and emergencein the fields of theoretical and didactic prospecting,to formulate applied research constructs in the occupationally directed education and trainingenvironment, and the contextual exploration of education for sustainable economic development.1.1.1 Human capital development in the broader South African environmentThe current South African educational discourse is at an impasse. This epistemological disjuncturerequiresa critical examination of proposed amendments to the South African human capitaldevelopment strategy. The proposed amendments to the education and labour market policyframeworks are constricting sustainable employment creation. The South African economyrequires resoluteindustry validation and the development of an integrated human capital strategy16 | P a g e
  • 24. that maximises both public and private educational provisionto build capacity in addressing socialand economic transformation.The universal knowledge economy demands the development of a global skills passportvalidatingknowledge and abilities and advanced cognitive competencies(Hamel,2004).Nationsrequire independent thinking citizensthat contribute to sustainable market growth.Withinthe framed landscape,knowledge and consciousness are symbiotic.Traditional institutionsand conventional skillssets are redundant vehicles in the pursuit of innovative excellence andglobal market competitiveness(Young, 2008). The accepted requirements of innovation andtechnology, combined with the current situational challenges of burgeoning unemployed youthfigures, require reviews of approaches to resolving the impasse set by restrictive labour marketpolicy, aneducation framework not delivering workplace requirements and an economyresearching growth injectors.As with traditional academic institutions, the occupationally directed education and trainingframework has brought hope of employment and prosperity to millions of unemployedyouth(Clayton,and McGill, 1999). Within this context, learnershipshave emerged as a means toobtain a basic stipend notwithstanding the paired qualification. Learnershipshave largely emergedas an extended social grant system, whilst limited industry and peer validation mechanisms existto corroboratethe value of occupationally directed education and training qualifications and skillsprogrammes. Youth unemployment remains a seminal issue, as the South African GeneralEducation and Training (GET), Further Education and Training (FET) and Higher Education andTraining (HET) sectors produce unemployed graduates en masse.The researcher was confronted with her participation in the occupationally directed education andtraining domain.The systemic foundation emulates a pendulum representing a flawed andcompromisedsystem and,conversely,a system of excellence in the skills development andemployment creation arena. The researcher became intrigued by the idea of exploring the qualityframework that underpins this occupationally directed education and training sector, in thecontext of postmodern skills validation and the South African economic and transformativestrategic growth imperatives. In particular, this research aims to evolve the17 | P a g e
  • 25. discourseconcerningaccreditation and external moderation frameworks within the occupationallydirected education and training diaspora.In preparation, the researcherexplored the Kantian constructivistcontext that predicates aframework for the postmodern debate in education, curricula, epistemology, literature andlearning in general. Kantian constructivism informed the considerations of this research, as reasonalone does not facilitate knowledge acquisition. Experience appears to be indispensable forknowledge and cognitive aptitude(Kant, 1781).Kantian philosophy articulated thatmen are subjects who should not exploit each other as meansto an end.Kant’s didactic methodology was centred in students beingaccomplished to becomecomprehending, reasonable and scholarly persons, as young people entrusted to him wereexpected to acquire a supplementary, maturityacumenin relation to their own future(Kant, 1765 :66).This philosophy relates to the current South African educational context in that organisationsproviding learning facilitation are expected to provide supplementary, maturity acumen asevidenced in processes that firstly require approval prior to engaging in learning provisionactivities, and therefore being quality assured through rigorous external review.South Africa must be held accountable for investing in an education framework, and theformulation of a labour market policy, that has resulted in millions of unemployed andunderemployed citizens.The South African regulatory framework for occupationally directededucation and training providers is complex, over-regulated, and onerous. Private provision, inparticular, therefore, due to the imbalanced advantage allowed public educational institutions,necessitates a discourse for the pivotal challenges faced within the accreditation and externalmoderation spheres.1.1.2 Regulatory framework for quality management of education, training and development in South Africa18 | P a g e
  • 26. Public institutions are predominantly financed from the national budget(National Treasury, 2011),whilst private providers receive no subsidies to advance the South African educational objectivesoutside of Sector Education and Training Authority (SETA) funding. The researcher is of the opinionthat the majority of South African universities are at this time failing to demonstrate constructivetransformation and a meaningful contribution to the national skills agenda. Unemployment, andparticularly youth unemployment, is a social challenge that must be addressed in the face of acompromised South African public education system. Government should not measure theperformance of public providers versus private providers arbitrarily. Of utmost importance are theROI and success ratios in creating sustainable employment after completing skills developmentinterventions. Government should focus on developing an integrated human capital strategy thataddresses skillsset deficits, and on enabling a complimentary environment to create sustainableemployment and economic growth.“Ultimately, the final responsibility for the provision of quality higher education programmes andproduction of marketable and employable graduates remains that of the Minister of HigherEducation and Training” (Mkhize, 2011). The Minister, therefore, provides the frameworks thatshould empower enable and encourage higher, and lifelong, learning.The current South African education statutory framework includes three distinct quality councils,namely Umalusi, the Quality Council for Trades and Occupations (QCTO), and the Council onHigher (CHE) (National Qualifications Framework Act, 2008). The South African NQF thereforeconsists of three sub-frameworks, namely the General and Further Education QualificationsFramework, the Occupational Qualifications Framework and the Higher Education QualificationsFramework. This environmentwas reviewed by the DHET and a green paper was published inJanuary 2012, in South Africa, for public comment (Department of Higher Education and Training,2012) on proposals in this regard.“Our qualifications and quality assurance framework is complex, with overlapping directives andongoing contestation between different quality assurance bodies in various areas of operation.Theprimary bodies with a direct role in quality assurance are the three Quality Councils – the Council19 | P a g e
  • 27. on Higher Education, Umalusi and the Quality Council for Trades and Occupations. Options areproposed for clarifying their respective areas of jurisdiction” (Nzimande, 12th January 2012).The transitional phase for absorbing SETA ETQAs into the QCTO requires a clear analysis of reasonsexplainingoccupationally directed education and training providers having been efficaciousorconversely constrained in accreditation or external moderation activities. The current DHET greenpaper (Department of Higher Education and Training, 2012)raises some questions with theresearcher in relation to the finalisation of vicissitudes of the respectivequality councils.Theresearch will explorethe current challenges faced by occupationally directed private education andtraining providers in dealing with ETQAs vis-à-visaccreditation and external moderation activities.The research will culminate in proposed frameworks for streamlined accreditation and externalmoderation endeavours with respect to occupationally directed education and training providers.1.1.3 Quality assurance of accreditation and external moderationThe research study will investigate common trends experienced by occupationally directededucation and training providers in their engagementswith ETQAs.The researcher will further explorethe reasons that occupationally directed education and trainingproviders have been unable to obtain accreditation,and why providers have not been able to exitlearners, after external moderation activities have been conducted byETQAs.The findings of theresearch study will be beneficial to occupationally directed education and training providers,ETQAs, the QCTO and the DHET, asintelligibleaccreditation and external moderation frameworkswill be proposed to meet statutory compliance and industry requirements. In this regard, theresearch acknowledges Jansen and Christie in stating:“Certain education and training practitionershave an attitude that the NQF and the outcomes-based methodology to education and traininghas been a failure” (Jansen, 1999).Private providers are required to maintain an industry related primary focus accreditation underthe jurisdiction of a particular ETQA.SETAs conduct sector skills planning in consultation withstakeholders, and additional funded researchis undertaken to confirm the required skills andeducational requirementswithin specific sectors of the economy. Providers obtain permission from20 | P a g e
  • 28. a non-primary focus ETQA to deliver training with the authority from their primary focus ETQA.Said permission isobtained through aMemorandum of Understanding (MoU)process(South AfricanQualifications Authority, 2001). Such delivered training is subject to programme approval. Thisresearch study will include an evaluation of common areas of benefit as well as impedimentsproviders face during the respective ETQA accreditation and programme approval phases.Additionally, the common trends and challenges experienced by occupationally directed educationand training providers in relation to their residual compliance requirements will be explored aspart of this research study. This research will expose valuable information to postulate greaterinsight into the required structural interventions by respective ETQAs in an attemptto re-evaluateinclusivesupport and oversight to constituent providers.Providers are required to navigate througha myriad of inconsistent and prejudicial interpretations from ETQAs relating to statute andregulations. Furthermore, additional ETQA self-interpreted and imposed rules, undefined deliverytimelines, and lack of accountability remain significant challengesto the occupationally directededucation and training arena.Uncertainty and perceived uneven levels of performance by ETQAs in e.g.accreditation andprogramme approval processes and the Quality Assurance of Learner Achievements (QALA),remain major impairments to learner certification within reasonable timeframes. The QALAprocess involves learner achievement uploads to ETQAsand external moderation by ETQAappointed external moderators and, where applicable,quality partners. This process compoundsthe challenges affecting learners exiting at band and unit standard level.The QALA process involves a preliminary phase that requires that learner achievementsbevalidated from, in some instances, a manually inputExcel spread sheetthat contains thousandsof line items. Provider upload non-compliance is generally related to the capturing of incorrectdata (e.g. wrong gender code entries). Without the external moderation, though, theachievements cannot be validated and therefore cannot be uploaded to the Learner ManagementSystem (LMS), resulting in an impasse in providing certification to successful learners.ETQAs upload their learner achievements, after external moderation confirmation, to the SouthAfrican Qualifications Authority (SAQA). SETAs are awarded a performance status based on the21 | P a g e
  • 29. validity of uploaded data to the National Learners’ Records Database (NLRD). SETAs strive to attain“green” status in confirmation of validated quality assurance practice. SETAs that are in the“amber” and “red” status bands are at risk of losing their upload status. In order to some levels ofconsistency, all ETQAs, including SETAs, are in the process of migrating to the EDUDEX LMS. TheEDUDEX LMS is being implemented to ensure greater predictable accuracy because of animproved verification system(Shapiro, 2010).A credible LMS will have a positive impact nationally for occupationally directed providers,learners, business, government, and labour.A reliable LMS repository would provide a “citizen’sskills passport” that would reliably inform the country’snational human resourcesdevelopmentplanning strategy. The currentoccupationally directed education and training framework must berevised to optimally contribute to social and economic transformation. Something must be doneto curb the avalanche of South African unemployed, and particularly youth unemployment.Institutional review is not an emergent global challenge and neither should it be in South Africa. AsSchon pointed out in 1973, “we must, in other words, become adept at learning. We must becomeable not only to transform our institutions, in response to changing situations and requirements;we must invent and develop institutions which are ‘learning systems’, that is to say, systemscapable of bringing about their own continuing transformation”(Schön, 1973:28).1.2 Description of the research problemFrom the previous discussion it can be concluded that South Africa is facing a number oftrials inrelation to employment creation and higher and further educational opportunities. Thetransitional phase of the operationalising of the QCTO requires a clear analysis of the challengesand advancements made byoccupationally directed education and training providers in relation toaccreditation and external moderation processes. Inconsistent arbitrary compliance requirementsand the compounding limited skills base in certain ETQAs, remaincumbersome andincomprehensible in relation to the broader social accountability agenda. Public Service andAdministration Minister, Roy Padayachie, has acknowledged general accountability that shouldexist in the public service."People think that there are no consequences if you dont do your job22 | P a g e
  • 30. properly. We are about to change that, particularly for those who are guilty of wrongdoing in thepublic service”(Kgosana, 12 February, 2012). It is hoped that pronouncements such as this will leadto improved support and focus in the public service agencies supporting skills development.Available research is limited concerning the value propositionof cognitive modifiability inoccupationally directed educationand training qualification constructs, resulting in over-relianceon rote learning. Learners often displaylimited understanding in relation to the underlyingreasonfor performing a task. Research confirms that the ability to understand and rationalise atspecific cognitive levels is critical for both personal and organisational advancement(Feuerstein,1990).Finland and Singapore offer worthy positive examples of education systems that have beentransformed into global knowledge creation leaders. Central to Finland and Singapore’s successhas been the unquestionable commitment tothe implementation of quality systems,learnercenteredness, focus on educator excellence, emphasis on cognitive and creative thinking skills,innovation and optimisation of technological advancements(Open Mind Foundation, 2011). Thereis no reason that South Africa cannot and should not aspire to similar standards.Access to higher and further education and training, and more especially access to publicuniversities, are the central theme in perceived educational advancement and employmentcreation in South Africa. Notwithstanding the official dropout rate from South African publicuniversities costing the taxpayerR 4, 5 billion in grants and subsidies to higher education institutions, no fundamental interventionsare underway to validate incumbent university access in relation to a commensurate return oninvestment from the national fiscus. The perception still prevails that a university qualification isreliable measure of employability.Tertiary institutions in South Africa, however, have a confirmed dropout rate in the region of 80%(Macfarlane, 22–28 September 2006). Therefore, the advancement of government’s nationaleducational policy should not exclude private providers from the agenda, but rather embracethem as complimentary delivery partners. Perceived second-rate public universities compound the23 | P a g e
  • 31. challenge of employment creation, as businesses avoid employing graduates exiting from theseinstitutions. Poorly resourced and predominantly located in rural areas, with limited resourceoutput and academic achievement, significant support should be provided to these publicinstitutions.The Deputy Minister of Higher Education and Training confirms“, 17 Years after the end ofapartheid, the” Homeland Universities”, established on racial and tribal and/or ethnic basis duringthe apartheid era, are still with us in the form and shape they were meant to be. These universitiesare still attended, predominantly, by black students from rural communities with poor grades”(Mkhize, 2011). Private provider and public institution partnerships could generate an insurgenceof belief, and self-belief, in these potentially positive catalysts.Quality and suitability lay at the heart of many skills development institutions. South Africahasimplemented a number of questionable decisions regarding the advancement of globaleducational comparative excellence and quality assurance. These decisions include forcedthroughput quotas, low pass rate thresholds to obtain a senior certificate,a poorly qualified andunder resourced pool of educators, in schools, and lecturers, in FET colleges. The prohibitive effecton quality education is compounded within the context of limited availability and an overstretchedinfrastructure across educational institutions. South Africaranks poorly amongst internationaluniversities, with only the University of Cape Town placing in the global top 200universities(Mchunu, 2012).South Africa has adopted a debatable system of advancing the imperialisticUK regulationprohibiting private HET institutions from utilising the word “university” in their name. Theseactions appear to beperplexingin a quality framework where the HEQC implements rigorousverification standards prior to approving private HET provider offerings. South Africa should seekto expand on the maximum delivery base for skills validation from universities, be it private orpublic, focusing on the quality of provision rather than disputed naming rights. Private FETproviders aresubject to significantly compounded oversight from no less than three statutoryinstitutions. This figure increases incrementally in relation to the FET provider’s sector/s of24 | P a g e
  • 32. operation and ETQA applicable jurisdiction, with each ETQA being responsible for qualityassurance in a specific economic sector only.The need for optimal educational capacity output cannot be overstated in the quest for economicand social transformation,and intellectual and knowledge-based asset optimisation for sustainableemployment creation.With due consideration to the aforementioned, this research will culminate in a proposedframework for streamlined accreditation and external moderation interventions for occupationallydirected providers. In parallel , the researcher takes note of the statement made by the previousChief Executive Officer of SAQA,(Isaacs, 2001)in relation to developments within the South Africaneducational landscape:“The evolving NQF will tend toward particular theoretical directions as aconsequence of intellectual scrutiny, rather than being determined in advance by tightdefinition”(Isaacs, 2001).1.3 Research purposeIt is against the outline of the stated problem that the purpose of the research becomes clear,namely:i. The creation of a platform for the consideration of proposedaccreditation and external moderation frameworks, which offer defined value propositions in the creation of an inclusive provider base for occupational directed education and trainingprovision in South Africa.ii. The identification of the challenges faced by private providers in the solicitation of accreditation, and external moderation activitiesin South Africa. To this end, the researcher will investigate the global educational context in relation to accreditation and external moderation activities and consider other “logical models” of operation (Wholey, 1987) and(Bickman, 1987).25 | P a g e
  • 33. 1.4 Research objectivesIn an attempt to achieve the purpose study, it is necessary to implement a phase or step approachof which, the following are deemed most vital:i. To assess and evaluate the legislative and regulatory policy framework as it relates to education and training within South Africa.ii. To assess and evaluate the challenges faced by occupationally directed education and training providers as they relate to accreditation and external moderation activitiesin the context of ETQAs.iii. To assess and evaluate the legislative and regulatory policy framework as it relates to education and training in selected global frameworks.iv. To develop proposed frameworks for streamlined occupationally directed education and training accreditation and external moderation interfaces.Stakeholders and providers within the occupationally directed education and training sectors,including regulatory authorities such as SETAs and the QCTO, stand tobenefit from the researchstudy as an analysis of provider accreditation and external moderation experiences andotherresearchthatwill be conducted amongstoccupationally directed education and trainingproviders and relevant parties. The outcome of such analysis will additionally be compared tosimilaroccupationally directed education and training systems internationally.The research results will contribute to the existing knowledge base within the field ofoccupationally directed education and training, and identify possible interventions required inaddressing deficiencies in the provider accreditation and external moderation domains. Commontrends will correspondingly be identified that will undoubtedly assist ETQAs in auxiliaryinterventions for HistoricallyDisadvantaged Individuals (HDI) emerging as occupationally directededucation and training providers.26 | P a g e
  • 34. 27 | P a g e
  • 35. 1.5 Research questionsThe research questions address the research purpose and its objectives by scrutinising thefollowing:i. What are the fundamental challenges faced by providers resulting in their inability to obtain provisional and/or full accreditation or programme approval from ETQAs?ii. What are the emergent trends that have resulted in learners being unable to exit at band and unit standard level after external moderation activities have been conducted by ETQAs?iii. What are the optimal design frameworks for occupationally directed education and training,private provider,accreditation and external moderation activities?To conduct research and find answers to the above questions, it was necessary to identify aframework in which to discuss the course of action.1.6 Research methods used1.6.1 Theoretical frameworkAliterature review placedthe research topic in the relevant research context and demonstrated anawareness of seminal research. The literature review included germane information gatheredabout provider accreditation and external moderation frameworks. The information collectedfrom the review included books, journal articles, newspaper articles, historical records,legislativeframeworks, and other seminal research contributions, was used to support thegrounded theory approach followed.The researcher utilised the constructivist–grounded theory approach, which included, focus group,semi-structured interviews, research questionnaire and the desktopcase study methodology aspart of the research process. There are three types of case studies identified by Stake: intrinsic,28 | P a g e
  • 36. instrumental, and collective (Stake, 2000). The desktop case study collected, collated andcombined data related to 500 relevant events. The range of research dimensions applied in theresearch allowed for rich breadth and depth to the identified research constructs and context.29 | P a g e
  • 37. 1.6.2 Research methodologyThe research design was qualitative in nature. The research methodology was based on groundedtheory principles and the researcher specifically utilised the constructivist approach withingrounded theory. The survey of available literature was conducted, and was so designed, toprovide a knowledge base for strengthening the ways in which future users can access theresearch results.The research design included data collection methods including focus group discussions,completion of a research questionnaire by selected participants, scheduling of semi-structuredinterviews with industry experts and an analysis of data from 250 accreditation and250 externalmoderation reports.1.6.3 Population and sampling methodThe researcher identified different populations as part of the research study. The first populationincluded two hundred and fifty site visit reports of visitsto providers for the purposes ofaccreditationthat had been conducted in the preceding 24 months. It also included a separate twohundred and fifty provider external moderation reports that hadcorrespondingly been completedin the preceding 24 months.The second population consisted of a selected number of participantsrepresenting industry experts. These participants formed part of a focus group, which wasconsulted with throughout the research process.In an attempt to obtain detailed information from education and training practitioners regardingaccreditation and external moderation activities, the researcher identified and selected, as part ofthe third population, a cohort of industry practitioners. This population was requested tocomplete an appropriate research questionnaire.Following a grounded theory approach, the emergence of data from representatives of differentconstituencies is important. In this regard, the researcher identified suitable, experiencedrepresentatives from training providers, external moderators and industry experts who became30 | P a g e
  • 38. part of the research, thereby representing the fourth population group. Semi-structuredinterviews were conducted with this population.31 | P a g e
  • 39. 1.7 Quality of dataIt was imperative that the quality of data integrity remaineduncompromised during the researchprocess. The premise of valid research resides in the fact that data is valid, authentic,and current.Methods of data gathering were qualitative in nature and were therefore be centred in thecollection, primarily, of text as opposed to numerical data. The interpretative narrative that wasprovided was based on research evolution and findings.The quality of data was synthesised and emerged as the research process evolvedand contentformulation emerged. The knowledge gained during the research study wasengagedwith todevelop proposed alternative frameworks for accreditation and external moderation processes, ofoccupationally directed education and training providers. The researcher expected to be exposedto a number of new experiences during the research process, which extended the researcher’sscope of understanding and contextual reality. "Human beings construct models of theirenvironment and new experiences [and information] are interpreted and understood in relation toexisting mental models or schemes" (Driver, 1995).1.8 Delineations and limitationsThe scope of the qualitative research was delimited to two distinct components. The firstinvolvedthe accreditation ofoccupationally directed education and training providers and thesecond component the external moderation of assessment, internal moderation and certificationprocesses conducted by occupationally directed education and training providers.It was assumed that the following limitations may be experienced during this research study:i. The exclusion of learner experiences from a research dimension;ii. The study, though representative and reflective, might not include an evaluation of all ETQAs;iii. Respondents might not all have the prerequisite expertise to provide meaningful input.32 | P a g e
  • 40. 1.9 Outli ne of the thesisThe chapter archetype, as set out below, formulates the thesis construct as it is important toensure an objective and detailed research outcome. Chapter one provides the context andlimitations within which the research will be conducted and sets the parameters for the researchproblem and methodology that will be implemented.1.9.1 Chapter two –LiteraturereviewThe second chapter provided insight from available literatureexplored relating to the modern andpostmodern educational debate. A comparative analysis and brief overview of seminalphilosophies in education was explored, to provide a framing context to the debate.1.9.2 Chapter three – The global educational contextThe third chapter assesses the South African educational construct by exploring unemployment,with specific reference to youth unemployment, and an investigation into national policy andlegislative parameters. A broad overview was provided for the global and South Africaneducational landscapes and policy and legislative frameworks. A comparative analysis of ETQAprocesses, the CHE, QCTO (as currently proposed) and Umalusi was provided to outline thecomparative accreditation processes andrequirements.Research focused on comparative accreditation and external moderation processesin South Africa, Singapore, UK, Canada, USA, and Germany.1.9.3 Chapter four – ResearchmethodologyThe fourth chapter provided a description and insight into the selected research approach andmethodology. The problem statements and research questions were articulated and exposed. Theresearcher outlined the research approach and data collection strategies. The purposeof includingspecific research methodologies and processes was also be charted.33 | P a g e
  • 41. 34 | P a g e
  • 42. 1.9.4 Chapterfive – Research reportThe fifth chapter outlined the research report and provided context and analysisof the researchdata and outputs, as obtained from the focus group discussions, the research questionnaire, thesemi-structured interviews and the desktop evaluation of 250 accreditation reports and 250external moderation reports. The chapter served as the catalyst for emerging concepts andcategories, which informed the emerging themes in chapter 6, for the formulation of alternativeaccreditation andexternal moderation frameworks for occupationally directed education andtraining providers.1.9.5 Chapter six – Analysis and interpretationThe sixth chapter providedtheemerging themes that informed the recommended frameworks foroccupationally directed education and training providers’accreditation and external moderationwithin the ETQA landscape. Details were provided on the proposed quality assurance mechanismsto ensure the credibility and reliability of the proposed frameworks.1.9.6 Chapter seven – Recommendations for practice and further researchThe seventh chapter provided a summary and overview of the research study. Key discoveries thatemerged during the research phase were outlined and the implications of the findings argued. Acritical assessment of the research was enunciated and a personal reflection on the researchprocess provided. Additionally, recommendations for future research were proposed.1.10 Conclusion of chapter oneThe research study articulated seminal issues related to occupationally directed education andtraining provideraccreditation andexternal moderation frameworks. The outcome of this researchwill focus on the meaningful contribution to the educational debate in the context of modern and35 | P a g e
  • 43. postmodern advent. Conventional and unconventional perspectives as they emerged during theresearch process informed the proposed alternative accreditation and external moderationframeworks.36 | P a g e
  • 44. As South Africa embraces a newfound political will to address the youth education andemployment wastelands, no responsible citizen can sit idly by in the face of an inevitableeducational revolution. “The new mandate was born out of a crisis, emanating from the perceivedfailure of our system to produce employable graduates, manifested through the inability of ourgraduates to meet the needs of labour markets. Of even more serious concern, is the failure of oursystem to absorb the 2.8 million youth between the ages of 18 and 24 who are neither at schoolnor at work” (Mkhize, 2011).37 | P a g e
  • 45. 2. Chapter 2 – Literature Review “By three methods we may learn, wisdom first, by reflection, which is noblest; second, by imitation, which is easiest; and third by experience, which is the bitterest.” Confucius2.1 IntroductionThe second chapter place emphasis on availableliterature relating to modernism andpostmodernism in furthering educational discourse. In addition, literature relating to educationalphilosophy, learning frameworks, models and styleswill be reviewed and a comparative analysisdrawn in relation to the formation of an empirical foundational context informing theresearchperspective.Following this debate, Chapter 3provides an outline of some of the available literature relating tounemployment and in particular youth unemployment in South Africa. The chapter furtherexpandson literature relevant to the South African educational legislative frameworkand providesa broad overview of the South African, Canadian, German, Singaporean, USA, and UK educationlandscapes with particular relevance to accreditation and external moderation frameworks. Thesignificance of these contemporary debates in education cannot be overstated. In this particularcase, cognition and quality assurance models for provider accreditation and external moderationremain a central theme in global educational dialogue.South Africa is failing to produce the required skills sets and levels of competencies that arerequired to address employment creation.(National Treasury, 2011) The South African privateoccupationally directed education and training fraternity is patently exploringnew social andeconomic equilibriums in the context of its potential contribution and defined valueproposition.Meanwhile the global knowledge society demands adaptive learning methodologies of38 | P a g e
  • 46. exceptional quality standards in the provision of education(UNESCO , 2005).Theoreticians havelong proposed structures for educational standards and theseare defined by extensiveepistemological and pedagogical views.The principal resolution of the research conducted in this thesis was to design and developproposed alternative frameworks for the accreditation and external moderation of occupationallydirected education and training providers. Available literature revealed that accreditationvalidationpractices are important in the broader global educational credibility context, as areexternal moderation processes.Institutional credibility is not primarily dependent on the accreditation status awarded based onlegislative bureaucracy, but is rather embedded in the credibility of institutional history, record ofaccomplishment and reputation. Harvard and Oxford Universities have drawn the brightest amongSouth Africans to their hallways. Graduates from these institutions have gone on to becomeprolific politicians, academics, and industry leaders. Academic and corporate standing attracts thebest academic minds to institutions and creates a sustainable business demand for endorsedgraduates. Notwithstanding this, legislative requirements cannot be eschewed, and thus thestreamlining of these processes is both desirable and necessary.Current escalations in unemployment statistics are systemic of a global economic and educationalmalfunction. An increased pool of unemployed university graduates confirms that a universityqualification is no guarantee for employment. However, confirmed research highlights that SouthAfrican youths’ prospects of employment increase significantly with a school leaving certificateand even further when attaining an FET or HET qualification(Branson, Murray and Zuze, 2009).2.2 The modernistand postmodernistdebate “The only absolute truth is that there are no absolute truths.” Feyerabend39 | P a g e
  • 47. 2.2.1 IntroductionIn considering whether the potential effectsof the evolution of educational from modernism topostmodernism, educational philosophy must consider thereframing of educational epistemology.This literature review explores the foundational importancefor the purposeof context evolution.Postmodernism has advanced from modernism and is considered an epistemological evolution ofmodernism. Modernist knowledge had its origins in the enlightenment period whilstpostmodernists are profoundly opposed to modernist thought (Milovanovic, 1992).The modern versus postmodern discussion highlight issues that may have specific impact oneducation(Lippard, 1990).Primarily, education is more critical than ever in the evolution of humancapitalconstruction. Nations are evolving into knowledge economies that compete strategically formarket share, making cognitive capacity critical. Countries are revising their strategic educationalalignment and embracing the value of thinking individuals and productive citizens. Singapore, hasevolved their education landscape to create“Thinking schools and a learning nation” (Hodge, 2010)and this evolution of education has catapult the country into economically sound and desirablemarket.The observation of the collective consciousnesstowards anopen, yet focused, approach toeducation and one that criticallyreflects on what has worked and what has been a dismal failure,the link between an evolved education and country economies, lends itself to the argument that aglobal evolution of education is emerging.“We cannot forget that while the iron curtain has beenbrought down, the poverty curtain still separates two parts of the world community” (Perez deCuellar, 2003).There are four general period-based categories related to epistemological modern approaches(Nel, 2007).40 | P a g e
  • 48. The modern The romantic The critical The approach - approach – pre theory postmodern 1900 - 1800 - pre approach – approach – post industrial industrial 1980 – 1990s 1990s period Figure 2.1: Periods related to epistemological approachThe reflected delineation between modernism and postmodernismexplains the evolution of the elineation explainsconstructs (Clarke, 2005). Modernism is summarised as establishedin grounded theory, only as it establish inpertains to social psychology. According to Charmaz, modernists focus on discovering and finding . A findinknowledge that is centred in being post post-realists, whilst a narrative is favoured and the comparativeanalysis of human elements are always pivotal(Charmaz, 2000:509-536). sThe researcher is of the opinion that postmodern thought will become increasingly important as hthumanity evolves its collective and social consciousness. Fluidity and the transcendence ofself- .inflictedframed cognitive borders will mark the evolution and confirmation of alternative realities.The limits of our imagination will in future define our framed boundaries. As the global socialimpasse transcends from greed to philanthropy and benevolence, alternative solutions must bepresented for age-old challenges that historically appear impossible to transcend. oldThe link between modernism and postmodernism is the critical theory approach. Whereasmodernism arose out of an avant garde dispute with romanticism, it was the reviewing of avant-gardemodernism, through interpretation, understanding, and self-reflection, which led to reflection, tpostmodernism.2.2.2 Modernistphilosophy hilosophy41 | P a g e
  • 49. Modernism served as the precursor to postmodern development (Cahoone, 2003). Time serves aproverbial purpose, as evolutionary and exploratory developments allow for an emergence ofthought and evolutionary developments. The foundational basis of modern world edict is inter-connected to the socio-economic developments of modernisation and the cultural movement ofmodernism (Sarup, 1993).Insufficient context exists to sanction the modification from modernism to postmodernphilosophy. According to Neperud postmodernism followed in the evaluation of modernism as aderivative (Neperud, 1995). Modern perspectivesare celebrated from the primordial perspectivethat arose in the philosophy of antediluvian Greece and has continued tenaciously through therenaissance and reformation of medieval deliberation (Thompson, 1995).Modernist views endured the evolution of postmodern opinions. Art and education are functionalrealities where the factors of the context, for example time and content, may change whereas thebasic context would remain constant. Debates have been divergent in value alignments, forexample the level of application on purpose versus perspective (Neperud, 1995). “Postmodernismpresages a radical alteration of art, of its means of describing the world, its relationship to itsaudience, and ultimately, its social function (Russel,1993:287). Modernism accentuates precariouschanges to cope with impediments in deciphering modern as well as supplementary art (Feldman,1967).Technology also has had a profound impact on the insurrection from modern to postmodernevolution, in that it resulted in the mass accessibility of new and available technologies in thelatter part of the 1980s. This equipped a primary foundation for the process of socio-economicrestructuring (Castells, 1996). It is now inconceivable to imagine the removal of the internet andlaptops from the current knowledge economy and educational constructs in the postmoderndigital age. The eighteenth-century edified modernity and delineated into three separate domains:“science, morality and art, or specific aspects of validity: truth, normative rightness, authenticity,and beauty" (Habermas, 1990:60). Modernist versus postmodernist thought42 | P a g e
  • 50. Indicator Modernism Postmodernism Society and social Equilibrium, homogeneity, Chaos theory, spontaneity, diversity, anti- structure foundationalism and closure. foundationalism, constitutive theory. Social roles Symphony orchestra player / Jazz Player / Poet Violinist Subjectivity/agency Positivistic, homoeconomicus and Polyvocal, subject of desire and subject of autonomous being. misidentification. Discourse Dominant; master/university Ultiaccentral; fractal signifiers; regime of discourse; primacy to signs; discourse of the hysteric/analyst; paradigm/system; major literature. linguistic coordinate systems; discursive formations. Knowledge Global, discourse of the master and Constitutive processes; meta-narratives; university, education as liberating, power/knowledge; knowledge for sale; absolute postulates, deductive logic. education as ideology and functional; narrative knowledge; dialogic pedagogy. Space/time Three-dimensional, quantitative Multidimensional, imaginary, quantum differential equations and mechanics/relativity, qualitative andno continuities; reversibility of time. reversible time. Causality Linear, certainty and predictability. Non-linear, chance, quantum mechanics and catastrophe theory Social change Darwinian, evolutionary, dialectical Standpoint epistemology, play of the materialism, discourses of the imaginary, proliferation of complexity and hysteric. language of possibility, discourse of the hysteric/analyst. Table 2.1 Modernist versus postmodernist thought43 | P a g e
  • 51. 2.2.3 PostmodernistphilosophyFrom modernism evolved postmodernist enquiry documented in French contemplation during the1960s and early 1970s(Milovanovic, 1997). Nietzsches description of the master-slave disputationis deliberate to postmodernists and considers a practical transformation that includes thedeconstruction and reconstruction of postmodernismas fringed fundamentals (Henry andMilovanovic, 1991). The outer limit of postmodernism and its consequential assessment embracespostmodern philosophy as it results in a cessation of moral and intelligent life and undeniablyleads to social disintegration. Many educational philosophers notice the destructive influence ofrelativistic predilection of postmodern philosophy on educational theory and tradition (Cho, 2011).Postmodernism aborts solidity and boundaries of a permanent nature that is concomitant with arepugnance to authority. Postmodernism results in consequential implications to recouphumanism in the understanding of humanity(Blake, 1998:12(2), 119-136)and deals with “feministopportunities to circumvent obstinacy and reductionism of single-cause analysis and to constructknowledge from which to act on” (Lather, 1991). Postmodern philosophy is interpreted by itsessential denunciation of the epistemic pragmatisms and meta-narrative of modern philosophy. Bydisagreeing with the fundamental Archimedean point for sustaining reality, independence andwisdom, postmodern philosophy lobbies relativism in the provisional historical position of humanknowledge and cautiousness (Cho, 2011).Postmodern philosophy also contemplates the re-established theories of human society anddialogue. Although, states Cho, knowledge and judgementclimaxes the unsavoury reputation ofhuman society, and the significance of the establishments and combined resulting discourse (Cho,2011). Postmodernism can therefore be perceived as a logical development that understandsnumerous distinctive hypothetical designs(Burbules, 2003) and according to Gutek the conflictingphilosophy of modernisation canclarifypostmodernism(Gutek, 2004).With the augmented importance of culture and social life, social media, and increasinglyeducation, has become more critical in present-day social construction and in the exaggeration ofa consumer society (Russell, 2011).44 | P a g e
  • 52. In addition to the above, postmodern research may also include the following ideas as arguedby(Neuman, 2004:84): Rejection of all ideologies and organised belief systems, including all social theory; Strong reliance on intuition, imagination, personal experience and emotion; Sense of meaninglessness and pessimism, belief that the world will never improve; Extreme subjectivity in which there is no distinction between the mental and the external world; Ardent relativism in which there are infinite interpretations, none superior to another; Espousal of diversity, chaos and complexity that is constantly changing,rejection of studying the past or different places since only the here and now is relevant; Belief that causality cannot be studied because life is too complex and rapidly changing; and Assertion that research can never truly represent what occurs in the social world.The postmodern perceptiveness is a way of thinking,(Edwards and Usher , 1997) a distinctarrangement of philosophies like fundamentalism or pragmatism or anoutlook(Gutek, 2004). Defining postmodernismThe term Postmodernism has a mottled history. A definitive definition was not obvious fromavailable literature.Principal authors promote and define postmodernism inversely. The numerousdenotation nuances are focused in postmodernism in “The Politics of Postmodernism” (Hutcheon,1989). Hutcheondiscerns that Habermas, Lyotard and Jameson, have all elevated the essentialissue of the socio-economic and philosophical arrangement of Postmodernism in post-modernity(Neperud, 1995).Postmodernismsymbolisesthe Cultural Revolution, as understood as part of a‘postcolonial’ and ‘post-industrial’ society (Hughes, 1995).Meta-narratives present a collective andembracing interpretation of fact, assessment, and authenticity.Resultantly,postmodernismdeveloped as a focal point of relinquishment of the expected inrelation to western traditions (Burbules, 2003).45 | P a g e
  • 53. Philosophical postmodernism includes the work of, amongst others, Immanuel Kant, Jean-FrancoisLyotard, Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault and Richard Rorty, and later Nietzsche, Wittgenstein,Winch, Heidegger, Gadamer and Kuhn. Postmodernism is an evolutionary and emerging themethat has influenced historic and modern theory e.g. Marxism, feminism and critical pedagogy(Beck, 1994:10). Postmodernism also depicts a “social condition”, where the fractured world inwhich “we” now live is captured,(Harvey, 1989)whilst postmodern activists frequentlyaccentuateapprehension for the besieged or oppressed (Liston, 1988).The hostile meta-narrative incongruityconfined by postmodern literature is primarily the reproachof social, moral, political, or psychological philosophy, and speculative or epistemological views(Beyer, 1992). Education in postmodernismhas acommandingaccountabilityin relation to thesocial, economic and political opportunitiesfor business and labour (Rikowski, 1996). In this regard,feminist pedagogy focuses on social transformation and the advancement of strategies forempowerment and construction (Sandell, 1991).Postmodernismis furtherdefined as an “attitude” as opposed to an “outlook” that is shaped inagreement with human needs, interests, prejudices, and cultural ethnicities (Beck, 1995). There isnothing more essentialin postmodernismthan the truth and everything else is of secondary value(Nietzsche, 1980). In support of this view, Beck stated that society should be concerned with “away of life, which includes cognitive, affective, and methodological components” (Beck, 1994:10).Postmodernist holds that an embryonic“working understanding” of the reality and life existswithin humanity. The fortitudes and structureoscillate and arrive at a “personal narrative thatevolves to our particular position in the world (Beck, 1994:10). Conversely,we need to appreciate,in parallel, the view from postmodernists who charge the theory that it is unfeasible to seekunified representation for all humanity(Beyer, 1992). In relation to the aforementioned,postmodern writers hold that reason cannot conveymutualclaimsof an alleged legitimacy. As analternative, reason, accuratelyinterpreted, can only provide fractional, locally determinate,insulatedprerogatives(Beyer, 1992).46 | P a g e
  • 54. We must refuse to accept the mergingtendency of globalising assumption, exchangingin itsplaceexploration into “subjugated knowledge’s” that syndicate “erudite knowledge and localmemories”(Foucault, 1983).47 | P a g e
  • 55. Collectiveinattentivenessoversimplifies the furtherance that smotherstransformation and shouldbe rejected as tyrannical(Giroux, Shumway,Smith and Sosnoski, 1984). Creative forms of thoughtare their own overview; their history is the only kind of exegesis that they document and theirdestiny the only kind of critique(Binswanger, 1993). Not to be, then, is impossible: to be,incomprehensible. If one has mastered this awareness of absolute presence, one has learnt that itwas this, and no other, which in the earlier ages detained the nobler minds, the elect among men,with a sort of sacred horror(Harper, 1928).Humanity is as catastrophe was for Heidegger, the result of a “fall” of western philosophybecauseof absorptioninscientificindustrialisationthat resulted in single-minded technical progress andtheestrangement of man to a domain of anexceedinglyimitated “way of being” (Heidegger, 1982:311 - 341). Postmodernism and educationThe evolution of comparative education requires a comprehensive evaluation of the complexaffiliation concerning education and development,and the grounding in social science approach,for example econometrics, psychometrics, causal modelling, and ethnography. Mixedresearchmethods are consequently advisable (Creswell, 2009).It is found that the South African educational domain is complex, overwhelmed and conversely abastion of hope for millions of young people. Our youthare leaving the public education systemlargely ill prepared and unemployable. The pressure filters down to our educational infrastructure,delivery methodology and curriculum design.The majority of South African schools do not have basic infrastructural requirements such aslibraries and technology facilities to prepare students to function as thinking, research orientatedmembers of society.Political commentator,Moeletsi Mbeki has been tremendously vocal in hisopinions on the subject and he contends that “unless South Africa axes the policy in favour of abroader skills development drive, South Africas underclass, crammed into vast settlements of48 | P a g e
  • 56. rickety shacks with no water or electricity, will balloon and eventually turn on the elite”(Harrison,June 19, 2009).In the opinion of the researcher, the defined postmodern topographies of societies have modifiededucation, as the emergence of access to education on a global scale is a challenging concept. Theaccess to substandard education does little to ensure the development of a globally competitivelabour force. Education and training must be viewed as change agents and catalysts for futuregrowth and development within the South African economy.Postmodern analyses have appeared with increasing incidence as the principal inquiry for thefunction of knowledge claims and forms of rationality (Landon and Liston, 1992). For example, theassociation of postmodernism with feminism exists specifically within art education (Neperud,1995). In addition, Descartes and later philosophers have attempted to prove the subsistence of aworld of objects external to the mind(Dreyfus, 1991:248).The construction of educational resources from the perspective of postmodernism presents atheoretical basis for repository construction. Universities have adopted an economic model forrestructuring educational processes within the current global economy. Online learning hasbecome a functional and intensive milieu for comprehension of the changing nature of highereducation. Universities have had to acclimatise as funding models become less reliant on statefunds (Bayrak and Boyaci, January 2002). Postmodernism dictates the exploitation andcapitalisation of third stream revenue initiatives and self-reliance. Universities are experiencingsignificant budgetary constraints and public subsidy cutbacks as is evident in the UK (Labi andMcMurtrie, 2010).Postmodernism also compels individuals to “collaborate in the practice of knowledge creation”(Beck, 1994:10). Knowledge and power are therefore entwined as knowledge epitomises thestandards of persons who are important enough to create and propagate it (Foucault, 1976 and1998).49 | P a g e
  • 57. In this regard,postmodernism requires students and educators learning together (Beck, 1994:10).Postmodernism,further holds that “there is no centre,” and in particular there is no centraltradition of scholarship (such as Eurocentric, middle-class or predominantly male). Considering theaforementioned, Native Americans, Afro-Americans, Muslims, feminists, and the labour class aremerely representativesocieties(Beck, 1994:10).Postmodernism has provided insight into education including national modes of thought andanalysis in educational life and the ways that authority repudiates legitimacy to marginalisedgroups(White, 1992). According to Gonzalez and Casanova,postmodernist approaches to decenteducation are essential in the arrangement for competitive participation in global economies(Casanova, 1997).Civilisation has an obligation to transform and to ensure that it is “breaking thecrust of convention” (Rorty, 1985:217). In this regard postmodern is not devoid of opponents asthe opponents argues that the examinations are contradictory, containing “standpoints withoutfootings” and are “talking” about nothing (Liston, Landon, Beyer,and Daniel, 1992:383-87).In this research, the role of educators is being questioned within the postmodernist debate.Modern students are significantly more self-directed and less reliant on classroom style learningand teaching methodologies. Postsecondary students find more value from computeriseddatabanks than from educators (Lyotard, 1984 and 1979). In current education programmes, thereis greater focus on innovation, science and technology as core components of educationalofferings, thus aligning themselves with a postmodern understanding as learning entailstransformation(Harris and Jones, 2010). A new type of learner is therefore emerging, described byOblinger as the “Millennials” (Oblinger and Oblinger, 2005), as the “net genres” (Barnes, Marateo,and Ferris, 2007) and, most famously, by Prensky as the “digital natives”(Prensky, 2001).Postmodernism in education therefore requires a commissionedintercessionrepresenting therequirements and prospects of a student to be addressed in a bespoke manner, rather than asingular application in historic knowledge applications. “Its own most being is such that it has anunderstanding of that being, and already maintains itself in each case in a certain interepretednessof its being(Heidegger, 1962:36).50 | P a g e
  • 58. 2.2.4 Conclusion: link to this studyThe evolution from modernism to postmodernism can best be described as the pendulum frommodern violinist to the post-modern jazz player. Modernism seeks to compartmentalise asopposed to postmodernism that encourages the free flow of knowledge in an unconstrainedenvironment. In the global educational discourse, with particular reference to South Africa, it iscritical to internalise that the framing of modernism presented a foundation to develop educatorsas imposing transmitters of impartial information, grounded in the rational. Conversely,postmodernism affords a platform for facilitators to lead in knowledge creation by allowing fordiversity, open-mindedness,devoid of restrictions, ingenuityand intuition.Modernism holds the view that the learner can never be allowed to discover learning in theabsence of an educator. Postmodernism provides a framework for evolutionary methodologiessuch as online learning with multi-media support facilities to strengthen delivery platforms.Perceptions by learners are becoming increasingly more important, as education is traded as acommodity, and measured by the Return on Investment (ROI) of learners and employees to theiremployers.The researcher is of the opinion that postmodernism holds the key to unlocking a number ofexisting educational challenges faced in South Africa. As modernism argues for conformity andneutrality, postmodernism is grounded in chaos theory and appreciates dialectical relationships ofcentrifugal and centripetal forces. Postmodernism avoidsconstraints at all costs, and allows formultiple vehicles of knowledge production.The restrictions of current social discourse as it relates to educational transformation shouldthereforetranscend imposed boundaries and be grounded in postmodern philosophy. Societyshould avoid educational elitism and impoverished social cognition. Social security, crime and highunemployment rates all affect the value and perceived value of the quality of education from aspecific country or region. Limited access to educational opportunities and global pressures mustencourage students to construct individual identities and achieve personal and societal goals.Education must therefore lead to emancipation and a journey of self-discovery.51 | P a g e
  • 59. As South Africa continues to invest larger percentages of the national budget in education, it is ofcritical importance that the foundational requirements for education be re-assessed. In theabsence of a coherent integrated strategy founded in the principles of postmodernism andcognitive liberal schools of thought, it is inconceivable that change in the tide of youthunemployment will be addressed.Postmodernism is essential for the advancement of educational epistemology and planning in theevolution of South Africa’s dismal failure to produce market-ready skilled, thinking individuals andthereby circumvent archetype paranoia cantered in political and social rhetoric.52 | P a g e
  • 60. Linking postmodernist thinking to this study, it is clear that providers of vocationally directededucation and training form a wide spectrum of businesses, individuals, and methodologies. Theconstricting, rigid, top-down approach of modernism is not suitable to the present situation,whereas the more laissez-faire approach of postmodernism, with its customised individualitywould allow for processes such as accreditation and external moderation to match, and bemalleable to, the unique needs of the variety of learning organisations, and individuals, moreeffectively than a one-size-fits-all system would.2.3 The revolution and philosophy of educationPlatos dispute with the Sophists in epistemology is one of the best-known cerebral, political andeducational altercations. Notwithstanding emancipation pains by Aristotle and others, Platonic-inspired science, knowledge, and truth have beenpasseddown through the millennia. Plato, weknow, had the conjectural triumph when the poets were expelled from the republic because of thevaried viewpoints(McGann, 2002).Since the time of orthodox Greece, the deliberation affecting legitimacy has been taking place andhas concluded paradoxically in the decline of philosophy and the escalation of science (Costea,2000). The modern epoch of education, in turn, is conceited by considerable social and ideologicaldeviation that clobber at our conceptualisations for the meaning of our view of the modern world(Neperud, 1995). Modern academics, in turn, have twisted the literary advancement ofassessment for motivation and direction (Rajchman, 1985).Descartes held that theorists want to prove the existence of a planet of objects exterior the mind.Kant, however, considered it a scandal that such a proof had by no means been victorious.Heideggerholds alternatively that the disgrace is that academics have sought such a “proof” atall(Dreyfus, 1991:248).Many philosophers have had animportant impact on education and educational philosophy astheir views determined the framework for learning at the time. The literature reviewedconsidered53 | P a g e
  • 61. the works of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Avicenna, Descartes, Locke, Rousseau, De Bono, Feuerstein,Piaget, Mehl, Montessori, Steiner, Osho, Vygotsky, Jung and Da Vinci as a framing context for thepostmodern educational discussion structure, in which this study on accreditation and externalmoderation models resides.2.3.1 Socrates (470 BC – 399 BC) "The unexamined life is not worth living." SocratesPlato proclaimed that Socrates was “the wisest, and justist, and best of all men whom I have everknown” (Plato, 1925). Socrates left no writings of his own work and his body of knowledgeprincipally originated from the writings of Plato (Fisher, 1995). During this period, education timetook place in spectacular structures such as the Parthenon and Hephaisteion and in the large openareas at the front of the Acropolis. Education was not formalised at this stage and had not yetevolved to the concept of schooling, colleges and establishments(Brickhouse, 2000:53)Socrates considered a dialogue named Meno in the reincarnation of an eternal soul, whichcontained all knowledge. According to him, man loses touch with that knowledge at birth and sowe need to be encouraged of what we already know, as opposed to learning something new(Boeree, 2000) The Socratic Method, as referred to by Aristotle, requires one to make use ofquestions and answers to strike a chord with students regarding knowledge they already possess(Boeree, 2000).Socrates’ unconventional political and religious views were of course contra bonos mores at thetime and gave the principal citizens of Athens the justification to condemn him to death forcorrupting the morals of the youth. He measured the idiosyncratic types of knowledge, importantand trivial, holding that in general man knows many "trivial" things resulting in the craftsmanhaving principal knowledge to practice his craft. Socrates considered “how best to live” the mostimportant of all knowledge is (Brickhouse, 2000:53).54 | P a g e
  • 62. The Socratic Method required a teacher to ask questions and guide students to discovery: a dialectical method employs critical investigation to challenge the plausibility of widely held doctrine (Brickhouse, 2000:53). Socrates substantiated the use of discourse to confirm the truth using raison dêtre in a collective analysis, rather than a passing down of knowledge. Socrates believed that wise teachers acknowledge their own unawareness to gain an enhanced perceptive. Socrates philosophy can be summarised as follows (Ferguson, 1970): i. Knowledge can be pursued and can lead to an understanding of what is true;ii. The search for true knowledge is a co-operative enterprise;iii. Questioning is the primary form of education, drawing out true knowledge from within rather than imposing knowledge from outside;iv. Knowledge must be pursued with a ruthless intellectual honesty. The divergence between the Socratic method and the academic tradition of teaching can be summarised as follows(Ross, 1996): The Socratic method The academic tradition Philosophy is an active process Philosophy is a learned body of teachings Philosophy is questioning Philosophy is dogmatic Philosophy is inductive Philosophy is deductive Philosophy is linguistic Philosophy is conceptual Philosophy is open to all Philosophy is for the few Philosophy is applicable to life Philosophy is abstract truths Philosophy is dialogue (oral) Philosophy is written Table 2.2 Socratic method versus academic tradition A dynamic learning community is therefore built from a legacy of shared knowledge, as well as the practice of creative analysis to reassign knowledge into comprehension. Socratic education has a 55 | P a g e
  • 63. vital part to play in developing independent learners as each learner serves as an educator incontinuing the pursuit for ways of life that are worth existing (Fisher, 1995).56 | P a g e
  • 64. 2.3.2 Plato (424 BC - 347 BC) “Do not train a child to learn by force or harshness; but direct them to it by what amuses theirminds, so that you may be better able to discover with accuracy the peculiar bent of the genius of each.” PlatoPlato came from a privileged background and was Socrates’ most honoured student. Plato’sgreatest work is ‘The Republic’, where heimagined (through Socrates) a culture that discoveredthe significance of justice. Plato argued that women were indeed equal to men and shouldtherefore be allowed to be educated (Boeree, 2000).Plato created his academy,which was considered the first university, in Athens in approximately385 BC after the death of Socrates. His didactic deliberation is set out in his writings of the idealsociety, in ‘The Republic’. Plato held that educators must have a deep care for the development ofstudents and critically be subject matter experts (Plato, 1955). His free academy was funded bydonations and was similar to Pythagoras’s society where rich young men and women studiedastronomy, mathematics, law, and philosophy. The academy became the centre for Greekknowledge for a millennium (Boeree, 2000).Plato propagated an educational philosophy where one needs to be subordinate to societyand therepublic at large. He also divided reality into two constructs. The first construct related to idea orideal. This is ultimate reality, permanent and eternal, spiritual. The second construct involvedmanifestation of the ideal (Boeree, 2000).Plato believed that children must be removed from their parents and then educated to a leveldependent on the caste of the individual. This philosophy served as the foundation for the publiceducation system. Plato believed, too, that some individuals from lower castes may improve theirtalents and be trained to serve the state (Plato, 1955).57 | P a g e
  • 65. Plato proposed three levels of pleasure. First is sensual or physical pleasure. The second level issensuous or aesthetic pleasure,with the pleasures of the mind as the highest level (Boeree,2000)."(I)f you ask what is the good of education in general, the answer is easy; that educationmakes good men, and that good men act nobly" (Plato, 517). Paralleling these three levels ofpleasure are three souls. We have one soul called appetite, which is mortal and comes from thegut. The second soul is called spirit or courage. It is also mortal, and lives in the heart. The thirdsoul is reason. It is immortal and resides in the brain. The three, according to Plato, are strungtogether by the cerebrospinal canal (Boeree, 2000).Plato’s “Allegory of the cave” describes "our nature and want for education”,(Plato, 514 a, 2 to 517a, 7) in a fictional dialogue between Plato’s teacher, Socrates,and his brother in-law Glaucon.Platoarticulated his opinions in an image of ignorant civilians who are unaware that they are ensnaredin the depths of theirown restricted viewpoints. He stated that the exceptional individual escapesthe limitations of that cave and commences on a tortuous intellectual journey to discover a higherrealm. These individuals, in Plato’s opinion, are best equipped to govern in society. Prisoners in thecave are only a shadowy illustration of reality (Brians, Gallwey, Hughes, Hussain, Law, Myers,Neville,Schlesinger, Spitzer, and Swan, 1998).Plato believed that there are invisible truths that only the most enlightened individuals canunderstand. The cave demonstrates that prisoners at first resist enlightenment, as students resisteducation.However, those who can achieve enlightenment ought to be the leaders and rulers ofall the rest. Plato held that education is not a process of putting knowledge into empty minds, butof making people realise that which they already know, as the truth is entrenched in ourminds(Brians, 1998).2.3.3 Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) “Education is the best provision for the journey to old age.” Aristotle58 | P a g e
  • 66. Commencing at the age of eighteen Aristotle studied in Plato’s academy. He later built the firstgreat library that served as the model for Alexandria and Pergamum(Ross, 1996). Aristotle’s powereventually became consequential when he was appointed as Alexander’s teacher. Aristotle isconsidered the father of invented modern logic (Burckhardt, 1898).Aristotle established his own school and named it Lyceum in 334 BC. The school operated as aschool and Open University. Early educational democracy was evidenced as Aristotle permittedteaching staff to run the school for ten-day interludes. However, Aristotle did not hold women asthe equals of men as Plato did (Hummel, 2002).Aristotle entrenched a pedagogical concern and educational breadth throughout his writings.Education is in fact the benchmark of Aristotelian ethics (Hummel, 2002)and he held thateducation is a function of the state. Davidson supports Aristotle’s view that education ispreparation for some worthy activity, and confirms that education should be directed bylegislation and corresponds with the outcome of psychological analysis, totrack the gradualimprovement of the bodily and mental faculties (Davidson, 1900).Aristotle held that the content man is neither a righteous savage, nor in an intuitive condition, butthe educated man and no one else lives by reason, as he possesses reasonableness(Aristotle,1976). A number of qualities and types of knowledge, though, can only be obtained throughexperience. This applies to,amongst other topics,prudenceand physics (Nichomachean, 1142).Education through reason is characterised by two methods: epagoge, or learning by induction, andlearning by demonstration (Aristotle, 1976).Society and governments advance a system of education, and Aristotle argued that education is aresponsibility of the state. He argued that government should be accountable for theadministration of schools and education throughout, and that habit is connected with threenotions: “imitation, experience and memory” (Aristotle, 1976).Aristotle argued that education isthe original indictment of the legislator: “No one can doubt that it is the legislator’s very specialduty to regulate the education of youth, otherwise the constitution of the state will suffer harm.The citizen should be trained in accordance with the particular form of government under which59 | P a g e
  • 67. he is to live, for each type of constitution has a distinctive character, which originally formed it andmakes possible its continued existence. Preliminary training and habituation are required for theexercise of any faculty or art; and the same, therefore, obviously applies to the practice ofvirtue”(Aristotle, 1976).Emancipation is capable in the course of reflection or the theoretical existence in the activity ofthe mind, comforted of all substance constraints and so education ought not to have the characterof occupational training alone. Aristotle held that ‘The meaner sort of artisan is a slave, not for allpurposes but for a definite servile task’. His education system, rather,was a structure of lifelongeducation (Aristotle, 1260). Aristotle stated that even the art of living could be learned. “Ethics arebased on such concepts as happiness, the mean, leisure, and wisdom, which we also encounter inhis theory of education. Freedom is an ultimate objective of education and happiness is impossibledeprived of freedom”(Hummel, 2002). “The most powerful factor of all those I have mentioned ascontributing to the stability of constitutions, but one which is nowadays universally neglected, isthe education of citizens in the spirit of the constitution under which they live” (Aristotle, 1984).The value of education and training was of particular importance to Aristotle. “Happiness seemshowever, even if it is not god-sent but comes as a result of virtue and some process of learning ortraining, to be among the most godlike things; for that which is the prize and end of virtue seemsto be the best thing in the world, and something godlike and blessed,”(Aristotle, 7 (Book I 5), at16-1 Book I.8-9).Aristotle also held that there are four causes that contribute to the movement of intellect. Theyare answers to the question “why?” or “what is the explanation of this?” (Boeree, 2000): The material cause: what something is made of;
 The efficient cause: the motion or energy that changes matter; The formal cause: the thing’s shape, form, or essence, its definition;
 The final cause: its reason, its purpose and the intention behind it.60 | P a g e
  • 68. Aristotle’s theory of education is still relevant in the modern day educational realm. Aristotle’sannotations on educational policy and its role in society confirmed his hypothesis of a system ofcontinuing lifelong education. Aristotle’s education for peace and leisure and educational thoughtshas much in common with the uneasiness in education at present (Hummel, 2002).61 | P a g e
  • 69. 2.3.4 Avicenna (980 - 1037) “The knowledge of anything, since all things have causes, is not acquired or complete unless it is known by its causes.” AvicennaIbn Sina, also known as Avicenna, was the first major Persian Islamic philosopher. Avicenna was aforemost interpreter of Aristotle and was the author of almost 200 books on science, religion, andphilosophy. His two most important works are Shifa - The Book of Healing, and Al Qanun fi Tibb -The Canon of Medicine (Sohei, 1958). Avicenna later also wrote three ‘encyclopaedias’ ofphilosophy.Islamic education has been documented since the 10th century. Islamic elementary education isknown as Maktab and the Islamic higher education system is referred to as Madrasahs. In the 11thcentury, Ibn Sina wrote on the significance of the role of the teacher in a Maktab.Avicenna wrote that students should be educated in groups and not individually as thisencouraged competition amongst them (Asimov, 1999). He was a meta-physical philosopher whowas concerned with understanding self-existence in this world in relation to its contingency. Thephilosophical space that he articulated relates to God as the necessary existence position; thegroundwork for Avicenna’s theories of the soul,intellect, and cosmos. Logic is a critical aspect ofAvicennan philosophy (Rahman, 1981).Avicenna’s theory of knowledge held that human intellect at birth amounts to pure potential thatislater actualised through education. Knowledge is attained through empirical familiarity withobjects in this world from which one abstracts universal concepts, and is developed through asyllogistic method of reasoning; observations lead to prepositional statements, which whencompounded lead to further abstract concepts.Avicenna stated that intellect has stages of advancement from material intellect (al-‘aql al-hayulani), the potentiality that can acquire knowledge, to the active intellect (al-‘aql al-fa‘il), the62 | P a g e
  • 70. state of the human intellect at conjunction with the perfect source of knowledge (Rizvi, 2000). Thegraduation date of learners should be flexible though, according to Avicenna, as differentindividuals reach emotional maturity at different stages (Asimov, 1999).2.3.5 Descartes (1595-1650) “The greatest minds are capable of the greatest vices as well as of the greatest virtues.” DescartesRene Descartes is heralded as the first modern philosopher. Descartes investigated knowledge firstfor himself and later in the hope of also challenging the epistemology of the great Aristotelian-scholastic synthesis that had conquered European thought for centuries” (Wilson, 1993:13).Descartes’ re-establishment of a knowing process involved doubting everything based uponmathematical proceedings, and gave a physiological reaction to his dilemma (Garber, 1992).Descartes’ greatness was not to be established in his discourse on the body-mind dualism, hisphysiological epistemology or even his Cartesian reservation, though. His reputation is recognisedin his association to the thinking modus operandi itself in the form of cogito ergo sum(Spinoza,1985).To precede with his investigation Descartes was determined to (Spinoza, 1905): lay aside all prejudice; find the fundamental truth on which all knowledge rests; discover the cause of error; Understand everything clearly and distinctly.Descartes rationalism arose out of a deductive process that incorporates a number of premises: I think therefore I am; God exists; My mind has clear and distinct ideas;63 | P a g e
  • 71. God guarantees my clear and distinct ideas; I have clear and distinct ideas about a material world.Descartes progressed in thought from a prejudiced to a universal certainty, to a statement of faithand then to one of reason. His deductive reasoning based on the existence and assurances of God,though, were challenged (Strauss, 1958:387). Descartes’ pursuit to comprehend the body-minddualism appeared to be mirroring that of the classical Greeks; the power to will and the power tounderstand remain depicted as an active struggle and, like the Greek tragedies, it is a war within,and a war with no solution(Niebuhr, 1941).Descartes expected to dispute and substitute scholastic reasoning in the rapid decline of Cartesianmetaphysics. This was due to epistemological and ontological incoherencies. However, many arecritical of Descartes and outline that he was unable to establish epistemological certainty becauseof the logical ‘incoherencies of his ontological dualism and because just as his physics failed to fitthe facts of experience and experiment, so also did his theology fail to conform with Christianhopes and dogma”(Watson, 1988:02).2.3.6 Locke (1632-1704)"Good and evil, reward and punishment, are the only motives to a rational creature: these are the spur and reins whereby all mankind are set on work, and guided." LockeJohn Locke was a British philosopher, Oxford academic and medical researcher. Locke wanted usto apply reason to search for truth and not just accept a version as the truth. Lockes essayconcerning human understanding concerned the limits of human understanding in God, the self,natural kinds and relics and ideas. Opposition to authoritarianism characterised much of Locke’swork(Uzgalis, 2010).64 | P a g e
  • 72. Locke published ‘Some thoughts oneducation’ that focused on how to instruct the mind. Lockebelieved that the mind is an "empty cabinet" and that education constructs the man. "I think Imay say that of all the men we meet with, nine parts of ten are what they are, good or evil, usefulor not, by their education(Grant and Tarcov, 1996:10).Locke stressed the consequence of formative year development in children. He held that the earlyyears are the establishment of the self: what first mark the tabula rasa. "Associationism", as thistheory would come to be called, exerted a powerful influence over eighteenth-century thought(Locke, Essay 357, n.d.).Knowledge, it establishes, requires the agreement or disagreement ofinformation. “The Understanding Faculties being given to Man, barely for Speculation, but also forthe Conduct of his Life, Man would be at a great loss, if he had nothing to direct him, but what hasthe Certainty of true Knowledge(Locke, Essay IV xvii , n.d.).“Therefore, as God has set some things in broad day-light; as he has given us some certainknowledge. Therefore, in the greater part of our Concernment, he has afforded us only thetwilight, as I may say so, of probability, suitable, I presume, to that state of mediocrity andprobationership. He has been pleased to place us in here, wherein to check our over-confidenceand presumption, we might by every days experience be made sensible of our short sightednessand liableness to error” (Locke - IV, xiv, n.d.).2.3.7 Rousseau (1712-1778)"I have entered on an enterprise which is without precedent, and will have no imitator. I purpose to show my fellows a man as nature made him, and this man shall be myself." RousseauJean-Jacques Rousseau was a Swiss-born essayist, novelist, and philosopher. Rousseau gainedfame as an educationist although his own formal education ended at the age of twelve (Damrosch,2005), and he published his theory under the title Èmile. Rousseau held that that all children areimpeccably conscious individuals that are prepared to learn from their environment. He held that65 | P a g e
  • 73. the development of children into moral adults results in the disparaging influence of corruptsociety, which in turn results in children being habitually disheartened (Bloch, 1995).“Èmile” stated that experience should come from life and not from books. Rousseaus theory ofeducation, then, was grounded in two assumptions: that man is by nature good, and that societyand civilisation corrupt the native goodness. He felt that only through proper education in youthcould the "natural man" come to being. Children, he said, should be kept from books until the ageof 12 and youth should be taught "natural religion" only (girls were to be trained solely as wivesand mothers)(Damrosch, 2005).Rousseau acknowledged the significance of Plato even though he rejected Plato’s theory based onthe decay of society. Where Plato held that people were born with skills levels commensurate totheir caste, Rousseau held the notion of curiosity leading children to explore and adapt to theirenvironment (Jimack, 1983). Rousseau also endorsed though, as Plato did, that children should beremoved and educated in a different environment than their homes e.g. in the countryside.Rousseau stated that a child should grow up without adult meddling and that the child must bedirected to suffer from the encounter of the natural penalty of its own actions(Rousseau, 1783).2.3.8 ConclusionThe philosophical masters referred to in this chapter commenced with the debate of knowledgecreation and value in societal advancement. Many of the ideas such as public education, schoolsand universities emanated from their ideas and practices. Remarkably, the re-cycling of theirphilosophical frameworks are prevalent, and so the reference to educational elitism. Thesephilosophers have influenced modern philosophy as manyquestion the reason for existence.Descartes, Rousseau, Kant, Locke and Ibn Sina are all examples of philosophers that havecontributed to societal transformation and the humanities in a myriad of areas.Other philosophers have also transcended time and influenced religious and spiritualunderstanding within educational contexts. These include Buddha, Jesus, Mohammed and66 | P a g e
  • 74. Ramanuja, as they all emerged as religious and spiritual icons to millions of followers over time.The critical importance of philosophy in the evolution of a cognitive universal framework thatinfluences political, legal, economic, social and technological frameworks is evident. Educationalevolution is influenced by western and eastern philosophy in the search of our understanding ofknowledge acquisition and development.This philosophical setting was further enhanced, in setting the context of this research by a reviewof literature focusing on learning.67 | P a g e
  • 75. 2.4 Self-di rectedness in learning2.4.1 IntroductionThe legacy left by proponents of modernism, postmodernism and educational philosophyprompted the researcher to self-directedness and learning, including the relevance of cognitivedevelopment in educational discourse. Self-directed learning and lifelong learning arefundamentally entrenched.Both challenge individual students to determine the pace, content and time-line of their learningexperiences. Imagination evolves when we are able to look at things from a new awareness, andthis new awareness has evolved the research undertaken.Einstein understood that the key to education was flexible thinking. To raise new questions, newproblems, to regard old problems from a new angle require creative imagination and makes realadvances. To understand is to invent (Piaget, 1948 and 1974).We make knowledge our own “byreconstructing it through some creative operation of the mind. The mind once stretched by a newidea, never regains its original dimensions” (Holmes, 1908).According to Torrance creativity is a process of becoming sensitive to problems, deficiencies, gapsin knowledge, missing elements, disharmonies and so on; identifying the difficulty, searching forsolutions, making guesses or formulating hypotheses about the deficiencies, testing and retestingthese hypotheses and possibly modifying and retesting them, and finally communicating theresults (Fisher, 1995).In addition, Fisher postulated that open discussion allows students to articulate their judgment,but it does not automatically present the cognitive challenge for students to expand their thinking(Fisher, 1995).68 | P a g e
  • 76. 2.4.2 Edward De Bono (1933 - ) "Many highly intelligent people are poor thinkers. Many people of average intelligence are skilled thinkers. The power of a car is separate from the way the car is driven." De BonoDe Bono formulated a theory of lateral and parallel thinking. De Bono predicates an idea of“thinking outside of the box”. The conventional critical thinking processes of De Bonos keyconcept is that logical, linear and critical thinking has limitations because it is based onargumentation (De Bono, 1992).De Bono founded the Cognitive Research Trust (CoRT) in 1969 to produce and promote his ideason thinking. According to him, articulate people are not automatically triumphant at thinking andlearning. They may fall into the intelligence trap of making instant judgements, of jumping toconclusions and do not explore the unconventional as alternative scenarios (De Bono, 1992).Skilful thinking compels exploration and the ability to examine a position prior to making ajudgement. Awareness allows for a pragmatic view from any state of affairs. Expanding on thescale of consequence opens the impending exploration of creative thinking and living. In thissense, thinking can be developed (De Bono, 1992).De Bono’ssixthinking hatsDe Bono conceived the six thinking hats method to outline lateral thinking. The significanttheoretical reasons to use the six thinking hats are to:(De Bono, 2008).I. Encourage parallel thinking;II. Encourage full-spectrum thinking;III. Separate ego from performance.69 | P a g e
  • 77. 2.4.3 Reuven Feuerstein (1921 - )“The theory of Structural Cognitive Modifiability describes intelligence as the unique propensity of human beings to change or modify the structure of their cognitive functioning to adapt to the changing demands of a life situation.” FeuersteinFeuerstein’s theory advocates that intelligence can be modified through mediated intercession.Feuerstein is recognised for developing the theories and applied systems of structural cognitivemodifiability, mediated learning experience, cognitive mapping, deficient cognitive functioning,dynamic assessment, learning propensity assessment, instrumental enrichment programmes andshaping modifying environments (Feuerstein, Feuerstein, Falik,and Rand, 1979 and 2002).These systems can equip educators with the skills to analytically progress student cognitivefunction and meta-cognition (Feuerstein; Rand, Hoffman and Miller 1980 and 2004). Feuersteinposes the queries “what if, instead of measuring a child’s acquired knowledge and intellectualskills, the ability to learn was evaluated first? In addition, what if intelligence was not a fixed,attributed, measurable finality? What if intelligence can be taught and is in fact the ability tolearn?”(Feuerstein, 1990:10).The theory of structural cognitive modifiability and its emergent practices of dynamic assessment,active intervention, and assignment of both children and adults in “shaping environments”aredemarcated as part of the Feuerstein model (Feuerstein, Feuerstein, Falik,and Rand, 1979 and2002). Mediated learning is anelement of differential cognitive development and is based on thesupposition that human development can be imagined of as a sole epiphenomenon of neuro-physiologicalfruition(Feuerstein, Feuerstein, Falik,and Rand, 1979 and 2002).70 | P a g e
  • 78. The concept of a mediated learning experience that is designated as the proximal determinant ofdifferential cognitive development is based on the assumption that human development is notcomprehended as a sole epiphenomenon of neuro-physiological maturation, nor considered assimply the product of the individual’s accidental coincidence with, and absoluteknowledge to,stimuli and the resulting collaboration.The course of evidenceconveyed by a progression of mediation through conduits produced by thatmediation leads to higher mental utilities being established. Cultural and spiritual permanence arematerialised in a variety of ways and conditions. The psychologist has seldom been apprehensivewith the integration of cultural transmission within the progression of learning, “leaving thedefinition of modalities of cultural transmission and its teleological dimensions to the culturalanthropologist” (Feuerstein, 1980; 2004).2.4.4 Jean Piaget (1896-1980) “To understand is to invent.” PiagetJean Piaget was a renowned Swiss development psychologist who developed learning theoriesbased on particular stages in the development of a child’s aptitude. Piaget has been labelled anintegrationist and a constructivist. His epistemology of human knowledge was constructedthrough interactions with reality and his work on early cognition significantly prejudiced westerndidactic theories (Munari, 2000).Piaget pioneered cognitive development and referenced it as ‘genetic epistemology.’ He served asthe Director of the International Bureau of Education and declared in 1934, "only education iscapable of saving our societies”.Piaget’s concept is of cognitive structure being patterns of physicalor mental action that underlie specific acts of intelligence and correspond to stages of childdevelopment. He outlined four primary cognitive structures i.e., development stages:(Piaget,1977):71 | P a g e
  • 79. In the sensor motor stage (0-2 years), intelligence takes the form of motor actions. Intelligence in the preoperational period (3-7 years) is intuitive in nature. The cognitive structure during the concrete operational stage (8-11 years) is logical but depends upon concrete referents. Formal operations (12-15 years), thinking involves abstractions.Piagets method was fundamental to the school of cognitive theory acknowledged as "cognitiveconstructivism". Other scholars, known as "social constructivists", such as Vygotsky and Bruner,have argued further prominence on the part played by language and other people in facilitatingchildren to learn (Atherton, 2011).Piaget understood that childrens impulsive annotations provided constructive evidence toappreciate their thoughts and he was not concerned in the forms of logic and reasoning the childused(Singerand Revenson, 1978). Piaget saw cognitive growth as an extension of biological growthand governed by the same laws and principles, and he argued that intellectual developmentcontrolled every other aspect of development, be it emotional, socialor moral (London, 1988: , 27,82-95).2.4.5 Merlyn Mehl (1956 - )“On the other hand, industry has developed bodies of knowledge that exist in no academic faculty.This brings you to the inevitable conclusion that there are more bodies of sophisticated knowledge outside formal education systems than inside them!” MehlThinking About Critical and Creative Thinking (TACCT) modelThe TACCT programme has been structured around the capacity to ‘SEE’. Eight thinking skillsclusters, covering the required capacities to develop both critical as well as creative thinking, have72 | P a g e
  • 80. been designed. Deliberate practice is then used to inculcate specific thinking strategies andtechniques (for example, particular creative thinking strategies, and developing critical cross-fieldoutcomes). In this way, it becomes apparent that the means to develop truly expert thinkers areemployed (Mehl, 2011).The programme is based on the well-documented phenomenon of neuro-plasticity, which hasgained substantial support. It holds that brain functioning is open to considerable improvementand that entities such as IQ, genetic functioning, creativity and talent are all open to considerableenvironmental influence and nurture(Mehl, 2011).73 | P a g e
  • 81. 2.4.6 Maria Montessori (1870–1952) “We discovered that education is not something which the teacher does, but that it is a naturalprocess which develops spontaneously in the human being. It is not acquired by listening to words, but in virtue of experiences in which the child acts on his environment. The teachers task is not to talk, but to prepare and arrange a series of motives for cultural activity in a special environment made for the child.” MontessoriDr Maria Montessori had attended an all-boy technical school at the age of thirteen in preparationof becoming an engineer. Montessori was the first woman to graduate from the University ofRome’s La Sapienza Medical School, becoming one of the first female doctors in Italy. She was amember of the universitys psychiatric clinic and became intrigued with trying to educate the‘special needs” or "unhappy little ones” and the "uneducable”(Foschi, 2008).The method of learning presented by Montessori aimed to duplicate the experimental observationof children, to bring about, sustain, and support their true natural way of being(Montessori, 1972).Because of her success with mentally disabled children, Montessori was asked to start a school forchildren in a housing project in Rome, which opened on January 6, 1907, and which she called"Casa dei Bambini”.“Childrens House” was a child-care centre in an apartment building in a poor neighbourhood ofRome. She was focused on teaching the students ways to develop their own skills at a pace theyset, which was a principle Montessori called "spontaneous self-development" (Gardner, 1966). TheMontessori method of teaching concentrated on quality rather than quantity (Gardner, 1966).74 | P a g e
  • 82. 2.4.7 Rudolf Steiner (1861 – 1925) “Vague and the general phrases - ‘The harmonious development of all the powers and talents in the child, and so forth - cannot provide a basis for a genuine art of education. Such an art of education can only be built on a real knowledge of the human being.” SteinerRudolf Joseph Laurence Steiner was born in Kraljevec, which is today in modern-day Croatia, andwas then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Steiner acquired a Ph.D. from the University ofRostock in 1891 and developed the "anthroposophical spiritual science based on idealisticphilosophy rooted in the thinking of Aristotle, Plato and Thomas Aquinas(Nordlund, 2006).Waldorf education (also known as Steiner, or Steiner-Waldorf, education) is a humanistic approachto pedagogy based upon the educational philosophy Steiner, the founder of Anthroposophy(Schneider and Rist , 1979).Learning is interdisciplinary, integrating practical, artistic and conceptual elements. The approachemphasises the role of the imagination in learning, developing thinking that includes a creative aswell as an analytic component (Nielsen, 2004).This educational philosophys overarching goals are to provide young people the basis on which todevelop into free, morally responsible and integrated individuals, and to help every child fulfil hisor her unique destiny, the existence of which anthroposophy posits. Schools and teachers aregiven considerable freedom to define curricula within collegial structures (Nordlund, 2006).Steiner also believed that young children should meet only goodness. Waldorf elementaryeducation is strongly arts-based, centred on the teachers creative authority; the elementaryschool-age child should meet beauty. Secondary education seeks to develop the judgment,intellect and practical idealism; only the adolescent should meet truth (Nordlund, 2006).75 | P a g e
  • 83. 2.4.8 Osho (1931 – 1990) “In fact, the moment a child is perfectly conditioned by you, you are very happy; you call it “religious education”. You are very happy that the child has been initiated into the religion of his parents. All that you have done is you have destroyed his capacity to know on his own. You have destroyed his authenticity. You have destroyed his very precious innocence.“ OshoOsho was born in Kuchwada, India, in 1931 as Chandra Mohan Jain. Osho was a Professor ofphilosophy (Joshi, 1982).In reviewing the work of Osho, it appears that he saw the potential ofhuman beings as limitless.In the philosophical interpretation of what is, and what should be, it is clear that education is theviaduct for accessing individual potential. Osho held that what is being applied in conventionalschools and universities is not education but rather a preparatory programme for earning. Heconfirmed that traditional education prepares man for an enhanced standard of living, but theenhanced standard of living is not a better standard of life.Education he defined as to extract that within you, to make your possible actual, like extractingwater from a well. Education according to Osho comes from the word “educare”, to guide fromdarkness to light (Osho, 1978:37). He reflectedon the teaching of Jesus: “Man cannot live by breadalone.” Current education, he says, prepares man only to earn bread and this is a primitive kind ofeducation: it does not prepare one for life. Education should provide inner richness, according toOsho, and not, as the current education model teaches, competition and ambition in a madhousethat grooms individuals for a cutthroat, bloodthirsty world where everybody is an enemy and loveis not a reality (Osho, 1978:37).Osho’s vision for education was that life should not be taken as a struggle for survival; life shouldbe taken as a celebration. Playing and music should be explored by individuals, and education76 | P a g e
  • 84. should prepare individuals to fall in tune with the trees, with the birds, with the sky, with the sunand the moon.He sawclearly that education should prepare individuals to be themselves and notto be an impersonator. Real education, according to Osho, will expose potential.A tremendously significant meaning of his: to lead you from darkness to light. The Upanishads say,“Lord, lead us from untruth to truth” — “asato ma sadgamaya”; “Lord, lead us from death todeathlessness” - “mrityorma amritamgamaya”; “Lord, lead us from darkness to light” —” tamasoma jyotirgamaya”.“That is exactly the meaning of the word “education”: tamaso ma jyotirgamaya— from darkness to light”(Osho, 1978:36).Man lives in darkness and is unconscious, says Osho. The consciousness needs to be awakened,according to him, and people should note that the thought that a man just has a human body iswrong, and this has caused damage down the ages.Education is to bring you from darkness to light, Osho guided, and that man must be true tohim/herself and be fearless, not yielding to social pressure. Man should not be a conformist andyearn for comfort and convenience, as society will give them to you at a cost, he said, although thecost will be immense: and you will lose your consciousness. “You get comfort, but you lose yoursoul”(Osho, 1978:37).The society does not need you to function as an intelligent being, per Osho, because an intelligentbeing will behave in an intelligent way and there may be moments when he will say, “No, I cannotdo this”(Osho, 1978:37).Osho felt that intelligence and awareness prevents one from being part of an army, as thatrequires unintelligence. Years, he felt, are needed to destroy your intelligence; they call it“training” (Osho, 1978:37). According to Osho, education has been very inadequate, deficient andsuperficial; it only creates people who are un-loving and earn their livelihood, and focuses oncompetition. Competition is violent deep down, and creates people who are un-loving, he said:their whole effort is to be the achievers: of name, of fame, of all kinds of ambitions; everybody isfighting against the whole world (Osho, 2008).77 | P a g e
  • 85. Osho stated that education has been goal-oriented in that it sacrifices the present for the future; ducation goal t futurethis requires individuals to sac his sacrifice the moment for something that is not present; it creates a presenttremendous emptiness in life. Osho’s vision set out a five-dimensional educational framework: us five dimensional(Osho, 1987).Osho stated that he had been a professor himself and resigned from the university with a notesaying: “This is not education, this is sheer stupidity; you are not teaching anything significant.” ation,Osho also stated that insignificant education prevails all over the world and that it does not makeany positive difference to people’s lives (Osho, 1988). Figure 2 2.2: Osho’s five dimensions of education78 | P a g e
  • 86. Osho held that almost everybody is uneducated; that even those who have great degrees areuneducated in the vaster areas of life. A few are more uneducated, a few are less uneducated, buteverybody is uneducated, Osho stated, and the educated man is impossible to find, as no wholeeducation of an individual exists (Osho, 1988).2.4.9 Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) “The only “good learning” is that which is in advance of development.” VygotskyLev Vygotsky investigated child development in relation to the roles played by culture andinterpersonal communication. Vygotsky observed that higher mental functions developedhistorically within particular cultural groups, as well as individually through social interactions withsignificant people in a childs life, particularly parents, and other adults(Van der Veer, 1991).Vygotsky said that a child comes to learn the habits of mind of her/his culture, including speechpatterns, written language and other symbolic knowledge through which the child derivesmeaning and which affected a childs construction of her/his knowledge through interactions; thespecific knowledge gained by children through these interactions also represented the sharedknowledge of a culture known as internalisation. This key premise of Vygotskian psychology isoften referred to as cultural mediation (Van der Veer, 1991)."Every function in the childs cultural development appears twice: first on the social level, and lateron the individual level; first between people (inter-psychological) and then inside the child (intra-psychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory and to the formationof concepts. All of a child’s higher functions originate as actual relationships betweenindividuals”(Vygotsky, 1978:57).The aptitude to learn through education and mediation is specificto human intelligence, according to Vygotsky, and with the facilitation of adults, children can doand comprehend more than they can on their own(Cameron, 2005).79 | P a g e
  • 87. Vygotsky’s term for the range of tasks that a child can complete independently was the “zone ofproximal development” (ZPD). The lower limit of ZPD is the level of skill achieved by the childworking independently and the upper limit is the level of additional responsibility the child canagree to with the assistance of a competent instructor (Van der Veer, 1991).The ZPD captures the child’s cognitive skills that are in the process of maturing and can beaccomplished only with the assistance of a more skilled person. Per Vygotsky, scaffolding(changing the level of support) is a concept closely related to the idea of ZPD; a more skilledperson adjusts the amount of guidance to fit the child’s current performance during the course ofa teaching session.Dialogue is applied as a tool as unsystematic, disorganised and spontaneous concepts are met withthe more systematic, logical and rational concepts of the skilled helper (Van der Veer,1991).School psychology will only increase its role in society if it is socially responsible andoperates in an inclusive theoretical framework (Bardon, 1985:185-96).2.4.10 Carl Jung (1875 –1961) “Practical, for the totality of the psyche can neverbe grasped by the intellect alone.” JungCarl G. Jung’s prominence as a psychiatrist began through his association with Sigmund Freud,although Jung was never reasonably comfortable with Freud, even during the height of hisassociation (Jung, C, 1968).Jung is considered the first modern psychiatrist to view the humanpsyche as "by nature religious" and make it the focus of exploration (Dunne, 2002).There was no great stretch for Jung to discern the Freudian elements in the dream. Jung suspectedthat there was more to it than that. He believed that these elements were examples of those“fragments” that emerged from an even deeper layer of psychic functioning, that “primordial”80 | P a g e
  • 88. layer that Jung believed to be the ultimate ground of the human psyche (Jung, 1953:113). Thissuggested that there was a very deep psychosocial well from which individuals, of all sorts andcultures and religions of all times and all places, drew in order to produce the images, themes andstories that expressed their ways of seeing and being in the world.“This discovery,” said Jung, “means another step forward in our understanding: the recognition,that is, of two layers in the unconscious. We have to distinguish between a personal unconsciousand an impersonal or transpersonal unconscious. We speak of the latter also as the collectiveunconscious because it is detached from anything personal and is common to all men, since itscontents are found everywhere, which is naturally not the case with the personal contents”(Jung,C, 1953:66).His theory resulted in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and learning style indicators.Jung’s theory converged on four basic psychological purposes (Jung, 1953:113) : Extroversion versus Introversion; Sensation versus Intuition; Thinking versus Feeling; Judging versus Perceiving.The Teacher– Education: He felt that educational processes are themselves archetypal. Jung heldStudent that “the teacher” and “the student” are themselves archetypal figures.relationship isarchetypal. The interfaceamongsta teacher and student is very close. The archetypal significance of education is evidenced centrality in the archetypes of the Wise Old Man and Wise Old Woman. This archetype is at the very top of Jung’s list of prominent archetypes. (Jung, 1967: 390 - 391). Educators often speak in riddles to urge young students to intellectual and moral growth. The Wise Old Man is closely related to teaching, and Jung held that this archetype best “personifies meaning”(Jung, 1963:233). Jung argues that a teacher who understands the student- teacherarchetype, and is in touch with the archetype psyche, is also assuredof beingaprominent teacher(Jung, 1966:82).Education should Jung’s interpretation of education is inherently archetypal and consequently anot be reduced to sacred act. Jung objected to any approach to teaching and learning that wastechnical fundamentally technical in its pursuit.rationality. Jung set out that an educational system that occurs to service the needs of a consumer society and its military-industrial machinery is socially destabilising,81 | P a g e
  • 89. despite its grand social-efficiency prerogatives. These forms of education fail to address the whole child in the physical, emotional, political, cultural and ethical complexity it requires. Jung cautionedin contradiction ofthe preparation of rationalists, materialists, specialists, technicians. Corporate education “blots out” the individual, across the span of the person’s formal education: it “begins in school [and] continues at the university” (Jung, 1953:153). Jung held that the education system is immoral as it creates the “mass man” of technocratic society and deprives the individual of his/herindividuality. The system accomplishes this totalitarian goal by doing violence to the deeper personal needs of teachers, students and administrators.The result is that it affects the delicacy and sanctity of the archetypal relationship between teacher and student, wreaking psychological, social and moral chaos(Jung, 1967: 47-48).Education should Jung assumed the life of the mind and the danger of relying on reason and thenot be simple intellect. Rationality and the classical forms of education are,however, stated as“Intellectualism”. being important. The cognitive-rationalist curriculum is critical in a holistic pedagogical jigsaw. Jung understood that reason provides a lens to interpret the universe in the final analysis. The lens mayprovide a vehicle for us to understand, but we must be cautiousnot to describe the ultimate reality of the “thing-in-itself”(Jung, 1953:73). Mere intellectualism results in ontological error, spiritual pride and psychosocial imbalance. Extreme intellectualism is “in point of fact nothing more than the sum total of all [a person’s] prejudices and myopic views” (Jung, 1959:13).Teachers and The Jungian perspectiveconfirms an ongoingendeavour to discover in the curriculumstudents can “the greatest and best thoughts of man shape themselves upon … primordial imagesexplore as upon a blueprint” (Jung, 1953:69).archetypaldimensions of Waldorf Schools (Rudolf Steiner)undertake this objective from kindergarten to 12thsubject matter. grade. Throughout a Waldorf education the teacher organises much of the curriculum around archetypal images that are been drawn from an array of religious, cultural and artistic traditions and periods(Trostli, 1991).The symbolic Jungian theory argues that concepts areinflexible and empty things and thatdomain and education emphasises assisting the students to participate in richly symbolic terms.Intuitive function A symbol stimulates our ability to sense a reality that surpasses mere ratiocination.are educationallycrucial. Jungian curriculum stresses that dissimilarto the typical politically motivated cries for educational reform, through the imposition of standardised testing, which always cast art and literature to the edges. “The great secret of art…and the creative process” observed, consists in the unconscious activation of an archetypal image, and in elaborating and shaping this image into the finished work(Jung, 1953-1978: 65-83). “The debt we owe to the play of imagination is incalculable” (Jung, 1971:63).Failure can be Jungian psychology’s opinion of education emphasises nurturing the student as allconstructive. energy “can proceed only from the tension of opposites”(Jung, 1953:29). The student who is continuously shielded against the developmentally necessary reality82 | P a g e
  • 90. of occasional failure must ultimately capitulate to psychic entropy. Jung holds that where there is no possibility of failure, he believed that kata basis;(a Greek term for the descent to the underworld) is requisite for psycho spiritual success(Jung, 1966:140).Education has a Modern developmental psychology tried to apply the findings of psychologicallegitimate research and practice. The very idea of a “developmentally appropriate curriculum”therapeutic is already an attempt to shape pedagogy around children’s evolving psychic issuesfunction. and interests. The junior high schoolwas established to assist students making the psychologically difficult transition from early childhood to adolescence and, as such, is inherently a “therapeutic” institution(Tyack, 1974). Margaret Naumburg, the founder of the Walden School movement, asked her teachers to undergo psychoanalysis (just as Freud and Jung required of analysts in training) so that the teachers could recognise and appropriately respond to theirstudents’ psychosexual dilemmas(Cremin, 1964). The “teacher-as-therapist” is an image that some teachers think of when asked to reflect on the nature of their work with children(Mayes, 2001). Although teaching has a therapeutic aspect, the teacher should always remember that he/she is not a therapist (Jung, 1954:74). A teacher must have a personalised sense of what makes each student tick if he/she is to be most effective at his/her work.Jung claimed, “for the doctor this means the individualstudy of every case; for the teacher, the individualstudy of every student”(Jung, 1953:93).Reflectivity is key Jung placed great faith in, and responsibilities on, the teacher and argued forto teacher ongoing education of the teacher. Jung undervalued “training” prospective and pre-development. packaged “methods” of education.Jung importantly stated, “in reality, everything depends on the man and little or nothing on the method” (Jung, 1978:09). The teacher’s moral character and psychological insight contributes to his/her success. The therapist and the educator are similar in that “psychotherapy has taught us that in the final reckoning it is not knowledge, not technical skill, that has a curative effect, but the personality of the doctor. And it is the same with education: It presupposes self-education” (Jung, 1954:140). Jung’s “self-education” consisted in what today is called“teacher reflectivity” (Bullough; 1991; Mayes; 1999).Teachers examine and analysethemselves in psychological and politicalterms to see if they are being sensitive and fair.“The teacher should watch his own psychiccondition, so that he can spot the source of troublewhen anything goes wrong with the children entrustedto his care” (Jung, 1954:120).Education should Jung’s vision is that the socio-cultural aspects of education are a synthesis of culturalbe both culturally conservatism and radicalism. Jung promoteda traditional humanities curriculum inconservative and the higher grades of students. Jung believedstudents should “have a regard forprogressive. history in the widest sense of the word” (Jung, 1954:145). Jung was very clear that the so-called “civilised” cultures are not superior to the so- called “primitive” ones in this respect, and are in some respects inferior. Jung warned, “anything new should always be questioned and tested with caution, for it83 | P a g e
  • 91. may very easily turn out to be only a new disease” (Jung, 1954:140). A culture’s collective shadow is the other side of its conscious values (Odajnyk, 1976.). Jung saw the Westerner’s faith in foundational cultural narratives eroding. He warned, “the old myth needs to be clothed anew in every renewed age if it is not to lose its therapeutic effect”(Jung, 1959:181).Education can and Jung’s view of the interaction of spirituality and culture states thatevery culture hasshould have a “a highly developed system of secret teaching, a body of lore concerning the thingsspiritual that lie beyond man’s earthly existence and of wise rules of conduct” (Jung,dimension. 1966:96). The archetypally abundant ground of “body of lore” is that a society is civic and legal narratives grow over the centuries (Bruner; 1996). Berger highlighted how most cultures aregrounded in their (occasionally unspoken) spiritual commitments, especially regarding mortality and the promise of an afterlife. For “every human society is, in the last resort, men banded together in the face of death (Berger, 1967:52). That is why morality is found at all levels of society. It is the instinctive regulator of action(Jung, 1953:29)Tillich said that in the last analysis everyone has ethical and spiritual commitments because everyone has “ultimate concerns(Tillich, 1959). A Jungian approach allows us to imagine driven pedagogy, which benefits students to explore spiritual sensitivity without being theologically inflexible or denominationally opinionated. Table 2.3 Implications of education – Jung’s ten pillars of education2.4.11 Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 – 1519) “It had long since come to my attention that people of accomplishment rarely sat back and let things happen to them. They went out and happened to things.” Da VinciLeonardo Di Ser Piero Da Vinci was born in 1452 near Florence, Italy. Da Vinci completed hiseducation in Florence and was prominent as a painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer andcartographer, but the degree of awareness of his anatomical work among his contemporaries is amystery (Vezzosi, 1997). Da Vinci’s mastery in art, science and engineering earned him a placeamong the most prolific geniuses of history. He was one of the most important artists of the ItalianRenaissance.84 | P a g e
  • 92. “The most heavenly gifts seem to be showered on certain human beings. Sometimessupernaturally, marvellously, they all congregate in one individual. This was seen andacknowledged by all men in the case of Leonardo Da Vinci, who had an indescribable grace inevery effortless act and deed. His talent was so rare that he mastered any subject to which heturned his attention. He might have been a scientist if he had not been so versatile”(Vasari, 1568).Renaissance humanism did not consider the sciences and the arts as mutually exclusive polarities.Da Vinci’s studies in science and engineering were evidenced in 13,000 pages of notes anddrawings, art and natural philosophy(Arasse, 1998).Da Vinci observed science and attempted by describing and depicting in detail what he observedwithout theoretical explanation. Da Vinci lacked official education in Latin and mathematics andfor this reason contemporaneous scholars dismissed him as a scientist. Da Vinci taught himselfLatin and studied mathematics under Luca Pacioli and prepared a series of drawings of regularsolids in a skeletal form to be engraved as plates for Paciolis book De Divina Proportione,published in 1509 (Arasse, 1998).2.4.12 ConclusionA variety of scholars and thinkers has, over years, framed the context, and provided input andtheories, which have grounded this research. The research, therefore, was not conducted in avacuum but in the space prepared for it by those recorded in this literature review, and others.2.5 Principal approaches to learning models2.5.1 IntroductionThe inclusion of learning frames at this juncture depicted what has emerged in theaforementioned review of educational perspectives in modernism and postmodernism, as well asthe contributions of educational philosophers.85 | P a g e
  • 93. The researcher therefore continued to explored, as the level of saturation on this topic had not yetbeen exhausted, the relevance of those learning constructs, frameworks, and models that havebeen published within the domain of educational psychology.2.5.2 Behaviourism “Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten.” SkinnerBehaviourism can be traced back to Aristotle and is based on the change of reflexive behaviour ofa person with the help of external stimuli. The environment,either through association or throughreinforcement, determines all behaviour (Skinner, 1947).Behaviourist theories " make use of one or both of two principal classes of explanations forlearning: those based on contiguity (simultaneity of stimulus and response events) and thosebased on the effects of behaviour (reinforcement and punishment)" (Lefrancois, 1988:28).Behaviourism converges on the study of evident behaviours that can be observed and calculated.Major contributors to behaviourism include Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike and Skinner (Good andBrophy, 1990). A behavioural objective states learning objectives in "specified, quantifiable,terminal behaviours" (Saettler, 1990:288).Skinner defines informal learning as learning that takes place naturally, and formal education thatdepends on a teacher generating optimal archetypes of motivation and response that areclassified as reward and punishment or ‘operant conditioning’. Skinner defined radicalbehaviourism as a philosophy codifying the basis of his discipline of research “ExperimentalAnalysis of Behaviour”(Skinne and Skinner, 1968:10).“Behaviourism stands firmly in the tradition of associationism. The qualities, from which thisassociation arises, and by which the mind is after this manner conveyed from one idea to another,are three, viz. resemblance, contiguity in time or place, and cause and effect” (Hume, 1962:1739).86 | P a g e
  • 94. 2.5.3 CognitivismCognitivism is based on exploring the mind (mental processes) while observing the change of theoutside behaviour (Gagné, 2004). Cognitivism can be traced back to Plato and Aristotle andbecame apparent in the 1950’s in its modern application (Saettler, 1990:288). Piaget played amajor role in the development of cognitivism in the 1920s, though the impact was only evidentafter the 1960s."Cognitive theorists recognise that much learning involves associations established throughcontiguity and repetition. They also acknowledge the importance of reinforcement, although theystress its role in providing feedback about the correctness of responses over its role as amotivator. However, even while accepting such behaviouristic concepts, cognitive theorists viewlearning as involving the acquisition or reorganisation of the cognitive structures through whichhumans process and store information”(Good and Brophy, 1990).Cognitivism is the psychology of learning that emphasises human cognition enabling man to formhypotheses and develop intellectually. The underlying concepts of cognitivism involve the processof thinking and gaining knowledge (Feldman, 2010).2.5.4 ConnectivismGeorge Siemans originally published connectivism in December 2004 as a theoretical frameworkfor understanding learning that allows for the reflection of changing technologies. Behaviour isshaped throughout the use of technologies. Connectivism allows learning to occur whenknowledge is set in motion of a learner connecting to, and supplying information to, a learningcommunity (Gredler, 2005).87 | P a g e
  • 95. “Learning must be a way of being, an on-going set of attitudes and actions by individuals andgroups that they employ to try to keep abreast of the surprising, novel, messy, obtrusive, recurringevents” (Vaill, 1996:42).Half of what is known today was not known 10 years ago. The amount of knowledge in the worldhas doubled in the past 10 years and is doubling every 18 months according to the AmericanSociety of Training and Development (ASTD). To combat the shrinking half-life of knowledge,institutions have been forced to develop new methods of deploying instruction” (Gonzalez, 2004).The principles of connectivism are(Siemens, 2005): Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions; Learning is a process of connecting; Learning may reside in non-human appliances; Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known; Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed for continual learning; Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill; Accurate, up-to-date knowledge is the aim of all connectivist learning; Decision-making is a learning process. What we know today may change tomorrow; The right decision today may be the wrong decision tomorrow.Connectivism theory is considered aprogression, where the role of informal information exchange,prearranged into networks is supported with electronic tools. Learning is continuous and a lifelongsystem of network performance is entrenched (Bessenyei, 2008).2.5.5 Constructivism88 | P a g e
  • 96. Constructivist learning was first developed by Plato and further explored by Dewey, Montessori,Piaget, Bruner, Bartlett and Vygotsky, and had emerged as a protuberant methodology of teachingin the preceding decade (Fosnot, 1996). Constructivist learning considers the active constructionof knowledge by learners(Wadsworth, 1996). Constructivists accept as true that learners constructtheir own reality or at least interpret it based upon their perceptions of experiences; in such away, an individuals knowledge is a function of ones prior experiences, mental structures andbeliefs that areused to interpret objects and events(Phillips, 1997).Constructivism is seen as the main underlying learning theory in postmodern education. The basicidea is that all knowledge is invented or "constructed" in the minds of people. Knowledge is notdiscovered, as modernists would claim (Braund, 1996). The thoughts teachers teach and studentslearn do not match to "reality”, they are merely human assembly. People construct knowledge,ideas and language, not because they are "true”, but rather for the reason that they are valuable(Braund, 1996).Theassumptions of constructivism include(Merrill, 1991:45-55): Knowledge is constructed from experience; Learning is a personal interpretation of the world; Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience; Conceptual growth comes from the negotiation of meaning, the sharing of multiple perspectives and the changing of our internal representations through collaborative learning; Learning should be situated in realistic settings; testing should be integrated with the task and not a separate activity.The focus of the classroom, in postmodern education, becomes the students construction ofknowledge; they shift away from a teacher-centred classroom to a more student-centredenvironment (Braud and Driver, 2002).89 | P a g e
  • 97. Multiple perspectives and representations of concepts and content are presented and encouraged. Goals and objectives are derived by the student or in negotiation with the teacher or system. Teachers serve in the role of guides, monitors, coaches, tutors and facilitators. Activities, opportunities, tools and environments are provided to encourage meta-cognition, self-analysis –regulation, -reflection and -awareness. The student plays a central role in mediating and controlling learning. Learning situations, environments, skills, content and tasks are relevant, realistic and authentic and represent the natural complexities of the real world. Primary sources of data are used in order to ensure authenticity and real-world complexity. Knowledge construction and not reproduction is emphasised. This construction takes place in individual contexts and through social negotiation, collaboration and experience. The learners previous knowledge constructions, beliefs and attitudes are considered in the knowledge construction process. Problem solving, higher-order thinking skills and deep understanding are emphasised. Errors provide the opportunity for insight into students previous knowledge constructions. Exploration is a favoured approach in order to encourage students to seek knowledge independently and to manage the pursuit of their goals. Learners are provided with the opportunity for apprenticeship learning in which there is an increasing complexity of tasks, skills and knowledge acquisition. Knowledge complexity is reflected in an emphasis on conceptual interrelatedness and interdisciplinary learning. Collaborative and cooperative learning are favoured in order to expose the learner to alternative viewpoints. Scaffolding is facilitated to help students perform just beyond the limits of their ability. Assessment is authentic and interwoven with teaching Table 2.4: Characteristics of constructivism (Murphy, 1997)2.5.6 ConclusionPrincipal learning models includeconstructivism, connectivism, behaviourism, and cognitivism. Theinclusion of learning frames allowed for the review of educational perspectives in modernism andpostmodernism as well as the contributions of educational philosophers.Constructivism is seen as the main underlying learning theory in postmodern education.Constructivists accept as true that learners construct their own reality in relation to theirperceptions of experiences. Knowledge, ideas and language are constructed for the reason they90 | P a g e
  • 98. are valuable to the individual.Connectivism provides a theoretical framework for understandinglearning that allows for the reflection of changing technologies in a modern learning community.Behaviourism, in contrast, is based on the change of reflexive behaviour of a person with the helpof external stimuli. The environment,either through association or through reinforcement,determines all behaviour (simultaneity of stimulus) and response events,whilst by contrastCognitive theorists hold that learning occurs through contiguity, reinforcement and repetition.Cognitivism underscores human cognition, qualifying individuals to construct theories and advanceintellectually. Available literature on learning models necessitates an investigation into teachingand learning styles as the cognitive model leads further along the journey that emerges into self-directedness.2.6 Teachi ng stylesversuslearning styles2.6.1 Teaching stylesThe following section deals with available literature on teaching styles versus learning styles.Teaching behaviours suggest the beliefs and values that teachers embrace concerning thelearners role in the exchange process (Heimlich and Norland, 2002). Corresponding teaching andlearning styles are not actually determinant of the paramount understanding for adult basic skilllearners, as learning style may differ according to age and situational factors or subject beingstudied (Spoon and Schell, 1998)."Research supports the concept that most teachers teach the way they learn"(Stitt-Gohdes, 2001).This may be why most training is provided through instructor-led classrooms in the corporateenvironment(Caudron, 2000).Corresponding the teaching and learning styles is more beneficial to occupational students whoare field independent (Allinson, 1997). Occupational classes contain students with dissimilarlearning style preferences; teachers need to adopt an integrated flexible approach to their91 | P a g e
  • 99. instructional practice (Nuckles, 2000). "it is more effective to design curriculum so that there issome way for learners of every learning style to engage with the topic, so that every type oflearner has an initial way to connect with the material, and then begin to stretch his or herlearning capability in other learning modes"(Delahoussaye, 2002: 28-36)."Most teachers have only one or two perspectives as their dominant view of teaching… [However]similar actions, intentions, and even beliefs can be found in more than one perspective" (Pratt,2002).Pratt’s five perspectives on teaching are(Pratt, 2002): Transmission: Teacherscenter on content and determine what students must learn and how they ought to learn it. Feedback is intended for students mistakes; Developmental: Teachers are aware of the significance of students prior knowledge and direct student learning to the advancement of progressively more complex ways of reasoning and problem solving; Apprenticeship: Teachers offer students authentic responsibilities in real work settings; Nurturing: Teacherscenter on the interpersonal fundamentals of student learning: listening, getting to know students and reacting to students emotional and intellectual requirements; Social reform: Teachers are inclined to communicate thoughts unambiguously to their students.2.6.2 Learning stylesPedagogy is defined as “a relatively permanent change in behaviourthat results from practice:learning involves practice" (Felder, Silverman, Honey and Mumford, Gregorc and Butler, Hunt,Jung and Myers-Briggs, 2000). Individuals require a bespoke approach to achieve their learningpotential. Sociological (Marxist) rather than primarily educational prospects mean that all USeducation has a covert curriculum intended by a capitalist economy (Bowles, 1976). Adult learning92 | P a g e
  • 100. is biased by intrinsic theories of knowledge obtained at school. Teachers reproduce theirentrenched forms in the ways they teach(Mileva, Simpson, Thompson, 2008).The discourse of experiential learning styles involved the process of how the mind works whenprocessing information. Learning styles research included three schools of thought: perceptual,personality and information processing. Additional academics that have developed learning styleswhich are inventories-related include Felder, Silverman, Honey and Mumford, Gregorc and Butler,Hunt and Jung (Huitt, 2000).In the 1950’s, a research study concerning MIT students confirmed that students develop copingmechanisms for congested curricula to guarantee they manage in the learning environment.Students would selectively learn the sections of work they expected would be included inassessment(Snyder, 1971). This phenomenon has developed into “surface learning” that is viewedas an institutional learning challenge (Mileva, Simpson, Thompson, 2008).Learning styles may differ over a person’s lifetime. "Exposing learners to learning activities that aremismatched with their preferred learning style will help them develop the learning competenciesnecessary to cope with situations involving a range of different learning requirements"(Allinson,1997).Governments are currently expected to strive to incorporate a vision of lifelong learning into theiroverall national policy frameworks and to embed lifelong learning into their national educationsystems by adhering to the following (Yang and Liang, 2011):• Lifelong learning policies need to be supported by broad social consensus, legislative instruments, and coordination mechanisms to facilitate collaboration between various stakeholders; Making lifelong learning a reality for all calls for increased financial investment in education and learning; Given the principle that learning should continue throughout individuals’ lives, it is essential to establish a financial incentive mechanism to mobilise greater and broader participation;93 | P a g e
  • 101. Innovative financing strategies have to be tried out; The need for learning pervades every political, social, environmental, cultural and economic issue; Diverse formal, non-formal and informal learning opportunities must be developed and made equally accessible to all, with an emphasis on serving the needs of marginalised groups; Formal learning opportunities provided by primary, secondary and higher education form the ‘basic education’ of modern society. It is imperative to reform the curricula of schools and higher education institutions to reflect today’s vision of lifelong learning, and to build new teaching/learning relations, to enable students to become lifelong learners; Facilitating synergy between diversified various learning systems calls for a learning outcomes-based qualification framework or system and a coordinated approach to recognition, validation and accreditation as well as the transfer of learning outcomes from non-formal and informal settings; The development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has made available a pool of e-learning resources, alternative delivery mechanisms and massive open learning opportunities. Further efforts need to be made in the effective use of ICT and open learning approaches so that qualitylearning opportunity is accessible to all at reasonable cost; A learning society is a society of learners where a new learning system emerges, revolves and grows to lead economic, social and political development as a whole. Evidence from some countries shows that building a learning city (region, community) can be an effective approach to embodying the philosophy of lifelong learning and making learning part of citizens’ everyday lives; Effective policies for lifelong learning need to be informed and inspired by evidence generated by research. Monitoring and evaluation, appropriate indicators and benchmarks on the effectiveness of policies, and accountability of programmes, are essential for evidence-based policy-making for promoting lifelong learning.Educators wanting to be student centred must be aware of the different learning experiences thatstudents value at specific stages of development, age and gender (Spoon and Schell, 1998).94 | P a g e
  • 102. 2.6.3 Kolb’s learning styles inventory"Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience.” KolbKolb’s learning styles summarises individual differences in learning styles that are grounded onpreference for different stages of the learning cycle. Learning is a method where knowledge isshaped through the transformation of experience (Huitt, 2000). The Kolb model involves twofunctions, perceiving and processing, and knowledge is created when these processesconglomerate (Kolb and Kolb, 2005). Kolb’s model is helpful in the adult learning process, andlearning style, as reflection is an important part of the learning process. Kolb’s work was inspiredby the work of Lewin. Individuals learn from a specific experience they transform.Kolb identified that individuals’ combined approaches could be categorised as one of thefollowing: Converging, Diverging, Assimilating, or Accommodating (Kolb, 1984).Kolb’s model outlines four stages in learning which trail from each other: Concrete experience is followed by; Reflection on that experience on a personal basis; This is followed by abstract conceptualisation and; Active experimentation leading in turn to the next concrete experience.Kolb’s learning styles model stemmed in the experiential learning theory that outlines thateducational philosophy accentuates the process of learning rather than outcomes. Kolb’s theoryholds that ideas are formed and re-formed through experience (Kolb, 1984).95 | P a g e
  • 103. Figure 2.3: Kolb’s learning styles The learning cycle involves four processes that must be present for learning to occur:(Kolb, 1984) occur i. Diverging (concrete, reflective) - Emphasises the innovative and imaginative approach to es doing things. Views concrete situations from many perspectives and adapts by observation rather than by action. Interested in people and tends to be feeling-oriented. Likes such ction. feeling activities as cooperative groups and brainstorming;ii. Assimilating (abstract, reflective) - Pulls a number of different observations and thoughts into an integrated whole. Likes to reason inductively and create models and theories. Likes reason to design projects and experiments;iii. Converging (abstract, active) - Emphasises the practical application of ideas and solving es problems. Likes decision-making, problem solving and the practicable application of ideas. decision making, applicat Prefers technical problems to interpersonal issues; 96 | P a g e
  • 104. iv. Accommodating (concrete, active) - Uses trial and error rather than thought and reflection. Good at adapting to changing circumstances; solves problems in an intuitive, trial-and-error manner, such as discovery learning. Also tends to be at ease with people. 2.6.4 Honey and Mumfords learning styles Honey and Mumfords Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ) was developed based on Kolb’s theory, and expanded on as Honey and Mumford found Kolbs Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) had low face validity with managers. Kolbs LSI inquires directly from people how they learn. Honey and Mumford present a questionnaire that investigates general behavioural predisposition and they assume that individuals favour dissimilar techniques of learning in particular situations as they progress between four available modes of learning(Honey and Mumford, 2000): Honey and Mumfords learning cycle(Coffield, Moseley, Hall, and Ecclestone, 2004) : Having an experience; Reflecting on it; Drawing own conclusions (theorising); Putting theory into practice to see what happens. Honey and Mumfords model varies from Kolb’s model as the terms “reflector” for divergers (reflective observation), “theorist” for assimilators (abstract conceptualisation), “pragmatist” for convergers (concrete experience), and “activist” for accommodators (active experimentation) and minor dissimilar meanings have been ascribed(Coffield, Moseley, Hall, and Ecclestone, 2004): i. Reflector - Prefers to learn from activities that allow him/her to watch think, and review (time to think things over) what has happened and likes to use journals and brainstorming. Lectures are helpful if they provide expert explanations and analysis. 97 | P a g e
  • 105. ii. Theorist - Prefers to think problems through in a systematic manner. Likes lectures, analogies, systems, case studies, models and readings. Talking with experts is normally not helpful.iii. Pragmatist - Prefers to apply new learning’s to actual practice to see if they work. Likes refers laboratories, fieldwork and observations. Likes feedback, coaching and obvious links between the task-on-hand and a problem. hand problemiv. Activist - Prefers the challenges of new experiences, involvement with others, assimilation and role-playing. Likes anything new, problem solving and small group discussions. playing. Figure 2.4: Honey and Mumford’s learning cycle and learning styles Mumford’s s98 | P a g e
  • 106. 2.6.5 ConclusionGlobal knowledge economies are driving the higher education agenda as cumulative prominenceis placed on admission, diversity, maintenance and throughput rates and lifelong learning hasfocused the importance of learning styles. The increased recognition of gender and culturaldiversity within society made the above theories relevant to the discourse within this thesis as thetheories of learning and teaching styles explored alternative means of coding individual’s learningexperiences.Educators need to examine their personal conviction in an "on-going process of diagnosis, with selfand with learners, including observation, questioning, obtaining evaluative feedback and criticalreflection" (Nuckles, 2000).Educators must reflect on their own learning styles for the implementation of effective teachingand learning strategies. Learning may be negatively affected when there is an obviousincompatibility between the style of the learner and the approach of the educator(Fielding, 1994).2.7 Conclusion of chapter twoHistorically the High Priest of religious groupings was the custodian of knowledge and decidedwhat is to be disseminated to the general populace. Having considered the theories andframeworks discussed in this chapter, one of the resulting experiences was the creation and co-creation of knowledge.Society has demonstrated its inability to accept “futuristic thinkers”. These are individuals thatstrongly believed that they would not conform to the rules of society. Examples include, but arenot limited to, Da Vinci, Osho, Piaget and Feuerstein. The experiences of these and other thinkersindicated that society is often not ready to accept what is available to it at a given point in time.Theories and writings may only be accepted hundreds of years later when the collectiveconsciousness of society has evolved to accept the unaccepted.99 | P a g e
  • 107. Da Vinci believed in the possibility of flight and the investigation of corpses to advance the studyof anatomy in his journey to create knowledge. In the same vein, educational philosophy hasdemonstrated that society is often not ready to transcend from its historic belief system toevolutionary advancement.It is inconceivable that a student in a knowledge economy is unable to operate a personalcomputer after twelve years of formative learning. Concurrently, education is undergoingrevolutionary reforms whilst mobile and e-learning is making education more accessible to thosethat are able to afford access.Piaget’s constructivist approach to learning is outlined in a study of how a child constructs its ownunderstanding, building on previous understanding. Assimilation and accommodation describehow learning takes place (Piaget, 1977).Piaget encompassed the idea that learning is constructed on factual intake and is amplified by thelearner’s personal translation and perception of formal learning (Piaget, 1953).For South Africa to compete as a knowledge economy and capitalise on global opportunities it willbe forced to revisit current policy and legislation to address its current ranking that has slippedgradually on the knowledge-based economy index from 49th in 1995 to 65th in 2009. This is areflection of the lowuniversity throughput, slow internet penetration and decreasing funding forresearch and development (World Bank, 2002).A "learning economy" requires the creation of wealth in proportion to the capacity to learn andshare innovation. Formal education requires becoming less about passing on information andfocusing more on teaching people how to learn (Foray, 1996). Technology and knowledge are nowthe key factors of production, as knowledge is the rudimentary formula of capital. Economicgrowth is bound by the gathering of knowledge, and technological innovation, as they appear tobe random, and considering new technological developments as opposed to having limitedinfluence(Romer, 1986).100 | P a g e
  • 108. Creating a knowledge society should become a vision of robust learning communities to conductthe business of education and training in accordance with their communal identities (Torres,2010). In line with the above one has already identified major thrusts in the changing patterns ofeducation and learning as confirmed by Yang and others(Yang and Liang, 2011): Learner-centered learning rather than teacher-centered learning; Encouraging variety, not homogeneity: embracing multiple intelligences and diverse learning styles; Understanding a world of inter-dependency and change, rather thanmemorising facts and striving for right answers; Constantly exploring the theories-in-use of all involved in the educationprocesses; Reintegrating education within webs of social relationships that link peers, friends, families, organisations and communities; Overcoming the knowledge fragmentation that is typical of a first enlightenment mode of understanding in favour of more holistic andintegral ways of knowing; and Favouring an increasing role for non-formal and informal learning.In this changing educational landscape, education institutions will undergo major pressures toreplace the traditional emphasis on all-taught learning with a blend of flexible learning: sometaught learning, a great deal of self-learning, as well as increased assisted and group learning.Learning interacts with the world through active knowledge (as opposed to inert knowledge), thatis, the wholesale knowledge that adds value to problem-solving and interpretative abilities (Yangand Liang, 2011).Continuous learning therefore poses a daunting test to conventional knowledge-driven societies.Rarely are individuals able to self-organise and self-manage long-term knowledge pathways. Theunderpinning meta-cognitive competencies and skills from the very early stages of formaleducation must be instilled in all individuals to become productive citizens that support learningcultures (Yang, Watkins,and Marsick, 1998). Little social and educational credit is given to learningin informal settings. Experiences of APL (Accreditation ofPrior Learning) and RPL (Recognition of101 | P a g e
  • 109. Prior Learning) remain scant and viewed with suspicion by gatekeepers of the formal systems ofeducation and knowledge certification.The researcher holds that youth unemployment is a challenge that requires an immediate andstructured intervention. Addressing unemployment in general will lower poverty levels and add toGDP. South Africa must concentrate on stratagems to generate employment and guarantee thatthe required skills base is available to grow the economy. Proposed legislation changes pose anumber of challenges that must be resolved to ensure that job creation is a reality and is notovercome by additional job losses. A research paper commissioned by the Department of Labour(Benjamin and SBP, 2010) is of significant importance in forging the road ahead.With the conclusion of chapter two, the researcher had sustained the journey of discovery andstood at the threshold of progression to create a platform for accreditation and externalmoderation. The researcher was empowered to continue on the journey of reframing andcontextualisationincluding an investigation into the available frameworks found in the SouthAfrican, Canadian, German, Singaporean, USA and UK education landscapes, policies andlegislative frameworks, as addressed in Chapter 3.102 | P a g e
  • 110. 3. Chapter 3 –The Global Educational Context"Education is the great engine of personal development. It is through education that the daughter of a peasant can become a doctor, that the son of a mineworker can become the head of themine, that a child of farmworkers can become the president of a great nation. It is what we make out of what we have, not what we are given, that separates one person from another.” Nelson Mandela3.1 IntroductionChapter 3 outlines the South African economic reality in relation to youth unemployment and thecredibility and quality standards in education. The chapter further delineates the South Africanlandscape as related to legislative context and occupational education structures;it alsoinvestigates global accreditation structures and draws on global accreditation and externalmoderation models within education and training.A broad overview has been provided for the South African education framework, and informationis supplied in relation to international frameworks applicable to the policy and legislativeframeworks as applied in the Canadian, German, Singaporean, USA and UK education landscapes.The researcher is of the opinion that the South African government has failed to create asustainable environment for employment creation. Restrictive labour laws, unskilled anduntrained job market entrants and limited incentives to business, amongst other reasons, arerestricting employment and in particular youth employment. Global recessionary pressures havecompounded the inhibitors for job creation.For South Africa to address the need for significant job creation and market investment, we willhave to reflect inwardly to increase our global competitiveness. South Africa was ranked 36th inthe global competitiveness survey during 2006/07and slewed to 45th in 2010.103 | P a g e
  • 111. Truncated labour market efficiency, poor labour-employer relations, low educationalperformance, high crime levels and high unemployment havegenerally weakened South Africa’sinternal competitiveness indices (Manuel, 2011:16).In the pursuit to effect social and economic transformation of South Africa in the post-apartheidera, the youth of South Africa is a critical resource that needs to be equipped and developed toplay a considerable role in the reconstruction and development of the country.Excellent educationand a flexible labour market policy hold the key to sustainable employment creation(Meyer,2009).The official unemployment rate in South Africa was quantified at 25, 3 % for the second quarter of2010 and confirmed as 47 % for youth (Statistics South Africa, 2010). It must be considered thatonly individuals who are actively seeking employment are included in the percentage.The current South African national budget allocates approximately 20% to education (2011/2012).The Minister of Higher Education and Training recently released the “Green Paper for Post-SchoolEducation and Training”(Department of Higher Education and Training, 2012). The Green paperoffers a proposed integrated strategy for post-school level education. Many would say that this istoo little too late. It is unclear how these targeted numbers of student placements will beachieved, given the current infrastructure and capacity constraints in public institutions.“By 2030, South Africa ought to have a post-school system that provides a range of accessiblealternatives for young people. By 2030, we aim to raise university enrolments to 1,500,000 (aprojected participation rate of 23%) as opposed to the 2011 enrolments of 899 120 (a 16%participation rate). In addition we aim for 4 000 000 enrolments (approximately a 60%participation rate) in colleges or other post-school institutions such as the proposed communityeducation and training centres discussed below. The DHET must build, resource and support thisexpanded system” (Department of Higher Education and Training, 2012).104 | P a g e
  • 112. 3.2 South African youth unemploymentSouth African youth unemployment has a significant impact on our human resource developmentplanning. Available skills are incompatible to existing vacancies that exist in the semi-skilled andskilled sectors of the economy. The currentemployment ratio is currently 40.8 %; this means thatjust twooutoffive working aged South Africans (aged between 15 and 64) are employed. Theemployment ratio is therefore low by international standards (71 % for China, 55 % for India andan average of 56 % across emerging markets)(International Labour Organisation, 2010). In2010/2011, of the 139 countries surveyed, South Africa ranked at 135 for hiring and firingpractices, at 131 for flexibility of wage determination and at 112 for pay and productivity(Jeffery,2011).Unemployed young people tend to be less skilled and inexperienced – almost 86 % do not haveformal further or tertiary education, while two-thirds have never worked(National Treasury,2011). For the South African economy to demonstrate progress in relation to socio-economictransformation, the required skills must be available for market uptake and sustainableemployment creation. Educational institutions are simply not reacting in a proactive andtransformative way to provide high quality, accessible and affordable programmes thatunderwrite the national challenge decisively (Rasool, 2006).Because of the uncertainty of the skills sets acquired by school leavers, employers consider entry-level wages too highrelative to the risk of hiring these inexperienced workers. Education datasuggests that continuation rates from Grade 11 to completing secondary school are low and thatthe quality of schooling in South Africa is poor. The International Education Authority’s “Progressin international reading and literacy study”(International Association for the Evaluation ofEducational Progress, 2006)and the“Trends in international mathematics and sciencestudy”confirmed South Africa as among the worst global performers(TIMSS, 2003).The researcher is of the opinion that employers require skills and experience of all employees.Employers regard unskilled, inexperienced jobseekers as an uncertain investment. Education is not105 | P a g e
  • 113. an alternative for skills. Learners completing their schooling are destined for unemployment,as“passing” grade 12 is not a trustworthy signal of basic competencies that are required to enterthe world of work.Low levels of quality output produced by schools are destined to compromise an already fragilelabour market. A complete overhaul of the South African education system must be initiated, witheducator retraining as the starting point.Simply expanding the already ineffective and distended public service is a recipe for disaster.Public institution salaries take up an unacceptably high ratio of the national budget, which shouldbe available to provide services and infrastructure requirements to the South African population.The dependence on the social grant system should be re-evaluated to ensure that the system doesnot further perpetuate the poverty cycle, as children have children to access grants.According to a2011 survey released by the South African Institute for Race Relations, one in eight South Africansare employed in the public sector and earn on average 44% more than employees in the privatesector (South African Institute for Race Relations, 2011).The government must focus on creating investor confidence andfuelling market growth forsustainable job creation and excellence in education.3.3 South African l abour and educati on l egislative contextProposed legislative amendments in the education and labour fields will have a negative impact onjob creation. Proposed amendments to labour legislation would place literally millions of jobs injeopardy, would in all likelihood be unconstitutional, would have "serious detailing effects in thelabour market" and would result in "significant" other unintended consequences(Benjamin andSBP, 2010).The proposed labour legislative amendments include changes to the Labour Relations Act, BasicConditions of Employment Act, Employment Equity Act and a new Employment Services Bill106 | P a g e
  • 114. (Anderson, 2011).The Employment Services Bill imposes administrative burdens on employerswho will have to notify every vacancy (whether permanent or temporary) to the LabourDepartment, along with the details of every appointment made. This will be particularlyburdensome for those who frequently use temporary staff for short periods (Jeffery, 2011).The proposed eliminationof labour brokers, expanding the ability of trade unions to unioniseworkforces,criminalising the breaking of certain labour laws and enabling government to levy finesof up to 10% of turnover on employers who contravene the law are all negative. The amendmentsincrease governments surveillance of employers, ability to censure them and restrict employersflexibility (Duncan, 2001). The researcher is of the opinion that the education ROI by the SouthAfrican government has failed to create skilled individuals for market uptake. South Africanunemployment statistics, and in particular youth unemployment, are at unprecedented levels.The Department of Higher Education and Training’s(Department of Higher Education and Training,2012)proposed amendments to the South African post-school education frameworkappears, onthe face of it, to propose positive changes in the occupational and higher education arena. Privateprovision has been acknowledged in the context of providing a complementary role to publicinstitutions. Considerable unhappiness from private providers is however evident in the context ofdiminished opportunities to access public fundingfrom SETA grants. Many occupationally directedproviders have invested significant resources in setting up advanced systems for delivery.3.4 The South African qualifications sub-frameworksThe National Qualifications Framework is an overarching framework that has 10 levels and threesub-frameworks (National Qualifications Framework Act, Act 67 of 2008). The current educationstatutory sub-framework includes three distinct quality councils, namely: the Quality Council forTrades and Occupations (QCTO), Council on Higher Education (CHE) and Umalusi. The HumanResources Development Strategy for South Africa, the council of which is chaired by the DeputyPresident, is administered by the DHET (Department of Higher Education and Training , 2011).107 | P a g e
  • 115. “Access to decent education and training is essential for the completion of the liberation struggle,whose foundation must be economic liberation. Education is the apex government priority andnow accounts for 19.4% of the total national budget for 2011/12. Vote 17 has received R37.4billion of which R9.1 billion is a direct charge against the national revenue fund and goes to ourSector Education and Training Authorities and the National Skills Fund. Universities receive R19.4billion for the 2011/12 financial year and R4.3 billion is allocated for Further Education andTraining (FET) colleges. R4.1 billion is for our public entities, of which R4 billion is allocated to theNational Student Financial Aid Scheme (NSFAS)”(Nzimande, 2011).3.4.1 Primary and secondary educationAcademic quality assurance in each sub-framework is assigned to three different quality councils.Qualifications from NQF levels 1 to 4 are the responsibility of the council for quality assurance ingeneral and further education (Umalusi).Thoughtful concerns have been raised by South Africansvis-à-vis the poor standards of primary and secondary education in South Africa(National PlanningCommission, 2011). Learners are being “passed” en masse, as the formative education system issubjected to considerable pressure to perform in the development of social justice andtransformation.The argument has been levelled that an education system that fails to prepare studentsadequately for further and higher education will undoubtedly only contribute to human capitaldepletion and unrealistic employment expectations. Learners accomplishing without substance ofachievement will surely contribute to a culture of entitlement(Morrow, 1994:13(1): 33–47,1994).South Africa requires a new social compact to advance public education. The nationalinterest in a vividly enhanced schooling system for the poor majority must outplay sectionalsecurities (Berstein, 2011).“If I had to make the choice with my own children today, I would seriously consider not sendingmy child to school in South Africa, for one simple reason: I do not trust a system that makes itpossible for a child to pass Grade 12 with 30% in some subjects and 40% in other subjects. I wouldbe filled with fear when I discover that you can get 32% in mathematics and 27% in physical108 | P a g e
  • 116. science and still get an official document that says you can continue to study towards a Bachelor’sdegree at University”(Jansen, 2012).The South African learner-to-educator ratio is the set at 32:1 (Organisation For Economic Co-Operation And Development , 2009). Disparities exist between provinces and districts, particularlyin poor schools.The best performing provinces, Western Cape and Gauteng, do not have the lowest educator pupilratio(Manuel, 2011:44). Less than 50% of grade 3 learners are at the level they should be(Manuel,2011:50).3.4.2 Further Education and Training (FET)The South African occupationally directed education and training environment operates primarilybetween NQF levels 1 and 4. Occupationally directed qualifications have been developed at higherlevels on the NQF framework, with significantly less success in enrolment numbers.The QCTO has been awarded jurisdiction from NQF levels 1 to 10 and will quality assure thesequalifications once the QCTO is operational. The current quality assurance of all occupationallydirected qualifications falls within the jurisdiction of assigned ETQAs. Occupationally directedproviders offering full qualifications from NQF levels 2 to 4 are required to register with Umalusiand DHET as an FET provider(Ministers of Education and Labour Joint Policy Statement, 2008).TheFET sector with its 50 colleges and 263 campuses nationally is the principal location forskillsdevelopment training. The FET college system carries about 220 000 students in the publiccolleges, with fewer than 100 000 in private colleges (Statistics South Africa, 2010).Approximately 70% of all South Africans are under the age of 35. The DHET developed a strategyto increase the ratio of young people that are in education, employment or training by 2014/15.“The college sector is small and weak. In 2010, total headcount enrolment was 326 970 students,enrolled in the National Certificate (Vocational) (NCV), the Report 191 programmes (or N courses)and non-DHET (i.e. SETA-accredited) programmes. For the 2011 academic year, the projected109 | P a g e
  • 117. headcount enrolment was 359 000 students. This figure is just a little over one-third of the totaluniversity student enrolment. FET colleges are varied and diverse but, with some notableexceptions, they are mainly weak institutions”(Department of Higher Education and Training,2012).“With their present capacity, colleges can neither absorb significantly larger numbers of studentsnor achieve acceptable levels of throughput. General vocational programmes have not had time tomature and to be tested in the labour market. Training of artisans has declined, and is only nowbeginning to grow again. Colleges are playing their traditional role in offering the theoreticalcomponent of apprenticeship programmes, but the curricula of these programmes have not yetbeen sufficiently updated and improved, although the Department has now started a process todo this” (Department of Higher Education and Training, 2012).FET colleges operate under a single governing council appointed by the DHET minister to overseeaccountable management. FET colleges provide learning and training from National QualificationsFramework (NQF) levels 2 to 4 or the equivalent of grades 10 to 12 in the school system, and anFET Certificate (FETC) in General Occupational, and in Trade Occupational, on NQF levels 2 to 4 inFET colleges. The FETC replaced the existing Senior Certificate in 2008(South African QualificationsAuthority, 2009).The Minister of Higher Education and Training has outlined that the department’s aim is thetransformation and improvement of the capacity of FET colleges to offer a range of programmesfor the assembly of mid-level skills for the economy, reaching one million students by2014(Nzimande, 2011). In the Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) 2011, R14,29 billionwas allocated as subsidies to the FET colleges and R1.42 billion has been allocated to expand FETcollege student enrolment, particularly to escalate artisan uptake (Nzimande, 2011).DHET crucial initiatives to tackle skills include (Nzimande, 2011):i. A review to improve the country’s Further Education and Training (FET) colleges;ii. A career guidance programme for students;110 | P a g e
  • 118. iii. A standards body to improve the quality of artisans;iv. Improved funding for disadvantaged students;v. A new strategy for teacher training and development.The FET sector in the opinion of the researcher will require significant support and resourcing toassist in the skills-set acquisition by learners. FET graduates have not been received with any greatvigour in the South African marketplace.It has also been the experience of the researcher that public FET colleges are at a distinctdisadvantage in relation to delivery methodology understanding, to offer occupational directedqualifications in the service sector as opposed to private FET providers,which are geared toaddress specific corporate client needs for targeted skills employment.111 | P a g e
  • 119. 3.4.3 Higher Education and Training (HET)Qualifications from NQF levels 5 to 10 are assigned to the Council on Higher Education (CHE) andoccupational qualifications ranging from levels 1 to 10 are assigned to the Quality Council on Tradeand Occupations (QCTO), which is in its process of being operationalised(Mkhize, 2011).The South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA), the Council on Higher Education, the NationalSkills Authority and the Quality Council for Trades and Occupations, share the remainder. “NSFASwill disburse R5.4 billion in loans and bursaries this financial year, double the R 2.7 billiondisbursed last year”(Nzimande, 2011).The South African higher education system includes twenty-three public higher educationinstitutions; eleven universities, six comprehensive universities and six universities oftechnology(South African Higher Education, 2009).As of 18 February 2011, there were also 87registered and 27 provisionally registered private higher education institutions. In 2009 the publichigher education institutions employed 43 446 academic staff and 117 797 staff in total. As of 15October 2010, there were also 84 registered and 25 provisionally registered private highereducation institutions (Department of Education and Training, 2012).3.4.4 National Skills Development Strategy III(NSDS III)South Africa requires an integrated human capital development strategy to ensure social andeconomic transformation. The current NSDS,third version, was provided to the 21 SETAs on 01April 2011. The NSDS falls under the jurisdiction of the Department of Higher Education andTraining (DHET), which assumed responsibility for skills development from the Department ofLabour in 2009.South Africa is at an educational impasse. Unemployed youth are being imperilled in substandardeducational structures, with limited tangible prospects of finding employment. Employmentcreation is made remarkably unattractive with current labour market policy and limited incentives112 | P a g e
  • 120. for employers to create jobs or fill positions that could be outsourced (often globally) ormechanised.The reduction of mandatory grant rates to 40 % and the creation of a 10 % pivotal (professional,occupational,technical, and academic) placement allowanceExpending skills development levy income resources, including the National Skills Fund, to underwritecapacity building and opportunity-promotion at public education and training provider institutionsPublic service and its participation in mainstream skills development including possible levy paymentsReview of SETA and public FET’s management and performanceImproved SETA governance focus on strategy and sector skills development prioritiesQuality Council for Trades and Occupations to take over ETQA functions from SETAs in futureSkills development to support government’s goals for rural developmentEnhanced placement of both students and graduates, especially from the FET colleges and universities oftechnologyPromotion of strategic partnerships and innovation in project delivery to drive key skills strategies as wellas to meet the training needs of the unemployed, non-levy-paying co-operatives, NGOs and communitystructures and vulnerable groups Table 3.1 NSDS III – VicissitudesPriorities that advance the Human Resource Development StrategyPriorities identified by the Minister after consultation with the National Skills Authority (NSA)Projects that align with the National Skills Development Strategy in support of the new economic growthpath, the Industrial Policy Action Plan and rural developmentincreased relevance of skills development interventions and building strong partnerships betweenstakeholders and social partnersEstablishing a credible institutional mechanism for skills planningIncreasing access to occupationally-directed programmesPIVOTAL grantsAddressing low levels of language and numeracy skills to provide access to additional trainingEncouraging better use of workplace-based skills developmentSupport for small enterprises, non-profit organisations, co-operatives and worker-led training initiativesIncreasing public sector capacity for improved service delivery and supporting the building of adevelopmental stateBuilding career and occupational guidanceEncouraging and supporting worker-led, NGO- and community training initiatives Table 3.2 NSDS III – PrioritiesSector strategies aligned to government- and industry-development initiatives, programmes and projectsRelevant sector-based programmes that address the needs of unemployed people and first-time entrantsto the labour marketPIVOTAL programmes that provide full occupationally directed qualifications. These courses are intendedfor colleges or universities and include supervised practical learning in a workplace as a prerequisite forgraduation.113 | P a g e
  • 121. Programmes that contribute towards the revitalisation of occupational education and training, includingthe competence of lecturers and trainers and their ability to provide work-relevant education and trainingPartnerships between public and private training providers, between providers and SETAs and betweenSETAs, in order to address inter- and trans-sectoral needsIncreased focus on skills for rural development Table 3.3 NSDS III – Determinants supported by NSDS III3.5 Accreditationmodels “Education is simply the soul of a society as it passes from one generation to another.” ChestersonThis section provided insight into provider accreditation and external moderation processes inSouth Africa and offered a global comparative review of available accreditation andexternalmoderation frameworks. South Africa has adopted a fusion of accreditation and externalmoderation processes.Insight into occupationally directed provider and external moderation processes and the nationalETQA landscape has been outlined. A comparative analysis of SETA ETQA processes, the CHE,QCTO (proposed) and Umalusi, has also been provided, to outline the proportionalaccreditationprocesses and requirements.3.5.1 International accreditation models and guidelinesThe need for South Africa to compete favourable inthe global educational arenais incontrovertible.Knowledge economies are driven by their ability to invent and adapt in challenging times.Globalcompetitive credentials are important as multinationals operate in various markets and require aseamless integration of operations. Industry professional bodies are serving as second quality tiersin ensuring global standards are benchmarked to validate professional credentials on completionof professional qualifications.114 | P a g e
  • 122. Accreditation is defined as “the outcome of a process by which a governmental, para-statal orprivate body (accreditation agency) assess the quality of a Higher Education Institution (HEI). Thismay be done as a whole, or for a specific higher education programme/ course, in order toofficially recognise it as having met certain set criteria or standards and award a quality label”(Sanyal, 2007:04).As governments experience increased pressure and budgetary constraints, subsidisedpublicfurther and higher education will become exceedingly restricted. The roles of private providers arebecoming more important in the delivery of quality and affordable education. Globally, privatelearning institutions account for approximately 30% of all students enrolled in highereducation(United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2009). The privatesector is the fastest-growing segment in higher education in many countries in Africa(UnitedNations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization , 2006).African registration in highereducation has risen quicker than elsewhere (by some 66% since 1999). Notwithstanding thisexpress growth, Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest participation rate globally - 5.6%. A child inSub-Saharan Africa is less probable to complete primary school than a child in Europe is to go intouniversity(United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2009).The following organisations / institutions serve as international confederated accreditation bodies.Global relationships are being forged between international accreditation bodies. The followingorganisations have built a reputation for credibility and regional representation.3.5.2 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)UNESCO and OECD have established procedures for quality delivery in cross-border highereducation in line with the resolution of the 32nd session of the General Conference ofUNESCO(UNESCO and The Commonwealth of Learning, 2003).115 | P a g e
  • 123. The four main policy objectives for the UNESCO guidelines: (UNESCO and The Commonwealth ofLearning, 2003): Students/learners protection from the vulnerabilities of misrepresentation, low-quality provision, and qualifications of insufficient legitimacy; Qualifications ought to be intelligible and descriptive in order to ensure an acceleration of their international legitimacy and accessibility. Reliable and user-friendly evidence should serve as the foundations; Recognition measures must be transparent, comprehensible, sensible, and consistent and limit liability to mobile professionals; National quality assurance and accreditation agencies need to reinforce their international collaboration to develop reciprocated understanding.3.5.3 The International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education (INQAAHE)The International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education (INQAAHE) wasestablished in 1991. The INQAAHEis a global voluntary association of over 200 organisations,representing more than 130 countries linked to 14 regional networks. The INQAAHE isrecognisedas an NGO with UNESCO and is active in the field of global quality assurance in higher education.The bulk of the INQAAHE membership bases are quality assurance agencies (Klaassen, 2009).The South African Council on Higher Education (CHE) and the Higher Education Quality Committee(HEQC) joined INQAAHEin November 2011 as the first quality agency in Africa to be conferred withthis formal recognition. The HEQC states that this confirms their comprehensive adherence to thegood practice guidelines for external quality assurance agencies(Higher Education QualityCommittee, 2011).INQAAHEspecifies that the accreditation processbegin with the formation of an accreditationagency with nine principles of operation (Massy, 2003): Focus on the customer;116 | P a g e
  • 124. Good leadership; Stakeholders’ involvement; Focus on indicators of inputs, processes and outcomes; Evidence-based decision-making; Recognising continuous improvement; Allowing Institutional autonomy in academic matters; Optimising benefits to stakeholders Ensuring follow-up improvement actions.INQAAHE accumulates and circulates statistics on the current and developing global theory andpractice of accreditation for quality assurance in higher education at the internationallevel(Klaassen, 2009).3.5.4 The Association of African Universities (AAU)The Association of African Universities (AAU) is an international non-governmental organisationfounded in Morocco in 1967. The head office is located in Accra, Ghana. The AAU has beenselected to direct the higher education component of the “Action Plan for the Second Decade ofEducation of the African Union”(Association of African Universities, 2009).The Association of African Universities (AAU) is the apex organisation and forum for consultation,exchange of information and co-operation among institutions of higher education in Africa. Theassociation has provided a platform for research, reflection, consultation, debates, co-operationand collaboration on issues pertaining to higher education (Association of African Universities,2009).The undertaking of the AAU is to raise the quality of higher education in Africa and reinforce itsinfluence to African growth by fostering alliances between its member organisations. By providingsupport to their principal purposes of teaching, learning, research and community engagement;117 | P a g e
  • 125. and by enabling critical reflection on, and consensus-building around, issues touching highereducation and the advancement of Africa (Association of African Universities, 2009).Memberships are representative of all five sub-regions of Africa. The AAU has associations with agrowing number of organisations within and outside Africa. The AAU is conferred observerstanding by the African Union (AU), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and CulturalOrganization (UNESCO) and the United Nations University (UNU). Membership is 265 membersfrom 46 African states (Association of African Universities, 2009).The AAU has assembled a “Database of African Theses and Dissertations” (DATAD) to advancemanagement and admittance to African scholarly work. Theses and dissertations characterise asubstantial percentage of Africa’s examination achievement (Association of African Universities,2009).Objectives of DATAD: (Association of African Universities, 2009) Profiling a regional databank of theses and dissertations; Supporting the formation of amilieuadvantageous for research and publication in African universities and the constituencies; Creatingcapability in African universities for the assortment, management and distribution of theses and dissertations electronically; Providing distinction and enlightening availability to the work of African scholars inside and external of the region; Enabling the development of suitable copyright processes and regulations that encourage the defense of the intellectual property rights of African University researchers and scholars; Providing support for AAU programmes that have a purpose of capacity construction in the areas of research andadvancement of cooperation between affiliate universities and networking of institutions.118 | P a g e
  • 126. 3.5.5 The Asia-Pacific Quality Network (APQN)The Asia-Pacific Quality Network (APQN) was establishedto attendto quality assurance agencies inhigher education in the region. The Asia–Pacific region comprisesof over half the worldspopulation. The APQN mission statement is “to enhance the quality of higher education in Asiaand the Pacific region through strengthening the work of quality assurance agencies and extendingthe cooperation between them”. APQN has received support from the World Bank andUNESCO(UNESCO-APQN , 2006).The Asia-Pacific region is a speedilyemerging constituency with avoracious desire to take part ineducation and development with accumulativeflexibility of students and providers.The region hasan ever-increasing requirement for the expansion of quality assurance agencies that must enterinto anagreement with public and private providers and students that cross national borders.APQN is making a concurred effort to edifice associations between agencies and they aresupportiveto countries that do not have their own quality assurance agencies. This devoutness andpartnership has conveyed the continuous development and enhancement of APQN to serve itsconstituency(UNESCO-APQN , 2006).119 | P a g e
  • 127. 3.5.6 Global Initiative on Quality Assurance Capacity (GIQAC)GIQAC embraces quality assurance as a central theme and highlights that quality can only beeffective when all stakeholders comprehend and embrace its challenges and benefits. GIQACargues for a philosophy of qualityfrom global leaders in higher education. GIQAC offers the contextto maintain a culture of quality. The World Bank provided the funding for the establishment andoperation of GIQAC in 2007, and said funds are controlled through UNESCO. The GIQACdeterminations and purposes are to support original regional and global energies that are wellorganised and effective in encouraging knowledge distribution between wide ranges of qualityassurance practitioners (UNESCO, 2008).APQN has been one of the beneficiaries of GIQAC subsequent to its implementation in 2008.APQN has accomplished a number of projects sponsored by GIQAC from May 2008 to April 2009,which include (UNESCO-APQN , 2006): APQN website: expansion/maintenance and database development; Internship and cross-regional staff exchange programme; Training materials and resource package; Chinese translation project; APQN referenced quality assurance practitioners (whether in higher education institutions, quality assurance agencies or government bodies) are absorbed on the progression of structural quality assurance frameworks.The United Nations mandatedUNESCO to drive the higher education agenda and interface withinternational agencies and other implementing partners in 194 countries.GIQAC is directed tofurther UNESCO’s work through the Global Forum on International Quality Assurance,Accreditation and the Recognition of Qualifications and the UNESCO/OECD Guidelines for QualityProvision in Cross-border Higher Education (UNESCO, 2008).The following section introduced a selection of global qualification frameworks in an attempt tooutline available and comparative frameworks.120 | P a g e
  • 128. 3.5.7 European Higher Education Qualifications FrameworkThe European higher education structure has evolved over 1200 years of evolution. The firstrecorded European University was established in the 9th century in Salerno, Italy, followed in the11th century by Bologna in Italy and then Paris in France. Oxford and Cambridge in England,Salamanca in Spain, and Poland followed in the establishment of Universities. The EuropeanUniversity model has remained constant, notwithstanding the refined concept of higher education(Cobban, 1975).The predominant qualifications framework for the European higher education area descends itscharacteristic from the intentions articulated through the Bologna Process. Thirty one EuropeanMinisters accountable for higher education that sanctions global transparency, recognition andmobility signed the Bologna declaration in June 1999.The European Consortium for AccreditationAssociation entails of fifteen accreditation organisations from ten European states. ECA wasrecognised in 2003 with the aim to accomplish the mutual gratitude of accreditation declarationsamong the candidates(Castejon, 2009).These agreements are proposed to endorse the acknowledgement of qualifications of studentsand graduates in Europe. ECA members cooperate with authorities responsible for the recognitionof foreign qualifications to accomplish automatic acknowledgment of qualifications fromaccredited programmes and institutions to enable cross-border accreditation and recognition ofcooperative programmes (e.g. European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of UniversityStudents (Erasmus Mundus programmes)(European Commission, 2009).Institutions are only required to apply for accreditation in one of the ECA member countries tohave their qualifications recognised across all ECA member countries. The EQF has been a valuablepiece of the European education landscape. It sets out common reference points among Europeancountries and beyond in relating their respective qualifications systems and improving interactionof the European region with the rest of the world (Castejon, 2009).121 | P a g e
  • 129. European nations confirm a higher education framework that sanctions policy and construction ofhigher education institutions. The framework holds stakeholders e.g. learners, staff in highereducation institutions and social partners as instrumental in the framework’s success.TheEuropean Qualifications Framework (EQF) is a set of eight reference levels. This qualificationsframework affords a shared appreciative at all levels in a common locus for the European Union.The overarching qualificationsframework augments the usefulness of qualifications through theEuropean Higher Education Area (EHEA). The higher education stakeholders established theoverarching qualificationsframework across Europe (European Commission, 2009).A national framework of higher education qualifications is defined by the EQF: “The singledescription, at national level or level of an education system, which is internationally understoodand through which all qualifications and other learning achievements in higher education may bedescribed and related to each other in a coherent way and which defines the relationship betweenhigher education qualifications” (European Higher Education, 1999). The EQF approach intends to:(European Commission, 2009): Support equally the requirements of the labour market (for knowledge, skills and competences) and education and teaching delivery; Promote the verification of non-formal and informal learning; Assist with the repositioning and use of qualifications amidvaried states and education and training constructions. The levels in the EQF:(European Commission, 2009)The EQF has eight levels of descriptors characterising the learning outcomes pertinent toqualifications at that level in any classification of qualifications.The EQF supports the vocational education construct through the European Credit System forVocational Education and Training (ECVET), European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for122 | P a g e
  • 130. Vocational Education and Training (EQARF) and the EUROPASS, a trans-national document oneducational achievement widely used across Europe. Degree structure in Europe(European Commission, 2009)The European national higher education systems have a three-cycle degree configuration.Students must first complete a Bachelors programme,and then apply to be admitted to a Master’sprogramme in the second cycle, and the third cycle is the Doctoral programme.The developingadvances within the Bologna Process have been key factors in stimulating reflections. Emergingfrom this discussion has been the prerequisite to have a policy motivation on the higher educationcredentials. The single, internationally accepted framework must be implicit and all qualificationsand further learning accomplishment in higher education may be designated and related to eachother in an articulate approach. The European Union has agreed the set of specific objectives:(European Commission, 19 September 2003): Recognition of a taxonomy of effortlesslycoherent and corresponding degrees, also through the achievement of the Diploma Supplement; Agreement of a system fundamentallystranded on two main cycles, undergraduate and graduate; Admission to the second cycle will imposepositiveaccomplishment of first cycle studies, lasting a minimum of three years; Instituting a modus operandi of credits as suitable resources of motivating the greatestreputable student mobility. Credits might be advanced in non-higher teaching contexts, covering lifelong learning, distributed they are recognised by accepting Universities; Endorsement of mobility by incapacitatingimpairments to the operativesubmission of legitimate progress;123 | P a g e
  • 131. Validation of European co-operation in quality assurance with an understanding to emerging equivalent criteria and methodologies; Progression of the necessary European proportions in higher education, relative to curricular progress, inter-institutional co-operation, mobility arrangements and integrated programmes of study, training and research. EU quality assurance purposes include:(European Commission, 2009) Development and augmentation of quality; Preservation of national educational criteria; Recognition of programmes and/or institutions; Accountability (in return for autonomy); The delivery of independently verified evidence about programmes and/or institutions.European prototypes of quality assurance can contain assessments and accreditation at subject,programme and institutional levels and permutations of the aforementioned. The Europeanqualityassurance framework is considered in the light of the Bologna Process that targets theestablishment of a European process of collaboration with a view to evolving equivalent principlesand methodologies. The European Ministers of Education adopted the’ Standards and Guidelinesfor Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area’ (EHEA)(European Higher Education,1999).European Standards and Guidelines(European Consortium for Accreditation in Higher Education,2005).The following fundamental doctrines pervade the European Standards and Guidelines:i. The welfares of students as well as employers and the society improves more commonly in good quality higher education;124 | P a g e
  • 132. ii. The fundamental prominence of institutional autonomy, tempered by a recognition that this conveys with it substantial responsibilities;iii. The requirement for external quality assurance to be fit for its purpose and to place only suitable and essential encumbrance on institutions for the accomplishment of its intentions;The guidelines above intend to validate:(European Consortium for Accreditation in HigherEducation, 2005)i. Internal quality assurance within higher education institutions;ii. External quality assurance of higher education;iii. External quality assurance agencies;iv. A peer review system.EU Accreditation processAccreditation is defined as “a formal and independent decision, indicating that an institution ofhigher education and/or programmes meet certain predefined standards”. This definition alsocovers some quality assessments that are described as “accreditation -like procedures” (EuropeanCommission, 2001): Accreditation processes are momentous for external quality assurance in Europe. Accreditation is increasingly more distinct as each formalised declaration by a suitably recognised authority as to whether an institution of higher education or a programme agrees to prerequisite criteria; Accreditation is accomplished through a multi-step development; Self-evaluation or documentation submitted by the entity undertaking accreditation; External assessment by independent experts; and, The accreditation judgment.The accreditation pronouncement is grounded on the external evaluation. The accreditation pronouncement is imposing in nature and grades in a “yes” (with or without conditions) or “no” judgment with a restricted validity.European countries have dedicated themselves to presenting the recommended model of qualityassurance. European Ministers have decided to compile a European database of quality assurance125 | P a g e
  • 133. agencies (EQAR). The agencies will be acknowledged after an adequate peer review of theagencies. This peer review will have to meet the requirements of the European Standards andGuidelines (European Commission, 2009).3.5.8 Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)In exploring Technical and Vocational Education and Training (including Occupationally DirectedEducation and Training), it is important to understand the global referencing of Technical andVocational Education and Training (TVET).TVET is concerned with the acquiring of knowledge and skills for the world of work, includingapprenticeship training, vocational education, technical education, Technical-Vocational Education(TVE), Occupational Education (OE), Vocational Education and Training (VET), Professional andVocational Education (PVE), Career and Technical Education (CTE), Workforce Education (WE),Workplace Education (WPE), etc. (King, 2009).Education and training are intertwined. The importance of validating basic and secondaryeducation as the building blocks foran operative vocational education and training system cannotbe over-stated. “Good quality basic education and initial training, availability of adult and second-chance education, together with a learning culture, ensure high levels of participation incontinuous education and training (UNESCO and UNEVOC , 2004).The defensive debate on cataloguing occupationally directed positions is irrelevant. TVET, VET andCTE are principally duplicate in meaning. The South African occupationally directed education andtraining learning path includes learnerships, apprenticeshipsand internshipsetc.TVETinitiallyfocused on the training for work as being the main goal of TVET, and this remainsprominent in many developing nations (King, 2009).Nevertheless, with the technological revolutions and innovations in science and technology duringthe 20th century, new domains of knowledge and new disciplines have become important at all126 | P a g e
  • 134. levels of education and training. Further, the upward differentiation of TVET from first to secondlevel and then to the third level of education has been an important development of the 20thcentury and set the stage for the 21st century. The current focus is increasingly upon preparingknowledge workers to meet the challenges posed during the transition from the Industrial Age tothe Information Age, with its concomitant post-industrial human resource requirements and thechanging world of work (UNESCO and UNEVOC , 2004)."That vocational education sits at the centre of skills development is clear – how we design anddeliver it is less clear. The best way to teach vocational education is widely debated. The challengeof how best to link conceptual knowledge and workplace experience continues to plague TVET"(Pandor, 2008).TVET has returned to the limelight asAfrican policy makers, The Wold Bank and the internationaldonor community consider the potential positive impact TVET is able to deliver in relation tonational and regional development. TVET focuses on skills and education for the world of workand the acquisition of employable skills. TVET is designed and geared to be offered by a widerange of institutionsthat address the skills-set requirement of a varied band of learners fromdiverse socio-economic and academic backgrounds (Ministers of Education of the African Union,2007).Foremost awarding bodies such as the Cities and Guilds, and Cisco, have conventional qualityrequirements for the award of their qualifications. International agencies such as ISO are usedacross many national VET systems (including the Australian system) and have a formal role in thequality assurance processes in the German VET system (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009).The African Union’s (AU) vision of “an integrated, peaceful, prosperous Africa, competing globallyin the knowledge economy” has resulted in an AU“Plan of Action for the Second Decade ofEducation” (2006 – 2015). The AU recognises the importance of TVET. TVET should therefore beintegrated into the general education system (Ministers of Education of the African Union, 2007).3.5.9 Conclusion127 | P a g e
  • 135. International accreditation frameworks are predominantly regionally driven to address regionalspecific emerging and seminal issues. Global accreditation endorsement such as the EuropeanQuality Improvement System (EQUIS)for business school accreditation endorsement has builtsignificant global credibility.Common denominators in the global accreditation system confirm the most important qualityevaluation indicators aspeer review mechanisms, institutional academic autonomy and capacity,external assessment processes from industry/experts, quality assurance systems,nationaleducational criteria, stakeholders’ involvement andstudents’protection, mobilityand articulation.The importance of accreditation is ever more prevalent as international validation of qualityassurance standards enhances standards of education globally. The requirement of multinationalorganisations to operate seamlessly in respective industries requires a comparative level ofqualifications and competence of representative employees.Having outlined global and regional institutions, the researcher explored in depth accreditationand external moderation models in selected countries, in order to allow for comparativecontemplation.128 | P a g e
  • 136. 3.6 Country accreditation models3.6.1 The South African accreditation frameworkThe South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) regulates the South African accreditationframework for private providers under the auspices of the Department of Higher Education andTraining and theDepartment of Basic Education. Public institutions are automatically accredited by virtue of theirpublicstatus and are accountable to the CHE, the Department of Higher Education and Trainingandthe Department of Basic Education. Qualifications of all institutions must be registered withSAQA(National Qualifications Framework Act, 2008).The National Qualifications Framework (NQF) recognises three bands of education and training,namely General Education and Training (GET), Further Education and Training (FET) and HigherEducation and Training (HET)(Department of Higher Education and Training, 2012).Umalusi is theQuality Council for General and Further Education and Training as provided for in the GENFETQAAmendment Act. The NQF is an all-inclusive system sanctioned by the Minister of Education forthe classification, registration, publication and articulation of quality-assured nationalqualifications (National Qualifications Framework Act, Act 67 of 2008).The Objectives of the NQF are to(National Qualifications Framework Act, 2008): Create a single cohesive national framework for learning accomplishments; Facilitate admission to, and mobility and progression within, education (articulation), training and career paths; Improve the quality of education and training; Fast track the redress of past unfair discrimination in education, training and employment prospects.The Council on Higher Education (CHE) is the Quality Council for Higher Education as provided forin the Higher Education Amendment Act. The Quality Council for Trades and Occupations is the129 | P a g e
  • 137. Quality Council for occupations and is provided for in the Skills Development Amendment Act.Umalusi is the Quality Council for General and Further Education and Training as provided for in fothe GENFETQA Amendment Act (Department of Education and Training, 2012). 2012)There are three Quality Councils for the three main sectors in education namely general and namelfurther education and training, higher education and the occupational sector. SAQA plays animportant role throughout the NQF and must advance and implement policy and criteria, afterconsultation with the Quality Councils for the development, registration and publication of Councils, t,qualifications and part-qualifications (Ministers of Education and Labour Joint Policy Statement, qualifications2008). The NQF is a single integrated system, which comprises of three co ordinated qualification co-ordinated sub-frameworks, for: General and Further Trades and Occupations Education and Training - Higher Education and Training GFETQF and Occupational General and Further Qualifications Framework Education Band - (OQF) CHE Umalusi NQF 5-10 QCTO NQF 1 - 4 NQF 1 - 8 (10?) General eral and Further Umalusi / SETA ETQAs (QCTO) NQF level 1 / Grade 9 Education Band DHET / DoBE Further her Education and Umalusi / SETA ETQAs (QCTO) NQF level 2 / Grade 10 and Training Band Department of Basic Education National (Occupational) DHET Certificates level 2 NQF level 3 / Grade 11 and National (Occupational ) Certificates level 3 NQF level 4 / National Senior Certificate and National (Occupational ) Certificates level 4 Certificate Higher Education and Training CHE NQF level 5 / Higher Certificates Band DHET and Advanced National SETA ETQAs / QCTO (Occupational ) Certificates Certificate NQF level 6 /Diplomas and Advanced Certificates NQF level 7 /Bachelor’s Degrees130 | P a g e
  • 138. and Advanced Diplomas NQF level 8 / Masters, Post- Graduate Diplomas and Professional Qualifications NQF level 9 / Masters Degrees NQF level 10 / Doctoral Degrees Table 3.4 South African Quality Councils and NQF levels131 | P a g e
  • 139. The Council on Higher Education (CHE)The current Higher Education Qualifications Framework was established in 2007 and effectivefrom January 2009 (Department of Higher Education and Training, 2007). The purpose of theamended framework was to ensure that a coherent process was enabled for articulation andtransfer of students to other alternative institutions of higher learning(Council for HigherEducation, 2001).The Higher Education Act, 1997 establishes the South African Council on Higher Education. TheCHE is the Quality Council for Higher Education and is responsible for advising the Minister ofEducation on all higher education issues and for quality assurance and promotion through theHigher Education Quality Committee(Department of Higher Education and Training, 2007).HET quality assurance is a statutory responsibility of the CHE, supported by the Higher EducationQuality Committee (HEQC),a permanent sub-committee. The HEQC operates within theframework of the NQF and is accredited by SAQA as the band ETQA for highereducation(Department of Higher Education and Training, 2007). Jita is of the opinion that theprocesses of stakeholder involvement in the higher education quality assurance system have beenrather inadequate and poorly conceptualised (Jita, 2006).The functions of the HEQC are to(Department of Higher Education and Training, 2007):i. promote quality in higher education;ii. audit the quality assurance mechanisms of higher education institutions; andiii. accredit programmes of higher education.The South African Council on Higher Education (CHE) is an independent statutory body responsiblefor advising the Minister of Higher Education and Training on all matters related to highereducation policy issues and for quality assurance in higher education and training. The HigherEducation Qualifications Framework (HEQF) applies to all institutions of higher learning, including132 | P a g e
  • 140. private and public. The HEQC regulates qualifications from Higher Certificates to Doctoral andProfessional Doctoral Degrees (Council for Higher Education, 2001).The CHE is responsible for quality assurance and works closely with SAQA and DHET. SAQA isresponsible for qualification registration on the NQF and SAQA must develop policy and criteria,after consultation with the Quality Councils, for assessment, recognition of prior learning andcredit accumulation and transfer(National Qualifications Framework Act, 2008).Programme Accreditation and Coordination Directorate(Department of Education (DoE) and theSouth African Qualifications Authority , 2008):Programme accreditation entails the evaluation of higher education academic programmes inaccordance with the HEQC’s programme accreditation criteria that stipulate the minimumrequirements for programme input, process, output and impact and review (Higher EducationQuality Committee, 2004):The Programme Accreditation and Coordination Directorate has a wide range of responsibilities,which include: Accreditation of new programmes from private and public higher education institutions; National reviews: the re-accreditation of existing programmes in a particular programme/discipline area; Collaboration with other ETQAS, professional councils and other regulatory authorities on qualityassurance in higher education. This includes delegation of certain quality assurance responsibilities tobodies or institutions with systems to carry out such responsibilities. The delegation of short courses,RPL, assessor training, moderation of assessment and certification arrangements to institutions fallswithin this category of work.Quality assurance functions delegated to Higher Education Institutions(Council on HigherEducation , October 2009).133 | P a g e
  • 141. The HEQC is required to report to SAQA on how its constituent providers ensure quality in thefollowing areas (Higher Education Quality Committee , 1997 ): Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) Assessor training and development Moderation of assessment Certification arrangements Short coursesThe large majority of private providers will not go through an institutional audit. The HEQC Boarddecided that the Directorates should develop an institutional accreditation system collaborativelyfor Accreditation, Coordination and Institutional Audits, in order to evaluate institutionalarrangements for quality at the private providers that are not being fully audited. Thedevelopment of the institutional framework to guide this process is in progress(Higher EducationQuality Committee, 2004).Public providers have automatic institutional accreditation.Higher Education and TrainingAdmission into higher education requires a Grade 12 pass or Grade 12 passes with exemption.Private institutions offering higher education must register with the Department of HigherEducation and Training in accordance with the Higher Education Act, 1997, Act No 101 of 1997(Department of Higher Education and Training, 2012).The registrar will consider the provider application for registration as a private higher educationinstitution. The registrar will confirm if the applicant will comply with the quality assurancerequirements of the Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC) of the Council on HigherEducation (CHE) (Department of Higher Education and Training, 2012). Umalusi134 | P a g e
  • 142. Umalusi is a statutory South Africanorganisation that determines and monitors standards for general and further education and training. Umalusi ensures the quality of education and training between NQF levels 2 and 4. Two acts, namely the National Qualifications Framework Act of 2008 and the General, Further Education, and Training Quality Assurance Act of 2001, amended in 2008,determine Umalusi’s mandate. The Constitution of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996) protects the right to basic education for all. South Africa also subscribes to a number of international conventions that underwrite the right to basic education(The Constitution of South Africa, Act 108, 1996). Umalusi performs quality assurance of exit-point assessments in FET Colleges, ABET centres and schools.(Portfolio Committee on Basic Education, 2010). Umalusi has five key functions: (Umalusi Presentation to the Basic Education Portfolio Committee, 2011): i. Evaluating qualifications and curricula to ensure that they are of the expected standard;ii. Moderating assessment to ensure that it is fair, valid and reliable;iii. Conducting research to ensure educational quality;iv. Accrediting educational and assessment providers; v. Certifying learner attainments. Private further education and training providers must register with the Department of Higher Education and Training, as well asUmalusi, should they wish to offer full qualifications on the NQF between levels 2 and 4. The notice published by the Minister of Education in (Government Gazette No 28911, 2006)confirms“With effect from 1 January 2008 no person, other than a Public FET institution or an organ of state, shall be allowed to offer FET qualifications unless such a person is registered or provisionally registered as a private FET institution in terms of the Act. Any person who contravenes the Act is guilty of an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine or imprisonment not exceeding five years or to both fine and imprisonment” (Government Gazette No 28911, 2006). 135 | P a g e
  • 143. Training providers are required to obtain programme approval for the delivery of full qualificationsfrom their primary focus or through a MoU process prior to applying to Umalusi and then to theDepartment of Higher Education and training. No learner may be enrolled on the aforementionedqualifications prior to the DHET confirmation being received (South African QualificationsAuthority , 2000).Public FET colleges are regarded as a provincial competence and resort under the variousprovincial education departments. The Minister of Education is responsible for determiningnational policy for FET colleges. FET colleges are not permitted to certificate in their own right asUmalusi, as the progeny to the former South African Certification Council,(Stumpf, Papier,Needhamand Nel, 2009)completes the certification utility.136 | P a g e
  • 144. General Education and TrainingPrimary and secondary school constitutes the General Education and Training band from grade Rto grade 9, and Adult Basic Education and Training, latterly referred to as Adult Education andTraining (AET). The registration of private or independent institutions offering general educationand training is the competence of the provincial education departments. The registration of theseinstitutions is in terms of the South African Schools Act(South African Schools Act, 1996, Act 84,1996). Further Education and TrainingFurther Education and Training includes Grades 10 to 12 and includes occupationally directededucation and training offered in technical colleges, community colleges and private colleges.Private institutions offering further education and training programmes must register with theDepartment of Education (Further Education and Training Colleges Act 16, 2006). Quality Council for Trades and Occupations (QCTO)The Skills Development Act,2008, established the QCTO. The QCTO is responsible for advising theMinister of Higher Education and Training (DHET) on all matters of policy concerning occupationalstandards and qualifications. The occupational qualifications levels are pegged from NQF levels 1to 10. SAQA level descriptors determine the level of the qualification (The General and FurtherEducation and Training Qualifications Framework, 2011).The QCTO is responsible for standardssetting and quality assurance of occupational qualifications on the trades and occupations sub-framework. QCTO recommends to SAQA qualifications for registration on the NQF (Department ofEducation (DoE) and the South African Qualifications Authority , 2008).The Organising Framework for Occupations commenced development in February 2005. Theframework is based on the conceptual ILO framework and operationalised with analogousclassifications on the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (Fretwell,2001).137 | P a g e
  • 145. The QCTO is responsible for(The Quality Council for Trades and Occupations, 2011):Establishing and maintaining occupational standards and qualifications: i. The quality assurance of occupational standards and qualifications and learning in and for the workplace; ii. Designing and developing occupational standards and qualifications and submitting them to the South African Qualifications Authority for registration on the National Qualifications Framework;iii. Ensuring the quality of occupational standards and qualifications and learning in and for the workplace;iv. The QCTO will appoint quality partners (statutory and non-statutory professional bodies, occupational associations, legislated boards, SETAs, etc.) for related occupational qualifications. National moderating bodies will be appointed to delegate certain quality assurance responsibilities (SAQA); v. An occupational qualification is associated with a trade, occupation or profession, resulting from work-based learning and consisting of knowledge, work experience and practical unit standards;vi. Occupational qualifications will be assessed through a national standardised integrated assessment administered by an external body.The Organising Framework for Occupations (OFO) operates within the QCTO framework andapplies the ILO International Standards Classification of Occupations. The OFO is a skills-basedcoded classification system that includes all occupations in the South Africaneconomy.Occupations are linked with comprehensive competence profiles thatCommittees ofExpert Practice generate. The OFO informs the Career Pathway Frameworks interrelated tolearning paths (Marock, 2011).138 | P a g e
  • 146. The OFO organises job posts and titles into a condensed structure of eight major occupationalgroups (e.g. professionals, machinery operators, managers, technicians). Each of the eightprimarygroups is delineated into more detailed occupational groupings that result in alevel of anoccupationas reached on the OFO. Each occupation on the OFO has its own unique referencecode.(South African Qualifications Authority, 2009).The following categories are identified: Business administration, information services, human resources and teaching and related occupations; Finance, insurance, sales, marketing, retail and logistics and related occupations; Security and law and related occupations; Art, design installation, maintenance and construction and related occupations; Production and processing and related occupations; Transportation, materials moving and mobile plant operating and related occupations.The South African occupationally directed education and training environment operates primarilybetween NQF levels 1 and 4. Occupationally directed qualifications have been developed at higherlevels on the NQF with significantly less success in enrolment numbers. The QCTO has beenawarded jurisdiction from NQF levels 1 to 10, and will quality assure these qualifications onceoperational. It is anticipated by the researcher that further changes will however be made to theQCTO framework and that NQF levels 9 and 10 will remain under the jurisdiction of the CHE(National Qualifications Framework Act, 2008).The current quality assurance of all occupationally directed qualifications falls within thejurisdiction of assigned ETQAs. Occupationally directed providers offering full qualifications fromNQF levels 2 to 4 are required to register with Umalusi and DHET as an FET provider. QualityCouncils are new band-based structures accountable for the development and quality assuranceof qualifications in their sub-frameworks of the National Qualifications Framework. At the time of139 | P a g e
  • 147. this research, ETQAs were still performing the functions intended for the QCTO under thejurisdiction of SAQA (National Qualifications Framework Act, Act 67 of 2008).The Quality Council for Tradesand Occupations is mandated (National Qualifications FrameworkAct 67, 2008) to perform the following functions: The QCTO is accountable for inaugurating and continuing occupational standards and qualifications; The quality assurance of occupational standards and qualifications and learning in and for the workplace; Designing and developing occupational standards and qualifications and submitting them to SAQA for registration on the NQF; Confirming the quality of occupational standards and qualifications and learning in and for the workplace; The National Qualifications Framework is designed as a succession of learning achievements arranged in ascending order from levels one to levels ten. Respective levels on the National Qualifications Framework are manifested by a declaration of learning achievement proprietary as a level descriptor.The Quality Council for Trades and Occupation qualification landscape was at the time of thisresearch in the process of settling; therefore the level and minimum credits should have beenfinalised imminently. SETA ETQAs and other occupational ETQAs e.g. SABPP are currentlyoperating under the jurisdiction of SAQA and the DHET in anticipation of the QCTOoperationalising phase. Sector Education and Training Authority (SETA) Education and Training Quality Assurance bodies (ETQAs)The Department of Education was delineated in 2009 into The Department of Higher Educationand Training (DHET) and The Department of Basic Education. The change included the absorptionof the Skills Development function of the Department of Labour (DOL) into The Department of140 | P a g e
  • 148. Higher Education and Training (DHET). Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs) wereconsequently removed from DOL to the jurisdiction of DHET. The Minister assumed the legalmandate on 01 November 2009 (Parliamentary Monitoring Group, 2009).The Quality Council was at the time of this research due to replace the current Sector Educationand Training Authorities (SETAs) Education and Training Quality Assurance (ETQA) structures forTrades and Occupations (QCTO) once said body had become operational. The QCTO had beenestablished and enacted and was planned for operational confirmation during 2012.The NQF Act (No. 67 of 2008) repealed the SAQA Act (No. 58 of 1995), including the regulationsunder which SETAs were accredited to conduct quality assurance (Department of Higher Educationand Training, 2012).The SETA structure involves organisations established in terms of the Skills Development Act(SkillsDevelopment Act, 1998), with the resolution to guarantee the advance of skills in South Africa inspecific sectors. SETAs must accomplish equipoise in the supply and demand of skills in their sectorand declare education and training for qualifications and learnerships under their correspondingjurisdiction(National Qualifications Framework Act, Act 67 of 2008) : Recognises and augments the skills of the present employees, (in accumulation to ensuring that new potential employees to the labour market are satisfactorily competent); Achieves sanctioned standards within a national framework as provided subject to authentication and quality assurance; Benchmarks compared to international standards; Ensures an Education and Training Quality Assurance (ETQA) may accredit an occupational training provider on request if it observes the standards intended by SAQA Regulation 13. Accreditation System for Occupationally Directed Training providers141 | P a g e
  • 149. SAQA requires training providers pursuing accreditation to provide evidence of compliance withthe SAQA specified criteria(South African Qualifications Authority, 1995). Of particular importanceare the specified constraints concerning reporting techniques that providers are compelled toadhere to. External market forces have added to the internal professional necessities foraccreditation (Martindale and Collins, 2007).The majority of SETAs have unfortunately become bureaucratic machines failing to driveoccupationally directed education and training in respective industries. A number of public FETand HET providers have attempted to operate in the occupationally directed education andtraining space, but seem not to have performed well (Marock, Harrison, Soobrayan andGunthorpe, 2008: 20).SAQA has seconded a number of staff members to the QCTO(Parliamentary Monitoring Group,2011). Although the transference of institutional knowledge is positive, SAQA’s role in qualityassurance has been questioned by some in the occupationally directed, education and trainingfraternity.” Sadly, SAQA decided in 2006 to no longer act as a quality assurance body but rather totake on the role of mediator and facilitator, and be more critical of the constraints that are oftenthe result of decisions taken elsewhere in the system. Further, in shaping an inclusive NQF, SAQAdecided to become more involved in educational research, for example by investigating the impactand outcomes of the objectives of the NQF. SAQA alsobecame actively involved in the promotion of employment and lifelong learning through initiativeslike online learning and recognition of prior learning (RPL). In the opinion of the researcher SAQAhas lost its focus – no organisation can survive if they don’t have a very clear and focused vision,and a vision is not a matrix (Nel, 2011)”.The SAQA criteria for the accreditation of South African occupational providers are set out bySAQA.(South African Qualifications Authority, 2001). SAQA specifies that an Education andTraining Quality Assurance body with a primary focus that corresponds with the primary focus ofthe provider may accredit an organisation as a provider if: That provider is registered in terms of the applicable legislation at the time of the application for accreditation;142 | P a g e
  • 150. That provider has devised a quality management system, that embraces but is not restricted to: • A quality management policy exists that defines what the provider aspires to achieve; • Quality management procedures exists that facilitate the provider to exercise its defined quality management policies; • Review mechanisms exist that confirm that the quality management policies and procedures defined, are pragmatic and remain effective; The provider is capable of developing, providing and evaluating learning programmes that result in quantified registered standards or qualifications; Compulsory financial, administrative and physical resources required; Policies and practices for employee selection, appraisal and development; Policies and practices for learner entry, guidance and support systems; Policies and practices for the management and administration of off-site, practical or work- site components of training and learning; Policies and practices for the management of assessment; The necessary reporting procedures; The ability to achieve the desired outcomes, using presented resources and procedures deliberated by the Education and Training Quality Assurance body; The capacity to develop, deliver and evaluate learning programmes which culminate in specified registered standards or qualifications; and That the training provider has not already been granted accreditation by or applied for accreditation to another ETQA contemplated in the act.143 | P a g e
  • 151. The SAQA Core Criteria for the Accreditation of ProvidersThe South African Qualifications Authorityhas eight core criteria for the accreditationofoccupationally directed education and training providers as expanded on below. Alloccupationally directed ETQAs operate under the same specified criteria that must consistentlyand transparently be applied to providers (South African Qualifications Authority, 2001):Criterion 1: Policy statementSAQA defines an education and training provider as “A body which delivers learning programmeswhich culminate in specified National Qualification Framework standards and/or qualifications,and manages the assessment thereof”.SAQA defines a “NQF Organisation” as having created a vision, set the policies, defined atimetable, delegated the tasks and defined quality of performance for those to whom they aredelegated. It is the equivalent of the board and senior executive of an organisation. The specifiedcriterion outlines that a provider must outline how they view themselves, achievements it aims toachieve and the reasons for its existence(South African Qualifications Authority, 2001).A Total Quality Management (TQM) approach in the context of the NQF requires that a policystatement provides a framework aligned to the values and principles articulated in the NQF:(SouthAfrican Qualifications Authority, 2001) Confirmation of how the provider is positioned within the NQF; Indication of democratic practices and how these enlighten the structure, management and operations of the provider; Designated approach adopted to teaching and learning activities of the provider; Direction on how ongoing development of activities will be ensured through assessment, auditing, monitoring, research and review practices of the provider.144 | P a g e
  • 152. SAQA views the provider’s policy statement as a manifestation of the principles and intention tooperate, by whom, and for what purpose and is not an exhaustive account of the providersoperations.SAQA has supplied the following questions to providers as a self-evaluation tool in the preparationof this criterion: (South African Qualifications Authority, 2001): What are the organisation’s values and principles? How do these values and principles link with those of the NQF? What are the structures, systems and activities of the organisation that attempt to apply such values and principles? What is the aim of the organisation? What does it offer? To who is the organisation directed?Criterion 2: Quality Management SystemsThe provider’s QMS is considered an integrated and holistic blueprint. A number of free ETQAQMS templates are available online. Occupationally directed education consultants sell themodified QMS adapted template to providers. It appears that the availability of standardtemplates has been beneficial to providers(South African Qualifications Authority, 2001).SAQA provides guidelines for the development of the provider QMS in the Quality ManagementSystems for education and training providers approved as a guideline document (South AfricanQualifications Authority, 2001)Quality is defined by SAQA as “The combination of processes usedto ensure that the degree of excellence specified is achieved in Regulation 1127”(South AfricaQualifications Authority, 1995).Terms and definitions relating to quality assurance: (South African Qualifications Authority,2001):145 | P a g e
  • 153. Quality assurance means the sum of engagements that guarantee the quality of products and services at the time of construction or delivery. Quality assurance measures are regularly pragmatic only to the actions and products related directly with the goods and services provided to external customers. Quality audits are activities undertaken to measure the quality of products or services that have already been made or delivered. In itself, a quality audit has no impact on quality. Quality control is assumed by the person(s) who make the product (or deliver the service) for internal determinations.Quality Management Systems are defined as a combination of processes used to ensure that thedegree of excellence specified is achieved. A quality management system is the sum of theactivities and information an organisation uses to enable it to better and more consistently deliverproducts and services that meet and exceed the needs and expectations of its customers andbeneficiaries, more cost effectively and cost efficiently, today and in the future(South AfricanQualifications Authority, 2001).SAQA has supplied the following questions to providers as a self-evaluation tool in the preparationof this criterion: (South African Qualifications Authority, 2001): How does the organisation, in practice, create and sustain a quality culture within the organisation? How are the relevance, comprehensiveness and clarity of standards used in the organisation ensured? How is information about the workings of the organisation collected, how often and by whom? How are learners’ needs actually met? How often are programmes delivered by the organisation reviewed? How does the organisation ensure that its facilitators of learning actually possess the competence to both facilitate the learning effectively and assess learners in ways that are consistent with the NQF? How does the organisation ensure that learning and assessment activities are monitored? In addition, reviewed?146 | P a g e
  • 154. How does the organisation ensure that what is gathered from reviews, audits and/ or monitoring in fact leads to improvements in the organisation’s activities? What are the mechanisms the organisation uses to report to people within the organisation? How does the organisation ensure that resources available to it are utilised effectively, in addition efficiently, and are used to good effect? How does the organisation report to and generally relate to the ETQA under which it falls? How does the organisation relate to other providers in the area that it works within, if this applies?Criterion 3: Review mechanismsProviders seeking accreditation must present a framework for the use of policies and offerconfirmation of how said policies will be monitored, researched, audited, and/or reviewed andindicate how often this will be done. Providers may articulate compliance in relation to externalevaluations, the use of internal moderators, the provider’s internal review and monitoringsystems, assessments, employee performance reviews, research and auditing processes(SouthAfrican Qualifications Authority, 2001):Providers need to articulate the review system they have in place, how it operates in practice andwhat the concrete successes of measurements have been. Providers must also indicate howrecommendations of review conclusions will be implemented.SAQA has supplied the following questions to providers as a self-evaluation tool in the preparationof this criterion(South African Qualifications Authority, 2001): What are the review, monitoring, research and/or auditing mechanisms, the organisation has in place? How do these mechanisms work? How often are they carried out? By whom? How are review findings reported back within the organisation?147 | P a g e
  • 155. How do the review findings inform improvements in the organisation?Criterion 4: Programme deliverySAQA requires a provider to outline how learning programmes are developed, delivered, andevaluated. Providers that were non-compliant largely fell short on providing the followingdocumentation in the appropriate format in relation to programme evaluation as opposed topolicy compliance(South African Qualifications Authority, 1999; South African QualificationsAuthority, 2001): Learner guides Assessment guides Moderation Guides Facilitator guides Structured Curriculum Model Answer Guides Alignment Matrix Notional Hour compliance MatrixCentral to training providers’ activities is the delivery component function. The provider mustdeliver a comprehensive coherent description relating to the programme delivery practice.Providers must narrate their descriptions of their programme delivery in relation to the NQFprinciples.SAQA has supplied the following questions to providers as a self-evaluation tool in thepreparation of this criterion:(South African Qualifications Authority, 2001): What is the nature of the programmes the organisation delivers? What is the NQF status of the programmes (e.g. NQF level 5)? What are the components (for example, modules) that make up the programmes? How often are the programmes delivered, and what is the duration in notional learning hours?148 | P a g e
  • 156. What are the modes used in the delivery of the programmes? (For example, the use of group work, opportunities to learn in the workplace, or the role of distance learning would be described at this point.) To what extent is the delivery of the programmes flexible? How is learner-centeredness ensured in the delivery of the programmes? How does programme delivery ensure that the programmes are relevant to learners? How are learners assessed during the programme delivery? How often? By whom? How are learners given feedback on their performance during the delivery of programmes and what forms does this take? How are resources planned for the delivery of programmes?An additional range of rather deeper questions is suggested from a SAQA research reportconcerning teacher education programmes(South African Qualifications Authority, 2001): The programme practices must develop in learners an applied and integratedcompetence. A programme should ensure that learners are able to integrate (horizontally) the knowledge and skills delivered through the different courses or modules that make up the programme. A programme should also ensure that learners are able to integrate (vertically). The following dimensions of competence apply: The ability, in an authentic context, to consider a range of possibilities for action, make considered decisions about which possibility to follow, and to perform the chosen action (a practical competence); The theoretical basis for and the knowledge which underpins and informs the action taken (foundational competence); and The ability to connect decision-making and performance (practical competence) with understanding (foundational competence) and use this to adapt to change or unforeseen circumstances, to innovate within one’s own practice, and to explain the reasons behind these innovations and adaptations (reflexive competence); The programme should be conceptualised and delivered in a manner that integrates theory and practice, and strengthens provider-workplace linkages; A programme should work closely with relevant workplaces in order to develop learner skills;149 | P a g e
  • 157. Relevant work experience should be linked to the rest of the programme, and students should be well prepared for it. Work experience should be integral to the programme and not an ‘add-on’.The programme, and the programme ethos, should support lifelong learning in concrete ways.Learners, for example, might be involved in programme design and implementation, eitherformally (for example, through decision-making structures) or informally (for example, by makingdecisions regarding the nature of their assignments)(South African Qualifications Authority, 2001): Relevant learner-initiated activity might be recognised towards the qualification. Assignments should be designed to encourage problem-solving within authentic contexts. A programme should prioritise and teach critical engagement, reasoning and reflective thinking. A programme should ground teaching in a wider social, economic and political understanding and awareness. The provider should have a workable strategy for the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL). The programme provider should adopt inductive rather than deductive approaches to programme design, or at least motivate why deductive approaches to programme designs are justified. A programme should be designed based on research, and some or all of this research should be conducted among target learners. Conversely, a programme should not be designed through an exclusively deductive ‘desktop’ exercise. The emphasis in this criterion is on the nature of the learning and teaching process itself, including the assessment process. This criterion is central to ensuring that education andtainting practices in the delivery of programmes by providers are in accordance with NQF principles.SAQA stipulates that accreditation will not be statutorily possible if these principles are notfollowed or, at the very least, if providers have not identified the need to locate their programmedelivery in NQF terms and developed a plan for implementation.150 | P a g e
  • 158. Criterion 5: Staff policiesSAQA requires providers to outline the policies and procedures for ETD staff selection, appraisaland development(South African Qualifications Authority, 2001). Providers are required to provideevidence that their ETD staff members are competent in their positions as facilitators, assessorsand moderators. Assessment of competence to NQF principles must also be demonstrated.SAQA has supplied the following questions to providers as a self-evaluation tool in thepreparation of this criterion (South African Qualifications Authority, 2001): What criteria are used in the ETD staff selection process? Who selects ETD staff in the organisation? What selection procedures are followed? To what extent are the stipulations of the (Department of Labour, 1998)respected in the selection process?Providers are offered the following questions by SAQA to confirm compliance (South AfricanQualifications Authority, 2001): To what extent do ETD staff possess applied and integrated competences as education and training development practitioners? How do staff ensure the integration of theory and practice in the delivery of the programme? (Here questions of work experience to develop practical understandings of relevant theories, or the use of simulated work environments and, generally, strategies to ensure the development of applied competence among learners need to be addressed.) To what extent does the provider ensure that all staff have access to ongoing forms of professional development and that they are themselves ‘lifelong learners’? (Here the emphasis is on the development and self-improvement of staff and on the procedures the provider has in place to ensure that this happens within the organisation.)151 | P a g e
  • 159. To what extent does the organisation ensure that their ETD staff members design their activities in ways that are informed by the organisation’s mechanisms of review, research, monitoring and/or auditing? (In other words, are teaching and learning methods informed by reflections on existing practices, or do activities continue unchanged despite the findings of reviews, research, monitoring and/or auditing in the organisation? Do staff decide on changes in programme delivery purely based on intuition? Alternatively is intuition informed by research into, and feedback received on, how well or how poorly a programme is being delivered?) How does the organisation ensure that their ETD staff are competent to carry out assessment activities in ways that are both applied and integrated? (Staff competence in assessment practices is key in the life of learners, since this is the basis upon which learners are qualified. It is therefore critical that facilitators are adequately skilled to carry out this function effectively and efficiently. Since, in NQF terms, assessment is cast within the framework of lifelong learning and integration, assessment here refers to ways in which continuous assessment can inform the teaching and learning process, though, for example, learner portfolios.)The purpose of Criterion 5 is clearly to ensure that policy on ETD staff selection and appraisalshould be informed by principles of increased access and respect for employment equity policy, aswell as ensuring the transformation of education and training practices and adherence to NQFprinciples.Criterion 6: Learner policiesPolicies and procedures for the selection of learners are outlined, and learners are given guidanceand support(South African Qualifications Authority, 2001):Providers need to be mindful of the following key NQF principles with regard to learners: Learner-centeredness Learner participation Relevance of the programmes to learners152 | P a g e
  • 160. Recognition of prior learning Lifelong learningSAQA has supplied the following questions to providers as a self-evaluation tool in thepreparation of this criterion(South African Qualifications Authority, 2001): How are learners selected for the programme? To what extent do such selection procedures recognise the prior learning learners have? What is the demographic composition of the learner population? (Gender and race are clearly crucial, but attention should also be given to how learners from outlying areas are attended to, and to poverty indices.) Is the organisation planning to diversify the demographic composition of the learner population, taking into account historical disadvantages and discrimination? How does the provider ensure that the programme is relevant to the needs and aspirations of the learners? How does the delivery of the programme encourage learner participation? How does the organisation identify the nature of support that learners require? What support is given to learners? What guidance is offered to learners and why? How are opportunities for further learning provided for by the organisation? How, by whom and how often are learners given feedback on their performance?Criterion 7: Assessment policiesThe provider is required to outline the policies and procedures for the forms of assessment usedand how they are managed(South African Qualifications Authority, 2001).Assessment policiesinclude assessment practices applied by the provider and describe the approaches that are usedby an organisation in its assessment practices(e.g.Are assessment approaches mainly examination-based?). The assessment policies must recognise the principles of lifelong learning, recognition ofprior learning and integration of theory and practice.The provider must demonstrate that theassessment policies are informed by an understanding of the notions of failure anddeficits,andhow they work in a developmental,supportiveand continuous way. Resultantly,153 | P a g e
  • 161. assessment policies need to indicate what approach the provider has adoptedin relation toassessments and confirm if assessmentsare in line with NQF principles.Assessment (internal assessment and external assessment) policies must outline how theprocesses of assessment will be managed: by whom, how and how often. The provider mustsupply detailed information on the moderation provision, outline how feedback to learners will begiven and maintain records of assessment. The provider must include ways which support tolearners is identified and ways in which support is provided to learners.Consequently, assessmentpolicies should not be conflated with assessment practices, although they include them(SouthAfrican Qualifications Authority, 2001).SAQA has supplied the following questions to providers as a self-evaluation tool in the preparationof this criterion(South African Qualifications Authority, 2001): What is the organisation’s approach to assessment? Is the organisation’s approach consistent with NQF principles? How does the organisation’s assessment policy incorporate principles of lifelong learning, recognition of prior learning and integration of theory and practice? How are assessments conducted, by whom and how often? What are the mechanisms that the organisation puts into place to assure the quality of assessments conducted? Aare moderators used for assessments? Are policies and procedures for possible appeals in place? How are learners given feedback on the ways in which they have been assessed? How does learner feedback occur? Who does it, and how often? How does the organisation ensure that assessments are used to identify, and provide for the support and guidance learners need? How are assessment results fed back into programme development?The assessment practices of a programme must be applied and integrated(South AfricanQualifications Authority, 2001):154 | P a g e
  • 162. A programme should assess whether learners are able to integrate (horizontally) the knowledge and skills delivered through the different courses or modules, which make up the programme. A programme should also assess whether learners are able to integrate (vertically) the dimensions of competence referred to in Criterion 4. In brief, these are: • Practical competence; • Foundational competence; and • Reflexive competence. The assessment strategy should assess the extent to which learners have the ability to apply what they have learned in authentic and changing South African contexts. Assessment should be ongoing and developmental.Criterion 8: Management system and policiesThe provider must provide evidence of managerial capacity of the provider to carry out itsmanagement systems requirements and functions. The provider must indicate the capacity todeliver the programme effectively and efficiently and in an accountable manner. Providers arerequired to indicate the financial, administrative and physical resources of the organisation, aswell as procedures of accountability within the organisation(South African QualificationsAuthority, 2001).SAQA acknowledges that provider capacity differs significantly. The SAQA Criteria and Guidelinesfor providers reference diverse types of providers, i.e. ‘delivery only site; assessment only site; anddelivery and assessment site’. SAQA also references there are SMME providers, and theirparticular needs and elevated support requirements (South African Qualifications Authority,2001).SAQA supplies the following questions to providers to assist with preparation with complianceof this criterion(South African Qualifications Authority, 2001):155 | P a g e
  • 163. What is the management and administrative structure of the organisation? How are decisions taken in the organisation, by whom and in relation to what? What is the financial resource base of the organisation? What are the sources of funding? Does the organisation have a plan to become self-sustaining, if it is not already? Does the organisation have adequate human and material resources to carry out its intended functions? What are the systems used by the organisation to manage and be accountable for its finances? More generally, to what extent is the organisation run in ways that are transparent and accountable?156 | P a g e
  • 164. ConclusionThree Quality Councils oversee delivery and assessment standards in public and privateinstitutions in the South African educational landscape. SAQA was at the time of this researchinvolved with the oversight role of occupationally directed providers and ETQAs as the QCTOcompleted its transitional phase to operationalization. Private and Public providers are subject toexternal review processes. The South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) registersqualifications on the National Qualifications Framework (NQF). The Departments of BasicEducation and Higher Education and Training are the responsible Ministries that regulateeducation and training in South Africa.Accreditation processes intend to ensure that institutions are accountable and demonstrate theoutcomes for their educational process that are consistent with the qualification outcomes.Accreditation provides a formal process for ongoing evaluation and improvement of a provider toadvance educational excellence and quality management processes. Furthermore to the NationalQualifications Framework a number of diverse taxonomies and coding systems exist on theOccupational Qualifications Framework in relation to occupational development(NationalQualification Framework, Act 67, 2008).In the following section, the researcher has explored the relevance of international accreditationframeworks as related to the purpose of this research thesis.3.6.2 The GermanaccreditationframeworkThe German Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länderin the Federal Republic of Germany Kultusministerkonferenz (KMK) certifies quality developmentand stability in tertiary education in Germany, and was established in 1948 (Federal Republic ofGermany). The responsibility for the qualifications framework, including its continuingdevelopment, lies with the federal states associated within the KMK. In accordance with theconstitutional order of the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal states are largely responsible157 | P a g e
  • 165. for higher education(The Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the FederalRepublic of Germany and the Federal Ministry of Education, 2005).The Foundation for the Accreditation of Study Programmes in Germany, or Accreditation Council,was formed in a KMK resolution in 2004. The Accreditation Council certifies accreditation agenciesand instituted guidelines and criteria for programme accreditation in Germany.The GermanCouncil of Science and Humanities, Wissenschaftsrat, was established in 1957 and conductsinstitutional accreditation of private and religious universities in Germany (Harney and Kissmann,2000)and (German Council of Science and Humanities Wissenschaftsrat).Germany’s approach to NQF implementation is to consider its own educational culture andsystems to establish its position, and not being driven by the EQF, in line with the aim of theBologna Process to create a system of transparent and comparable higher education qualifications(European Consortium for Accreditation in Higher Education, 2005). While the qualificationsframework for German higher education qualifications and the European QualificationsFramework are compatible, the process is not an exact mirror of specifications(Commission of theEuropean Communities, 2008).The present qualifications framework focuses initially on higher education and describes interfaceswith vocational training(German Rectors Conference, 2005). Germanys education system has anumber of strong sub-systems that are largely detached from one another and exhibit littletransparency or mobility between them, be it between vocational training and universityeducation or between initial training and continuing training, and horizontal and verticalmobility(Kehm, 2006).Germany has traditionally focused onan institution-oriented or process-oriented accreditationapproach that is centred in institutional (vocational or academic) communities. The accreditationof degree programmes was introduced into the German higher education system in 1998 as anobligatory element for all Bachelors and Masters programmes.An additional option was introduced in 2008, namely System Accreditation, which examines theuniversity’s own quality assurance systems and leads to the accreditation of degree158 | P a g e
  • 166. programmes.The accreditation system in Germany is characterised by decentralisedagencies(German Rectors Conference, 2005).The German foundation for the accreditation ofstudy programme’s functions (Kehm, 2005:131-144) : Certifying accreditation agencies and producing procedural rules and criteria for accreditation ; Acquainting interested parties in Higher Education Institutions and the general public about the purposes and outcomes of accreditation procedures; Decontaminating the accreditation system to allow Higher Education Institutions to improve their accountability for the quality of teaching and learning; Indicating the German accreditation system in the international context and contributing in the development of the European Higher Education Area; Unhesitatingly co-operating with accreditation agencies (including foreign partners) from Higher Education Institutions, and the student community, government and occupations.The German foundation for the accreditation of study programmes operates independently andstipulates that Higher Education Institutions are predominantly responsible for the quality andquality assurance of teaching and learning. It is clearly important for Germany that the quality ofteaching and learning is delineated as a quality response control system and is accordinglycertifiable(Schade, 2004 :175-196).The evaluation of teaching and learning is instituted on the reciprocated suitability and fitness forpurpose methodology and therefore on the confirmation of the acceptability of the study goal inconcurrence with the goal presentation. Transparency of the accreditation system andindependence of the role-players are fundamental requirements for quality and serious forcompetitiveness and mobility in an open higher education system that is transparent, reciprocally,horizontally and vertically.159 | P a g e
  • 167. Higher Education Institutions must be in a position to document quality physiognomies of teachingand learning and their evaluation demands that influence. Universities are required to satisfy theirstakeholders, government and international experts from the occupation they wish to delivereducation and training in(Serrano-Velarde, 2006).There are currently eight certified and recognised agencies in Germany(Kehm, 2005:131-144): AHPGS – Accreditation agency for study programmes in special education, care, health sciences and social work; AKAST – Agency for quality assurance and accreditation of canonical study programmes; AQUIN – Accreditation, certification and quality assurance institute; AQAS – Agency for quality assurance by accreditation of study programmes; ASIIN – Accreditation agency for degree programmes in engineering, informatics/computer science, the natural sciences and mathematics; EVALAG – Evaluation agency Baden-Württemberg; FIBA - Foundation for international business administration accreditation; ZevA – Central evaluation and accreditationagency, Hannover.The listed agencies accredit programmes of education for Bachelors and Masters Degrees fromstate or state-recognised higher education bodies in Germany. The accreditation procedureembraces several stages established on the peer review model.Higher Education Institution submitapplication for the accreditation of a study programme to one of the aforementioned agencies,which they have selected, and the relevant agency will deploy an evaluation group. The evaluationgroup’s configuration will be a reflection of specialists, for content focus, and representatives ofthe study programme comprehensive profile.160 | P a g e
  • 168. The evaluation team will comprise of representatives of Higher Education Institutions, i.e. teachersand students, and of agents of the profession. Germany has two types of accreditation:programme accreditation and system accreditation (Kehm, 2006).German Programme Accreditation Process(Kehm, 2006):The programme accreditation process in Germany is made up of several stages and is based on thepeer evaluation principle. A higher education institution submits an application for theaccreditation of a programme to a licensed accreditation agency: The relevant agency appoints an expert group that consists of: The composition must be a reflection not just of the specialist content focus of the programme but also of its specific profile; The expert group will enclose representatives of higher education institutions, i.e. teachers and students, and of representatives of the professional field; The expert group does an evaluation of the programme; The Accreditation Council carries out this evaluation against the specified criteria for the accreditation of study programmes which includes: The appointed expert group carries out an on-site visit of the institution; The expert group draws up an assessment report; Based on the assessment report and in agreement with the conclusion, regulations provided by the Accreditation Council, the responsible accreditation commission from the relevant agency makes their judgment.The judgment may be: To grant an accreditation for the relevant study programme; To grant accreditation with conditions; Abandon the accreditation process; To reject the accreditation.161 | P a g e
  • 169. German systems accreditation process:(Schade, 2004) The system accreditation practice comprises several stages and is based on the peer review principle. A higher education institution submits an application for the accreditation of its internal quality assurance system to a licensed agency. The Agency conducts a preliminary evaluation on the prerequisites for higher education institutions for the admission to system accreditation compliance. In case of a constructive preliminary evaluation, the agency engages an expert group.The expert groups include: Three members with understanding in the fields of managing Higher Education Institutions and of core quality assurance of Higher Education Institutions; A student member having familiarity in the fields of self-administration of Higher Education Institutions and of accreditation; One practitioner from the respective profession; One member of the expert group with experience in the management of Higher Education Institutions, in curriculum design of study programmes and in quality assurance in the field of teaching and learning; One member of the expert group shall be from a different country.The Accreditation Council conveys the evaluation of the quality assurance arrangement inagreement with the particular criteria for system accreditation:(Kehm, 2006) The evaluation procedure contains two on-site visits as well as a feature random sample and a programme indiscriminate sample; The first on-site visit predominantly serves for gathering of evidence on the Higher Education Institution and its management systems; The second on-site visit attends to the critical analysis of the acquiesced submission and for directing the feature indiscriminate samples;162 | P a g e
  • 170. The feature random sample is a comprehensive qualified investigation of relevant features of the arrangement of study programmes, the conduct of study programmes and quality assurance encompassing all study programmes for Bachelors and Master’s degree; The evaluation of random sample serves for verifying compliance of all study programmes of the Higher Education Institution with the procedures enumerated by the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs (KMK), the state-specific procedures and the standards set up by the Accreditation Council (Federal Republic of Germany); The Agency conducts an evaluation of 15% of the study programmes and a minimum of 3 study programmes. The accreditation agency employs expert groups to ensure a suitable assessment of the study programmes in all areas relevant for the evaluation processes; The expert group for system accreditation formulates a final report with their decision sanctioned for system accreditation, taking into account the evaluation reports on the programme random samples and involving the chairpersons of the expert groups for the programme random samples; The experts measure the insufficiencies in quality recognised in the feature and programme random samples.The German accreditation agency’s decision is based on the experts report and the decisionrecommendation, taking into account the Higher Education Institutions observation. Theaccreditation agency may award or deny system’s accreditation. Industry, academic and peerreview validation is highlighted as fundamental elements of the accreditation and qualityassurance frameworks(Kehm, 2005:131-144).Germany has a vibrant and successful occupationally directed provider base. South Africa hasmirrored a number of Germany’s processes and policy frameworks in relation to occupationallyand vocationally directed learning and teaching. Legislation was passed in Germany in 1969 tounify the vocational training system under the shared responsibility of the state, the unions,associations and chambers of trade and industry(Harney and Kissmann, 2000).Germany has a tripartite school system thatdistributes children at the age of 10. Students can goto grammar school where they sit the Abitur, the equivalent of UK A-levels, or they can opt toattend comprehensive schools. Those who attend Realschule study for the "middle" leaving163 | P a g e
  • 171. certificate, akin to GCSEs, while those who attend high school, Hauptschule, can get only a basicleaving certificate (Bawden, 2007).Vocational education and training are separated into two different and complex systems: one forthe initial vocational training and one for the further vocational training.Apprenticeships takeapproximately three years and are very popular. Merely students with Abitur or a vocationaldiploma can go to university. Employers that take on apprenticeships want higher qualificationsfrom school leavers as jobs are becoming more technical in Germany. About 60% of all trainingschemes are in sales and industrial professions, such as electrical engineering.Vocational training is becoming more prestigious in Germany, and those with basic skills arelimited. The German vocational system is now a casualty of its own success as learners requireincreasing skills to meet the entry level requirements of much sought after apprenticeships(Bawden, 2007).164 | P a g e
  • 172. ConclusionThe German accreditation system is stringently regulated. The system focuses on provider capacityand quality management system validation. Peer review mechanisms and international validationare pivotal to the accreditation system and processes.The German system delineates between programme and system accreditation, as does the SouthAfrican accreditation system. The German vocational training system is in high demand. Ironically,employers are requiring elevated skills levels as vocational positions become increasinglytechnical. The German accreditation process is made up of several stages and is based on the peerevaluation and industry validation principle.This system both supports current practice in South Africa, and also underpins the researcher’sproposals of alternative systems, which include peer review mechanisms.3.6.3 The United States of America accreditation frameworkThe USA Department of Education confirms that the objective of accreditation in the US is toguarantee that education provided by institutions of higher education meets satisfactory levels ofquality. The Secretary of Education must, in conforming to US Law,publish a list of nationallyrecognised approved accrediting agencies that perform accreditation services on behalf of the USGovernment.The approved list of regional and national accrediting agencies recognised by the US Secretary ofEducation serves as confirmation of jurisdiction of the approved agencies’ scope of accreditationpowers. The Secretary of Education also recognises state agencies for the approval of public post-secondary occupational education and nurse education (USA Department of State Publication,2005).The USA used “Vocational and Technical Education” until a few years ago when it waschanged to “Career and Technical Education” because it was believed to convey a better image, so165 | P a g e
  • 173. these terms can be used interchangeably (United Nations Educational, Scientific and CulturalOrganization, 2009).The USA Secretary of Education must confirm that the accreditation body is credible in themanagement and evaluation of quality of education or training of institutions of higher education,or higher education programmes they accredit. The USA Department of Education recognisesaccrediting bodies for the accreditation of institutions of higher (post-secondary) education(United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization , 2006).Accreditation in the USA is aimed at confirming that institutions of higher education accomplishadequate levels of quality to provide education. Accrediting agencies are private educationalassociations of regional or national cultivate assessment standards and conduct peer evaluationsto consider amenability. Institutions and / or programmes are required to meet essential agencysevaluation specifications for "accreditation” validation.Nearly 15 million students are currentlyenrolled, either full- or part-time(Weaver, 2011).For a body to apply to the USA Department of Education for accreditation awarding status thebody will be evaluated by the Department of Education’s Accrediting Agency Evaluation Unit anddemonstrate compliance against the Criteria for Secretarial Recognition (34 CSR Part 602 SubpartB). The Accrediting Agency Evaluation Unit is located in the Department of Education’s Office ofPost-secondary Education to deal with accreditation matters(U.S. Department of Education -Office of Post-secondary Education, 2006).The USA stipulates that accreditation is voluntary in that the process of accreditation requires thefull cooperation with, and complete participation in, the process of accreditation by the college oruniversity seeking accreditation. The college or university must complete a self-evaluation process,demonstratingtheir commitment to the quality standards of accreditation. Accreditation is theprincipal means of determining the legitimacy and quality of colleges and universities in the UnitedStates; to describe the process as "voluntary" is not to describe it as "optional" or "unnecessary”(USA Department of State Publication, 2005).166 | P a g e
  • 174. Two USA national associations of credential evaluation services are regularly used by federalagencies, state agencies, educational institutions and employers. The two national associationshave published standards for membership and have affiliations to national and internationalhigher education associations. The two agencies are: (USA Department of State Publication, 2005). National Association of Credential Evaluation Services (NACES) is an association of 19 credential evaluation services with admission standards and an enforced code of good practice. Association of International Credentials Evaluators (AICE) is an association of 10 credential evaluation services with a board of advisors and an enforced code of ethics.The Accreditation Agency Evaluation Unit conducts the following functions with respect toaccreditation in the USA:(U.S. Department of Education - Office of Post-secondary Education,2006) Conduct a continuous review of standards, policies, procedures and issues in the area of the Department of Educations interests and responsibilities relative to accreditation; Administer the process whereby accrediting agencies and state approval agencies secure initial and renewed recognition by the Secretary of Education; Serve as the Departments liaison with accrediting agencies and state approval agencies; Prove consultative services to institutions, associations, state agencies, other federal agencies and congress regarding accreditation; Interpret and disseminate policy relative to accreditation issues in the case of all appropriate programmes administered by the Department of Education; Conduct and stimulate appropriate research; and Provide support for the Secretarys National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity.The USA Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) is a private government-accreditednon-profit national organisation that coordinates accreditation activitiesin the United States. CHEArepresents more than 3,000 colleges and universities(Eaton, 2011).167 | P a g e
  • 175. Professional bodies accredit specific subject matter qualifications as it relates to their respectiveindustries (U.S. Department of Education - Office of Post-secondary Education, 2006): Chemistry - The American chemical society’scommittee on professional training (ACS). Computer Science - The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Computing Accreditation Commission (ABET-CAC). Engineering and Technology - The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) has representatives from all of the major engineering professional societies in the USA, including the Association of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), and the National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE), amongst many others. Law - The American Bar Association (ABA) section on legal education and the association of American Law Schools (ALS) both evaluate law schools. Medicine - The Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) is a joint project of the association of American Medical Colleges (AMC) and the American Medical Association, Council on Medical Education (AMA-CME). Meteorology / Atmospheric Science - The American Meteorological Society (AMS) has issued a policy statement that describes the minimum curriculum and faculty for a bachelor’s degree in meteorology. The AMS also certifies individual people as competent in meteorology. ConclusionThe USAaccreditation system relies on approved accreditation agencies approved by the USADepartment of Education. The USA Higher Education System contains the largest number offormally rated outstanding universities. The USA accreditation system embraces professional bodyand peer review validation.USA institutions of higher learning have experienced tremendous success globally because of theperceived quality as related to their accreditation system. As a result, large numbers of USAuniversities have opened in foreign countries.168 | P a g e
  • 176. The USAhas achieved the global leader status for reputable universities according to a newGuardian global reputation ranking released in 2012. The list published by the Times HigherEducation, is the first of its kind looking solely at the reputations of institutions for teaching andresearch. Harvard is ranked number 1, closely followed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT) defeating Oxford and Cambridge universities. The US controls with 7 universities in the top10 and a massive 45 in the total top 100 rankings(Times Higher Education, 2012).The USA higher education structure consists of private and public universities and colleges.Students have to apply for admission and are accepted based on their placement scores, academicand extracurricular achievements. The accreditation framework in the USA is largely reliant onregional (state) accreditation bodies and professional, independent, registered accreditationbodies. The system in the USA allows quality assurance to operate independently within astructured framework of independence in a free market economy.This accreditation system supports the researcher’s proposed alternative in its embracing ofprofessional bodies and peer review mechanisms.3.6.4 The Canadian accreditation frameworkThe Canadian accreditation framework stipulates that post-secondary education is theaccountability of provincial and territorial governments. Canada has ten provinces and threeterritories. Respectively a province or territory administers the operation of post-secondaryinstitutions. The jurisdiction has its own quality assurance instruments that are used inamalgamation to guarantee quality in the countrys wide range of post-secondary institutes asconfirmed by the Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials (Lillie, 2008).The Canadian Education and Training Accreditation Commission (CETAC) is a voluntary privatecareer college body established in 1984 as a private accreditation agency in Canada. CETAC setsvolunteer quality standards with provincial/territorial and federal government representatives,169 | P a g e
  • 177. industry, educators and private career colleges (Canadian Education and Training AccreditationCommission, 2010).Canada requires individual programmes or faculties to obtain accreditation from a recognisedagency / professional body e.g. The Canadian Architectural Certification Board, Canadian Councilof Professional Engineers, Canadian Forestry Accreditation Board, the Federation of Law Societiesof Canada and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. However, Canada doesnot have a national consolidated accreditation system. Professional bodies appraise detaileduniversity and college programmes for accreditation(Usher, 2011).The term "accreditation” has reference to the approval of a post-secondary institution orprogramme, by an accreditation body, to meet determined standards, resulting in a recognisedpractice of validation (Canadian Education and Training Accreditation Commission, 2010).Public post-secondary institutions have the authority to grant degrees, diplomas and certificatesthrough specific legislation and these institutions are known as "recognised" institutions. Arestricted number of private post-secondary institutions also have been given degree-grantingauthority.Private post-secondary institutions are not recognised but "registered" or "licensed”.Registered or licensed institutions in Canada (usually private sector training organisations) issuediplomas and certificates that are not authorised by specifics(Usher, 2011).The Canadian degreequalifications framework contains bachelors,masters, and doctoral degrees.The Canadian Information Centre specifies that the principal quality assurance instruments usedin Canada for International Credentials include (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009): LegislationLegislation allows for the founding, governance, recognition and assurance for the quality of post-secondary educational programmes. Government may examine or take possession of any part ofacademic institutional operations. Legislation provides for initiated committees or boards tomaintain programme standards and accountability measures.170 | P a g e
  • 178. Affiliation and federationAffiliation agreements divulge recognised measures between degree-granting institutions andnon-degree-granting institutions. The process requires degree-granting institutions and non-degree-granting institutions agreeing on a delivery model that will culminate in graduates beinggranted degrees from the degree-granting institutions. Colleges are permitted to participate in afederation arrangement with colleges and universities in which programmes may be available tostudents at various institutions as it transmits to the same university programme. Credit transfer and articulationCredit transfer includes an equivalency assessment of progression that has been completed by astudent at one institution to courses presented at an alternative institution. Articulationincriminates formal agreements between institutions of reciprocally suitable programme provisionand credits awards in specific programmes in advance of the contribution. External and internal reviewExternal review procedures could embrace accreditation visits focussed by external committees ofquality assessors, frequently collected by academic peers or representatives from pertinentprofessions or industry. Institutions likewise use self-assessment approaches to conduct internalevaluations of excellence of specific programmes and of their organisations. The outcome ofinternal reviews are provided to government and may be reproduced in pivotal suitability fordirect (e.g. grants) or indirect (e.g. government-based student loan revenues) public funding. Provincial/territorial registration/licensingIt is mandatory for private post-secondary education and training providers to register or licensetheir institutions, programmes or instructors with provincial or territorial government authorities.Registration procedures place emphasis primarily on consumer protection and necessitatevalidation of programme quality, curriculum and lecturer qualifications. Accreditation of professional programmes171 | P a g e
  • 179. Canadian professional regulatory bodies (e.g. nursing, architecture, and engineering) contribute atprovincial/territorial and national level in the founding and assessment of post-secondarycurriculum standards and consult on other professional subjects governing studentsarrangements for entry into vocations. This appraisal leads to professional accreditation of specificprogrammes. The Canadian government authorities are accountable for post-secondary educationand each province and territory provides lists of "recognised”, "registered” and "licensed"institutions within their jurisdiction (Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2011).The Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials offers a guideline entitled ‘QualityAssurance Practices for Post-secondary Institutions in Canada’, which delivers a summary of thetypes of post-secondary institutions and the quality assurance mechanisms practical in eachprovince and territory (Johnson and Beaudin, 2007.11.26).The absence of a formal, national system of accreditation for post-secondary education providersin Canada makes it challenging to confirm how quality is guaranteed at both the institutional andprogramme levels(Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2011).Evaluation of Canadian post-secondary credentials must take into account the framework in whichquality assurance is applied in each province and territory, institutions recognition status and themonitoring instruments applied by individual institutions. The legislative and public policyframeworks in which post-secondary education operates in Canada, aspects that underwrite theneed to validate programme quality and guarantee recognition of qualifications include(CanadianEducation and Training Accreditation Commission, 2010): Current pronouncements to give degree-granting authority to some private, for-profit colleges and restricted degree-granting authority at some public colleges; Reduced discrepancy between some universities and colleges owing to escalations in shared programme distribution, joint credentials, and the formation of formal university/college partnerships; Improved student and graduate mobility; The lack of provincial accreditation schemes for public education providers;172 | P a g e
  • 180. Increase of internet-based education programmes; Augmented procedure of Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) for academic credit; Introduction of international, internet-based programmes that include providers without provincial/territorial or inter-institutional standards or liability; mechanisms for web-based programmes; Lack of data on quality assurance mechanisms used by institutions in other countries, private corporations and professional organisations. ConclusionThe constitutional structure of Canada locates all responsibility for education and training with theprovincial governments. The complex array of existing accreditation mechanisms and the lack ofnational, provincial and territorial accreditation bodies pose significant challenges in relation toquality assurance. The obvious absence of coherent evaluation mechanisms to assess Canadassystems of quality assurance and the absence of information on how Canadian education systemsalign with those of other countries make the assessment of Canadas quality assurancemechanisms an extensive but not insuperable trial.The entrenched style of professional body recognition, and its implied support for peer reviewmechanisms, describes how the Canadian system supports the view espoused by the researcher.3.6.5 The United Kingdomaccreditation frameworkThe education system in England is overseen by the Department of Education and the Departmentof Business, Innovation and Skills. The various other countries in the United Kingdom i.e. Wales,Scotland, and Northern Ireland have separate regulators responsible for their respective educationframeworks. The UK is centred in an outcomes-oriented approach that is an essential element ofqualifications frameworks.Qualification levels are contained in three qualification frameworks inthe UK(Qualifications and Curriculum and Development Agency and CCEA, 2012). The UK National Qualifications Framework173 | P a g e
  • 181. Only qualifications that have been accredited by the three regulators for England, Wales, andNorthern Ireland can be included in the NQF. This ensures that all qualifications within theframework are of high quality and meet the needs of learners and employers (Qualifications andCurriculum and Development Agency and CCEA, 2012). Qualifications and Credit Framework (the new framework for vocational or work-related qualifications)The Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF) contains vocational (or work-related)qualifications, available in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. These qualifications are made upof units that are worth credits. Units and qualifications also range in difficulty, from entry level tolevel eight (similar to the levels in the NQF). Ofqual, together with its partner regulators in Wales(DCELLS) and Northern Ireland (CCEA), is responsible for regulation of the Qualifications and CreditFramework (QCF)(Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency England, 2011).The QCF is a system for recognising skills and qualifications. It does this by awarding credit forqualifications and units (small steps of learning). Each unit has a credit value. This value specifiesthe number of credits gained by learners who complete that unit. The flexibility of the systemallows learners to gain qualifications at their own pace along routes that suit them best.Vocationaland work-related course approval is intrinsically linked to awarding body approval(The ScottishGovernment. Creative & Cultural Skills, 2008).Vocational qualifications include: NVQs (National Vocational Qualifications) HNCs (Higher National Certificates) and HNDs (Higher National Diplomas)The names of vocational qualifications may indicate who awards the qualification, for exampleBTECs from Edexcel, City and Guilds and OCR Nationals. There are many other organisations thataward qualifications. Framework for Higher Education Qualifications174 | P a g e
  • 182. The Framework for Higher Education Qualifications (FHEQ) describes all the main higher educationqualifications. It applies to degrees, diplomas, certificates and other academic awards granted by auniversity or higher education college (apart from honorary degrees and higher doctorates)(TheQuality Assurance Agency for Higher Education, 2008).The FHEQ broadly corresponds with levels 4 to 8 of the National Qualifications Framework, interms of the demands the qualifications place on learners. The Business Names Act 1985 made it acrime for any business in the UK to use the word "University" in its name devoid of the formalapproval of the Privy Council (Parliament and Constitution Centre, 2005).Three central institutions provide English Higher Education: universities, colleges and institutionsof higher education including art and music colleges. Universities are empowered by a RoyalCharter or an Act of Parliament and are sovereign institutions.The Further and Higher EducationAct of 1992 removed the boundary line separating universities and polytechnics and awardedpolytechnics university status (i.e. the right to award their own degrees) and award universitytitles (The Further and Higher Education Act, 1992).Some may offer Higher Degrees and other qualifications offered by most non-university highereducation institutions are validated by external bodies such as a local university or the OpenUniversity. An institution can also apply for the authority to award its own degrees but it must beable to demonstrate a good record of running degree courses validated by otheruniversities(Kaplan International Colleges, 2005).Institutions can apply for university status but must satisfy a number of criteria, including thepower to award its own first and higher degrees. Further education institutions also provide somehigher education. The Further and Higher Education Act 1992 allows for the transfer of furthereducation institutions to the higher education sector, if the full-time enrolment number of theinstitution concerned for courses of higher education exceeds 55% of its total full-time equivalentenrolment number (The Further and Higher Education Act, 1992).175 | P a g e
  • 183. The British Accreditation Council (BAC) is a self-governing body, established in 1984 to be thenational accrediting body ofthe independent sectors of further and higher education in the U.K.The main objective of the Councils formation members was “to improve and enhance thestandards of independent further and higher educational institutions by the establishment of asystem of accreditation”(The British Accreditation Council, 2012).The UK has a central repository known as the Universities and Colleges Admission Services for thelisting of UK accredited universities and colleges. The Open and Distance Learning Quality Councilis the custodian for quality in open and distance learning institutions. Very strict regulations existin the UK for provision and it is illegal to offer a qualification in the UK unless authorised to do so,and degrees may only be awarded with the approval of theSecretary of State or a Royal Charter orAct of Parliament. 157 institutions in the UK are permitted to award degrees; 700 colleges andother institutions that do not have degree-awarding powers provide complete courses leading torecognised UK degrees. Courses at these institutions are validated by institutions thatdo havedegree-awarding powers (The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills , 2011). ConclusionThe United Kingdom’s education system has been exported to numerous countries that the UKcolonised. Zimbabwe and South Africa are two prime examples of the aforementioned. The UKprides itself on its historic institutional traditions and the sacred knowledge of its universities.Many universities in the UK are hundreds of years old and stooped in British academic tradition. Itsproponents consider the UK higher education system highly. The UK has a strict accreditationpolicy for institutions that wish to participate in its higher education system. Private education isconsidered of strategic importance in the UK education system and is in high demand. Professionalbodies play an important role in the approval of professional programmes.The UK has a credible and internationally recognised accreditation and quality assurance system.The US dominates the top 100 university rankings. Taking 12 of the places in the top 100, the UK issecond to the US with Cambridge University surpassing Oxford University. The Imperial College,University College London (UCL), London School of Economics and Edinburgh University also make176 | P a g e
  • 184. the top 50(Times Higher Education, 2012).The UK and Germany have a lot in common in relationto their credence given to the role played by vocational education, the dual schooling system andthe high demand for university access.Although the UK system aligns itself less readily to the researcher’s proposal of an alternativesystem, that others do, the UK system of peer review mechanisms is supportive.3.6.6 The Singaporeanaccreditation frameworkThe Singaporean education system depicts the equilibrium of distinction. Singapore is a model oflifelong learning. There is a whole bio-network of government frameworks, education providers,study programmes and financial schemes available (Ministry of Education Singapore, 2004).Theforming of thinking skills is projected to infuse all levels of society and the resulting impact on theworkplace. The Singapore Ministry of Education’srefrain“Thinking Schools, Learning Nation”,indicates the objectives of educational reform are to create schools that cultivate thinking skillsand, eventually, a nation that participates in lifelong learning (Sellan, Chong,and Tay, 2004).Singapore is considered the Asian education hub and has attracted some of the most prestigiouseducation institutions to their shores to establish campuses e.g. University of Chicago, INSEAD,New Yorks Duke University, ESSEC of France etc. (Ministry of Education Singapore, 2004).Singapore made fundamental and systemic educational changes to meet the needs of anincreasingly complex global environment.Teachers are compelled to attend regular ContinuousProfessional Development programmes (CPD) and develop their abilities to become reflectivepractitioners and capable researchers to improve classroom practices. Singapore transformedfrom an industrial economy to aprosperousknowledge-based economy (Sellan, Chong,and Tay,2004).The Singaporean model links directly with training in the labour market, including the inculcationof shared cultural values and attitude development (Pandor, 2008). There are no accrediting177 | P a g e
  • 185. bodies separately from the Ministry of Education and the Workforce Development Agency, as thepolytechnics and universities have self-accreditation ability. Course accreditation involves a siteaudit (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009).Singapore has a dual bilingual education system that requires all learners to be proficient inEnglish and their mother tongue (Chinese, Malay or Tamil) to preserve their ethnic identity,philosophy, culture and morals.Students acquire important skills like collaboration andcommunication that foster meta-cognition and independent learning. Learners are subjected toproject based work to explore their ability to function in the real world by acquiring knowledge,application, communication, collaboration and independent learning(Sellan, Chong,and Tay,2004).The Singaporean pre-school phase focuses on intellectual and social development skills. The pre-school education is a structured 3-4 year programme encompassing language, basic mathematics,simple science, music, and play learning. There are 2 years of nursery school, followed by 2 yearsof kindergarten(Hodge, 2010).The primary school phase takes six years to complete (from ages 6to 12). Students will sit for a significant examination at the end of this phase known as the PrimarySchool Leaving Examination (PSLE). The PSLE outcome determines where the learner will be placedfor their secondary education. The top achievers will gain access to the most prestigious schools.Secondary school phase takes between 4 years or 5 years, and is dependent on the academicabilities of the student. In addition to the traditional secondary schools, there are also specialisedschools like the Singapore Sports School, NUS High School of Mathematics and Science, and thenew Singapore School of the Arts. At secondary school level 3, students can opt for Arts, Science,Commerce or Technical streams. Secondary school education will take four years leading to theGCE "O" level examination or 5 years leading to the GCE "N" level examination. The duration of thesecondary school education will depend on the students academic abilities.The secondary schoolcurriculum isdesigned to match the abilities and interest, as students select one of four coursesdesigned to match their learning abilities and interests (Sellan, Chong,and Tay, 2004).The national curriculum structure sanctions schools to adapt their curriculum to meet students’needs. The pedagogies include inquiry-based and experiential learning that are dynamically178 | P a g e
  • 186. endorsed to empower students to discoveryprofounderdenotation in their learning.Nationalassessment maintains standards for benchmarking todeal with difficulties and abstruse challengesthey are likely to face (Sellan, Chong,and Tay, 2004).The junior college phase prepares a student for university. There are two options in Singaporecomprising a 2-year junior college education or a 3-year pre-university course at the MillenniaInstitute. There are 18 junior college level institutions in Singapore(Singapore Workforce SkillsQualifications, 2009).The Institute of Technical Education (ITE) curriculum aims to developtechnical skills and knowledge for the various industry sectors in Singapore. There is a broad rangeof institutional training and traineeship programmes for students of all predispositions. The ITEeducation accentuates practical, hands-on learning and is suitable for students who like to take upon more practice-oriented courses(Hodge, 2010).ITE graduates can proceed to the polytechnics to advance their studies(Ministry of EducationSingapore, 2004).The five polytechnics in Singapore have established a good reputation forproviding highly valuable practice-oriented courses at diploma level. Courses provide range fromengineering, media studies, nursing and early childhood studies etc. The Singapore governmentset up the Singapore Institute of Technology to bring overseas university programmes topolytechnic graduates. Additionally there are five Singaporean universities and a number ofinternational university campuses in Singapore.Singapore does not assess or grant recognition forforeign degrees. The Ministry of Education does not keep a list of accredited overseas universitiesto validate country of origin requirements (Ministry of Education Singapore, 2004).The Workforce Development Agency (WDA) collaborates with key industry players to develop therelevant qualification titles and progression pathways based on industry and occupational needs.For each industry, an industry skills and training council is set up to drive the development andvalidation of skills standards, assessment strategies and training curricula. Key industry partnersincluding employers, industry associations, training organisations and unions represent eachcouncil. The skills standards and training modules are organised into seven levels of nationallyrecognised qualifications ranging from certificate to graduate diploma. Training packages aredeveloped by industry through national industry skills councils or by enterprises to meet the179 | P a g e
  • 187. identified training needs of specific industries or industry sectors(Singapore Workforce SkillsQualifications, 2009).The Singaporean government holds strongly that employers should decide if a degree-holder hasthe qualities desired for employment and if the qualification of the candidate is most relevant totheir business needs. The employer is considered the deciding driver in respect of the valueassigned to a person’s qualifications. Employers are encouraged to endorse the status of a foreigninstitution with the respective countries Embassy and/or High Commission. The professional bodyin Singapore for operating confirmation, e.g. engineering, medicine, law and accountancy, mustrecognise professional degrees(Ministry of Education Singapore, 2004).The Ministry of Education develops and implements education policies in Singapore and controlsthe development and management of the Government (including subsidised) primary schools,secondary schools, junior colleges and a centralised institute and the registration of privateinstitutions. The Singaporean government places the protection of students and student fees as aprimary concern. The education policy requires proper student protection in welfare practices andstandards as mandated by the Mandatory Enhanced Registration Framework. Educationinstitutions must provide detailed information in relation to student registration, corporategovernance, quality of provisions and confirm information transparency (Ministry of EducationSingapore, 2004). ConclusionSingapore has a profoundly strong, globally recognised education system. Mediocrity is notacceptable and excellence in schools, leadership and well-equipped teachers and facilities are non-negotiable deliverables. The future is viewed with optimism as global challenges present anopportunity to participate with increased focus in the global knowledge economy. Singaporeanschools and tertiary institutions are geared to propel Singapore into this future.Singapore has prepared an education system that is more flexible and diverse. Students havegreater choice to learn what they are interested in. Students are encouraged to choose what andhow they learn and to take greater ownership of their own learning. Students have a broad-based180 | P a g e
  • 188. education framework to ensure their all-round or holistic development in and outside of theclassroom. Prime focus is placed on objectivity, relevance and receptiveness of the curriculum tocompete in the global market place.Singaporeans are invigorated to think, explore and solve new problems, to create new openingsfor the future. The Singaporean government focus is on comprehensive values to build thepersonality and flexibility of students to deal with life’s challenges and be equipped as valuecitizens (Ministry of Education Singapore, 2004).Singaporeans far excel in the delivery of their country’s knowledge base. Singapore hasentrenched itself in the dimension of creating creative and cognitive individuals that think in newways, solve new problems and create new opportunities for the future;an added dimension of thepredation of personal values of citizens that are balanced and do not feel the need to destroy asopposed to create.In the search for data related to country accreditation models it became clear that most countriesglobally do have some kind of anaccreditation framework or model in place to regulate quality ofeducation and training within their jurisdiction. Some overlap in accreditation understanding andmethodological application between countries has also been identified by the researcher, e.g. thesimilarity between the systems implemented in South Africa, Zimbabwe and the UK, as well assimilarities between the vocational system relevant to Germany and South Africa. The thin linebetween education and training becomes even thinner in diverse TVET systems, such as the "dualsystem" in Germany, Englands modern apprenticeships and Botswanas brigades (Pandor, 2008).The Singaporean model, by using one central accrediting agency, supports the researcher’s pointof view that various institutions are likely to have differing interpretations of standard guidelines.The model also supports the proposal for the inclusion of professional bodies in the accreditationprocess.However, in the quest for knowledge and data regarding country moderation models, theresearcher realised that the moderation systems of different countries are largely integrated181 | P a g e
  • 189. within the existing accreditation systems. Therefore, the researcher has attempted to unpack thisunderstanding in more detail in the next section.182 | P a g e
  • 190. 3.7 Country moderation models3.7.1 IntroductionAs referred to in the above section, moderation processes have been integrated in most evolvedglobal systems. Of particular importance is the way in which moderation has been separated fromaccreditation in the German and UK education systems. The reason being that the South Africaneducation system mirrors similar. In this regard, the models as presented by Germany and the UKhave been discussed in more detail.Singapore and Canada’s education systems are centred within the context of knowledgeeconomies. The value proposition they pose in occupationally directed education and training hasbeen outlined below, as systems move from over-regulation to addressing evolutionary marketdemands. Pivotal to the accreditation andexternal moderation processes is the qualitymanagement system and process. The South African moderation model included the role ofQuality Councils and the particular criteria specified by SAQA and ETQAs for the planning andimplementation of Quality Management Systems in occupationally directed educationalandtraining.A 2009 report on the mapping of the qualifications frameworks of Asia-Pacific EconomicCooperation economies supports the position of a quality assurance framework and its link to aqualifications framework. Importantly the quality assurance of qualifications must be linked tomeeting the requirements of the descriptors in the framework and of the providers awarding thequalifications(Burke, 2009).3.7.2 The German moderation frameworkIn line with the agreement to establish the EQF, Germany also moved towards the development ofa German qualifications framework for lifelong learning. The quality assurance in Germany as in183 | P a g e
  • 191. the UK has been tracedto the structural and governance schedules for education and training.Education and quality assurance is influenced by the geo-political and labour markets milieu. TheCopenhagen processes and the EQF intend tosupport the articulation and uniformity in qualityassurance among member country education systems(Commonwealth of Australia, 2009).Tertiary education in Germany is segregated with providers that deliver qualifications that rangefrom degrees to apprenticeship. Quality assurance in higher education is vested in a strong senseof industry involvement through professional bodies and oversight by accrediting agencies.Institutional autonomy, peer review mechanisms and institutional self-evaluation mechanismsplay an important role in quality assurance. A credible higher education quality assurance systemexists in Germany (Commission of the European Communities, 2008).In Germany VET is responsible for the quality of provision in the training regulations under theinfluence of trade unions and employer associations, which are included in the Federal Institutefor Vocational Education and Training (Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung). Furthermore, thechambers control quality in the vocational training system in terms of examination results. Forthose accrediting bodies in VET,quality models are austerely applied and include LQW, ISO 9000 orEFQM. Social partners are active participants in the governance of theTechnical VocationalEducation and Training system that is influenced by 480 chambers in the occupationally directededucation and training framework.Governmentis largely involved in the funding of institutionalbased training and determining regulations. The governance structure for post-school educationand training is not regional and is very formal(Young, 2008).Technical Vocational Education and Training is a decidedlycontrolledandmultifarious process thatembroils the Lander governments and social partners in instituting apprenticeships, and otherqualifications, and regulations related to period and procedures for apprenticeships. Germany hasnot embraced the move towards more competencies-of-outcomes based qualifications (Young,2008).Germany has a robust practice in relation to the roles of social partners in social and economicpolicy. Industry and occupational communities play a critical role in quality assurance e.g. the184 | P a g e
  • 192. German industry chambers. Ironically, the VET strategy has been controlled by the need for stateintervention to support the disaster of industry to deliver adequate employment for the schoolleavers who want to enter the system of apprenticeships. The national Bundesinstitut fürBerufsbildung (BIBB) plays an active coordination and support role but its activities are essentiallyat the behest of the social partners. The employer organisations effectively approve the trainingprogrammes, conduct the assessments and issue the qualifications with the involvement ofunions(Commission of the European Communities, 2008).The German theory of competence is not identical to Competency Based Training (CBT) systems inthe UK and Australia. There are inconsistencies between the levels and types of qualificationsissued through the apprenticeship based and the provider based systems. The perception of crisishas been deepened by Germany’s persistently poor results in the OECD Programme forInternational Student Assessment (PISA), with many policy makers locating the early streaming ofstudents into vocational schools as a prime cause of these poor results(Commonwealth ofAustralia, 2009).3.7.3 The United Kingdommoderation frameworkIn liberal democratic states, the progressions of political formation of the modern nation stateswere the basis for the intervention of government into education (Green, 1990). The increasinginterference of the UK Government in private education, notwithstanding legislation to thecontrary, has resulted in unhappiness from the private education sector (Henry, 2010). Qualification levels are contained in three qualification frameworks in the UK(Lester, 2001): National Qualifications Framework; Qualifications and Credit Framework (the new framework for vocational or work-related qualifications); Occupation and Vocational Education and Training.185 | P a g e
  • 193. Higher Education is centredin tradition and autonomy in universities in the UK. Moderation isdefined on two levels in higher education:(Irwin, M, 1994) i. Assessment moderation in which the appropriateness of the proposed assessment mechanism and regime is confirmed; ii. Marks moderation, where the performance of students in that assessment is verified.The Framework for Higher Education Qualifications (FHEQ) has been designed by the highereducation sector, and describes all the main higher education qualifications. It applies to degrees,diplomas, certificates and other academic awards granted by a university or higher educationcollege (apart from honorary degrees and higher doctorates)(FHEQ-Portugal, 2011).The UKoccupationally directed education environment is closely mirrored to the South Africanframework. Assessors, moderators and verifiers perform similar functions in the VET systemagainst national outcomes of standards and qualifications(Qualifications and Curriculum Authority,2006).Assessors have the responsibility to agree to the best method of assessing a candidate in relationto their individual circumstances. The methods agreed must be valid, reliable, safe,manageableand suitable to the needs of the candidate. Only approved and qualified assessors (see AppendixG–UK External Verifiers) may examine the evidence for the assessment of these qualifications. Aswell as collecting evidence, candidates must record all their assessed evidence in their personalCumulative Assessment Record (CAR). The CAR is the candidate’s record of what evidence hasbeen accepted as proof of competence and where that evidence can be found. It can also be usedto record progress towards, and achievement of, units.The system emphasis is on the assessment capability of assessors.The quality validation ofassessment practice is enhanced according to the UK NVQ by internal and external verificationprocesses that confirm the integrity and consistency of the occupational standards in the award(Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, 2006).186 | P a g e
  • 194. Approved TVETcentresmust appoint an internal verifier to manage the internal verificationprocess. The purpose of internal verification is to make sure and show that assessment is valid andconsistent, through monitoring and sampling assessment decisions. Internal verifiers must agreethe use of simulated activities before they take place and must sample all evidence producedthrough simulated activities(Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, 2006).Sector skills councils and a small number of other standards-setting organisations work withemployers and partners to develop the National Occupational Standards for the industries, sectorsand occupations they cover. The qualification regulators have agreed that individuals assessingand verifying QCF qualifications based on NOS must reflect occupational competence. Individualsmust obtain the D 1 award. Assessors must confirm competence in an occupational role to thestandards required (City and Guilds, 2011).The awarding organisation for the QCF qualification will determine the suitability of thequalification for this purpose and may, if it wishes, add a statement to the National Database ofAccredited Qualifications (NDAQ) (Gerrard, S, 2010). External Verification in the UKExternal Verification in the UK closely resembles the South African system. The premiseargued isthatnational standards are uniformly applied; thatassessments are accurately and consistentlyapplied across all centresand levels and that constructive feedback is provided onassessment andmoderation judgments. Verification and systems verification is considered valuable in theassessment and moderation improvements of providers and ensuring that centres have adequateinternal quality assurance systems that are well documented.The UK assessment systems endorse the need for quality assurance and moderation in assessmentpractice. Theimportance of a robust,valid system that is centred in fairness, is open andtransparent and that provides an opportunity for educators to participate in professional dialogueis a central theme of this system. It is argued by participants to the system that it is important thatan evolving system that is fit for purpose across stages and sectorswill foster an environment ofmutual trust.187 | P a g e
  • 195. 3.7.4 The Singaporeanmoderation frameworkIn contrast to the country models discussed above the researcher also explored the notion ofmoderation as being part of a more inclusive quality assurance system. The cases of Singapore andCanada have been discussed in more detail.Singapore has nationally consistent systems incomparison to the other countries.Variations to the central agency development and accreditationmodel include provider, awarding body and industry/social partner development, and in somecases accreditation.Singapore offers national standardised assessments during a learner’s school career. Once alearner enters the vocational or traditional higher education realm, professional bodies become aquality partner in the delivery of programmes in respective industries. The primary determinant inlearner education is cognitive development and lifelong learning. All quality assurance processesare designed to ensure continuous improvement strategies(Commonwealth of Australia, 2009).In Singapore, VET is seen in part as a type of ‘social wage’ that acts as a substitute for the absenceof state regulated wages In Singapore. Initial VET, or really technical and vocational education andtraining (TVET), is located in the schools sector, and a large element of continuing TVET is locatedin the tertiary sector under the administration of the Ministry of Education(Afnan, 1958).The norm of ‘self-regulation’ is commonly accepted in liberal market economies. The SingaporeanGovernment pursues philosophies of industry self-regulation and professional and occupationalstandard-setting and regulation across professional occupations.The traditional concentration ofVET provision on state agencies has been moderated with the establishment of the WorkforceDevelopment Agency and its agenda of demand-led VET. However, this leadership is located withthe workforce rather than enterprises(Commonwealth of Australia, 2009).The benchmarks set by countries like Finland have resulted in themajority of Singaporean schoolleavers enrolling in tertiary studies. Post school education in Singapore is built on the highest188 | P a g e
  • 196. standard of secondary education among all countries. The country is moving towards anotherstage of development with an emphasis on knowledge-intensive industries and the location of thehigh-end elements of transnational companies in Singapore (Abeysinghe, 2007).These strategies also are cluster based and Singapore typically has invested in institutional formswith local and overseas technical institutes and universities. It is planned to build a high-leveleducation and training capacity that will both serve the high-end skill needs of the new industriesand build an international skills market (The Straits Times, 2007).This strategy has two purposes: apart from establishing another industry, it builds a base capacityfor the knowledge economy. Singapore interestingly does not allow for offshore delivery of itsUniversities. To obtain a qualification from a Singaporean University a learner is compelled to beassessed in Singapore (Ministry of Education Singapore, 2004).The skills programmes are also directed by central agencies (Standards, Productivity andInnovation Board) in consultation with leading employers and employer groups (Kuruvilla et al,2002). The WDA has encouraged the diversification of the training market through the provision offunding and the establishment of a set of national VET qualifications and a VET basedqualifications framework (Singapore Workforce Skills Qualifications, 2009).The Singapore model, therefore, has been built on a more traditional workforce planningapproach, which in turn has been built on an economic development model that has a high degreeof planning. It is a highly competitive system with students being allocated between theuniversities, the polytechnics and the Institute of Technical Training. There are state supportedprivate schools, international colleges and private tertiary providers, some of which have usedinternational qualifications(Singapore Workforce Skills Qualifications, 2009).The accreditation and quality assurance of these providers, and their curricula and qualifications,is largely through self-accreditation and quality assurance, but under the careful supervision of theMinistry of Education. The Workforce Development Authority (WDA) is also chartered withstrengthening worker training and access to qualifications. As the industries shift towards the high189 | P a g e
  • 197. skills, which are more difficult to predict, there is a need to allow more flexibility and innovation todevelop across the education and training system. Typically, however, this is being achievedthrough measures such as the implementation of quality systems that are linked to licenses for theenrolment of students, including foreign students (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009).The WDA’s approach to continuous improvement review is documented in the SingaporeWorkforce Skills Qualifications (WSQ) system and National Skills Recognition System (NSRS) Guideto continuous improvement review. The guide notes that all training organisations are subject toaudit during their registration period and that the focus is on the internal quality assurancesystem, adult educator management system, outcome evaluation system, WSQ/NSRS relatedadministrative system, viability of organisation and confirmation of being free from breach ofterms and conditions(Singapore Workforce Skills Qualifications, 2009).Emphasis is placed on training organisations to demonstrate that they practice continuousimprovement in ongoing delivery of training and assessment under WSQ and NSRS. Trainingorganisations are to undertake a self-assessment and develop an action plan for gaps identified.This self-assessment and plan is submitted and provides the focus for the site visit, which takesabout half a day. If further action is required, then training organisations may need to submit anadditional action plan. Training organisations are scored according to the strength of the qualitymanagement system and level of implementation by staff (Singapore Workforce DevelopmentAgency, 2006).3.7.5 The Canadianmoderation frameworkThe Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials (CICIC) defines quality assurance asthe achievement of educationalprogramme standards set by institutions, professionalorganisations, government and standard-setting bodies established by government. TVETstandards are highly dispersed as in the USA(Canadian Information Centre for InternationalCredentials , 2002).190 | P a g e
  • 198. Canada’s national government plays a limited role due to the cultural independence of the Englishand French speaking provinces and the economic differences between the industrial eastern andresource-rich western provinces. The basic structures of provincial and territorial educationsystems across Canada are similar. Each has three sectors—elementary, secondary, and post-secondary (Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials , 2002).Canada has no federal department of education or training and no national VET system. WhileCanada has tended towards the relatively free-market approach of most Anglophone countries,there is a degree of variation across the provinces. Consequently the strength of the privatetraining market is variable.There are no national quality assurance agencies that monitor thestandards of community colleges, public colleges, private career colleges and institutes offeringtechnical and vocational programmes. All provinces have their own quality assurancesystems(Canadian Education and Training Accreditation Commission, 2010).Canada has a diversified tertiary education sector that includes universities and degree-grantinginstitutions, tertiary colleges and institutes, career colleges, multi- and special-purpose collegesand adult education providers. Canada also has an apprenticeship system. The Canadian provincesare almost entirely autonomous in their education systems. There are commonalities in someaspects of provision and the capacity for (Hueglin and Fenna, 1995)including cooperation amonggovernment, industry and labour on interprovincial certification to increase worker mobility andeconomic growth. Because of the virtual absence of the national government it is not possible toidentify a single Canadian VET system (Canadian Education and Training AccreditationCommission, 2010).However VET in Canada has depended to a considerable extent on federal funding, and this is apattern that has been familiar in Australia. Similarly,occupationally directed providers in the SouthAfrican SETA system have become overly reliant on grants and funding windows. There has been arecent agreement among the provinces to establish a national qualifications framework. However,with some provinces having already decided to establish their own qualifications frameworks itseems likely that the Canadian framework will be designed to allow the regional frameworks to191 | P a g e
  • 199. interlink and so perform a similar role to that of the EQF (Canadian Education and TrainingAccreditation Commission, 2010).Public colleges are audited on a five-year cycle. The academic quality audit process is based on aself-study by the college and a site visit by an audit panel made up of professionals within thesector. The audit process aims to emphasise the continual improvement based on self-reflectionrather than simply compliance with the standards. The self-study report is to be no more than 20pages and the audit visit takes two days.The report categorises the college’s quality assurance processes as falling within one of fivecategories of maturity:(Ontario College Quality Assurance Service, 2010:28) Minimal effort—means there are no organized quality assurances and improvement processes in place within the college. Reactive effort—means the college responds to problems mostly with ad-hoc methods. The quality assurance and improvement criteria and processes receive little systematic attention. Formal effort—means that individual initiatives and experimentations with improvements may be seen in and around the college, and these are motivated explicitly by the key quality criteria. Organised effort—means that quality process initiatives begin to be planned and tracked, work methods are systematically rooted in the quality criteria and the college has begun to develop performance metrics and norms. Mature effort—means quality processes have been embedded in the college’s culture, continuousimprovement is a way of life and organisational learning about, and commitment to, quality assuranceand improvement is fully established.Ongoing monitoring through audit and site visits in the past was said to be undertaken annuallybut is now taken on a risk management basis including student complaint, poor finances, hygieneand health issues, large student population etc.(Ontario College Quality Assurance Service,2010:28).192 | P a g e
  • 200. Pubic training organisations in Ontario annually submit statistics on: (Ontario College QualityAssurance Service, 2010:28)(Private training sector colleges are in the process of implementingsimilar reporting requirements): Graduate employment; Graduate satisfaction; Employer satisfaction; Student satisfaction; Graduation sate.Quality assurances in the Canadian Territories are centred on (Canadian Information Centre forInternational Credentials , 2002): Legislation; External and internal review; Provincial/territorial registration/licensing; Accreditation of professional programmes (has professional regulatory bodies to which institutions and their programmes must meet their requirements, for example, nursing or engineering).3.7.6 ConclusionNumerous approaches for the quality assurance of training providers exist globally. The centraltheme however are those countries having a mechanism for accreditation and registration and aprocedure to deal with monitoring and moderation. A further central theme is that autonomy,self-regulation and peer review mechanisms are prevalent in university systems of highereducation. Quality assurance systems are generally emphasised for continuous improvement as akey element of their quality assurance approach, and to varying degrees.TVET providers are subject to a myriad of additional compliance and reporting procedures e.g. inSouth Africa occupationally directed providers offering full qualifications between NQF 2 and 4 are193 | P a g e
  • 201. compelled to register with the ETQA having jurisdiction over a qualification, Umalusi and DHET.External moderation / quality audits are compliance focused and in more evolved countries andwhere a sector has matured, the focus tends to shift to improvement of outcomes of qualitystandards.A common theme is that public Institutions are primarily self-regulated and accredited by virtue ofbeing state institutions. It is evident when interrogating the UK Vocational and Higher EducationModeration framework that is closely mirrors the South African moderation process. The contextis imperialistic and overly regulated at the lower levels of the National QualificationsFramework.Providers in the higher education realm are afforded greater self-regulation and institutionalautonomy, subject to peer review mechanisms, and universities make use of the services ofexternal examiners.Singapore has nationally consistent systems in comparison to the other countries. Variations tothe central agency development and accreditation model include provider, awarding body andindustry/social partner development, and in some cases accreditation (Commonwealth ofAustralia, 2009).The more centralised systems of Germany and the UK have resonance with the researcher’sproposals in that they support evolving and adapting systems open to improvement. Thedecentralised models of Canada and Singapore support the researcher even more strongly in theinvolvement of peer and/or industry review mechanisms.3.8 The South African moderation model3.8.1 IntroductionThe Quality Council for quality assurance in General and Further Education and Training is knownas Umalusi and it is responsible for the standards of its general and further education and the194 | P a g e
  • 202. quality assurance of results, including internal and external moderation systems in public andprivate schools. Umalusi means ‘herder’ or ‘shepherd’ in Nguni culture: the person who is theguardian of the family’s wealth (JUTA, 2011).Umalusi is mandatedin terms of the National Qualifications Framework Act of 2008; and theGeneral and Further Education and Training Quality Assurance Act of 2001, amended in 2008. TheUmalusi Council is appointed by the Minister of Education and works within a three-year strategicplan agreed with the Minister. Umalusi conducts a fundamental quality assurance role in theassessment of learners. The quality assurance processes include moderation processes as set outbelow (Rakometsi, 2011).While maintaining the “old” and routine quality assurance work, Umalusi has also had toaccommodate development of functions to support the “new” and extended mandate. Certainaspects in the macro environment that have affected Umalusi are as follows:(Rakometsi, 2011:6-7) The passing of the NQF Act in 2009; changes in the roles and responsibilities of the various bodies in the quality assurance landscape; The amendment of the GENFETQA Act in 2008; the extended mandate which has required more capacity and a review of Umalusi’s positions and approaches; The amendment of the Skills Development Act and the establishment of the QCTO with mandates that impact on the mandate of Umalusi; Amendment of the HE Act with approaches that impact on Umalusi’s work; NQF Implementation Framework from DHET putting pressure on policy development in an uncertain environment.3.8.2 Umalusiquality assurance and assessmentUmalusi conducts standardised examinations at the exit point of qualifications for Schools, AdultEducation and Training and Vocational Education and Training. Umalusi confirms that the value ofexternal examinations resides in setting educationally sound standards of educationalaccomplishment.(Rakometsi, 2011).195 | P a g e
  • 203. The Umalusiannual quality assurance regime includes(Umalusi, 2006): Monitoring of systems development and improvement; Monitoring the annual conduct of examinations; External moderation of assessment instruments, marking and continuous assessment; Standardisation of assessment outcomes.Umalusi quality assures assessment for the qualifications that they issue certificates for.Umalusijudge at external examinations, and an internal assessment identified as continuous assessment(CASS) in schools and ‘year mark’ in colleges.Umalusi functions include:(The General and Further Education and Training QualificationsFramework, 2011) Moderating question papers; Monitoring the conduct of the examinations; Moderation of marking; Standardising results.Umalusiapproved assessment bodiesQuality assurance of centralised national assessment is an extensive factor of Umalusi qualityassurance management. Umalusi accredits private assessment bodies and monitors the standardsof assessment in the public assessment procedure of the qualifications it certifies. Accreditedprivate assessment bodies and the public assessment system are monitored yearly forcontinuance of standards and development. (Umalusi Presentation to the Basic EducationPortfolio Committee, 2011).Umalusi reports annually on the quality of the assessment for the following qualifications:(Umalusi, 2006)196 | P a g e
  • 204. Senior Certificate (SC) and the new National Senior Certificate (NSC); National Technical Certificate (N3) and NSC (Occupational), as well as the new National Certificate Vocational (NCV); General Education and Training Certificate (GETC) for adults.Monitoring the conduct of examinations Umalusi monitors the execution of the exams that consists of three main functions: Auditing the assessment bodies’ monitoring systems; Monitoring the state of readiness to administer the examination; and Monitoring the administration and conduct of the examination itself.Umalusiverification andmoderation of internal assessments(Umalusi, 2006):Umalusi states that external moderators who are highly qualified and experienced professionals intheir particular subjects do the moderation of question papers. The moderation processconcentrates on making certain that question papers are of an adequate standard, cover suitablecontent as prescribed in the syllabus and are presented in a professional manner.Statisticalmoderation of examination marks consists of evaluating the current mark distributions with theequivalent average distributions over the last three years. Standardisation meetings take placebetween the achievement of marking and publication of results. Verification and moderation ofcontinuous assessment are performed at regular intervals.School-based continuous assessments include the Senior Certificate examination results,subsequently to 2001. Continuous assessment makes up 25% of a learners final mark. Statisticalmoderation of CASS is undertaken per institution and per subject. The mean and standarddeviation of the examination mark is used. Consequent to the examination the mean scores of theexamination subject at a specificcentre is equated to the mean of the CASS score and is accepted ifit is within a certain range of the examination mean(Umalusi, 2008).In the event the mean of the CASS score is too low or too elevated it is brought within a certainrange of the examination. The National Senior Certificate and the National Certificate year197 | P a g e
  • 205. marksare standardised against the examination mark with a tolerance of between 5% and 10%(Umalusi, 2008).Umalusimoderation of themarking process;(Umalusi, 2008):Umalusi moderates the marking of scripts by deploying external moderators to marking centresduring the marking process to ensure that: The memoranda are correctly interpreted; The standard of marking and internal moderation of scripts is maintained across all examining bodies/marking centers and throughout the marking process; All the systems and processes that relate to marking are in place and effective; The product of marking is a true reflection of the performance of individual candidates.198 | P a g e
  • 206. ConclusionNotwithstanding significant challenges faced in assessment practice, Umalusi has established acredible reputation for the functions that it performs in relation to quality assurance andvalidating assessment standards and national results. Umalusi has a centralisedqualitymanagement system. Umalusi has managed to perform beyond expectations and limitedresources.Umalusi conducts centralised moderation of scripts and ensures that statistical moderation resultsare available. Umalusi standardises examination marks and internal assessment scores.Standardisation is required to address the variation in the standard of question papers andmarking that may occur from year to year and across examining bodies.3.8.3 The South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA)The South African Qualification Authority (SAQA) regulates moderation systems for ETQAs andtraining providers. SAQA developedprovider and ETQA moderation guidelines for the assessmentof NQF registered unit standards and qualifications(Skills Development Act, 1998) and seminalapplicable legislative framework as set out(National Qualifications Framework Act, Act 67 of 2008).SAQA states that moderation ensures that learners are assessed in a consistent, accurate and well-designed methodology. It further ensures that all assessors are using comparable assessmentmethods and are making similar and consistent judgments about learner accomplishments. Theexternal moderation process plays an important role in validating assessment and internalmoderation processes (South African Qualifications Authority, 2001).Various ETQAs have not complied with the requirements set in the guidelines provided by SAQA,primarily not ensuring that external moderators are industry experts and are appropriatelyqualified. SAQA specifies that individuals directing external moderation should be skilled, know thelearning area well, have undertaken training for moderation and have reliability among assessors199 | P a g e
  • 207. and within their area of knowledge and expertise. A high level of personal and interpersonal skillsis necessary(South African Qualifications Authority, 2000).SAQA outlines that ETQAs will have to demonstrate that they have the competence to manage anexternal moderation system(South African Qualifications Authority, 2001).SAQA identified the main functions of a moderation system as(South African QualificationsAuthority, 2000): To verify that assessments are fair, valid, reliable and practicable; To identify the need to redesign assessments if necessary; To offer an appeals procedure for dissatisfied learners; To assess the performance of assessors; To provide actions for the de-registration of unsatisfactory assessors; To provide comment to SAQA on unit standards and qualifications.SAQA specified components of a moderation system(South African Qualifications Authority ,2000):SAQA provides guidelines in relation to the required components of a moderation system (SouthAfrican Qualifications Authority, 2001).The components of a moderation system include:i. Appropriate timingii. The extent of the moderationiii. Moderation materialsiv. Personnelv. Moderation methodsThe moderation system must be designed to advance and evolve. This will necessitate varying thetechniques used. The range, from which one or another combination of methods are applied,might include (South African Qualifications Authority, 2001):200 | P a g e
  • 208. Revising exemplars of assessments and benchmarking materials against established criteria Conducting statistical moderation Conducting external assessments which will serve as a moderating instrument and could perhaps justify less moderations General assessment activities and assessment guides Having external moderators undertake site visits Having external moderators perform panel meetings Establishing site consultative committeesSAQA requires that the moderation system be reviewed regularly to ensure that it meetsexpectations and that the proposed arrangements are efficient, accessible and make optimum useof resources. Internal moderation (South African Qualifications Authority , 2000):Internal moderation is acknowledged in the SAQA guidelines as ensuring that assessmentsachieved by a single learning provider are consistent, accurate, and well designed. The three corephases to internal moderation are design, implementation, and review.Accredited providers ought to have individuals that administer their internal moderationprocedures.Internal moderators ought to conform to the subsequent in line with the SAQAguidelines: Institute procedures to standardise assessment, including the strategy for internal moderation Examine uniformity of assessment recordsThrough sampling, ensure the design of assessment materials for appropriateness before use,monitor assessment procedure, ensure candidates evidence, verify the results and decisions ofassessor for reliability, manage assessor meetings, liaise with external moderators and offersuitable and essential support, advice and support to assessors.201 | P a g e
  • 209. External moderation(South African Qualifications Authority, 2000):External moderation is a means to make sure that two or more providers delivering programmesto the same unit standards and qualifications are assessing reliably to the same standard and in awell-designed manner. External moderation systems are managed by the ETQAs.Externalmoderation involves the following in line with the SAQA guidelines: Impart advice and direction to providers Examine that the systems necessary to sustain the provision of learning programmes transversely in the institution/learning site are suitable and working efficiently Sustain an overview of provision athwart providers Examine staff concerned in assessment are suitably qualified and experienced Examine the credibility of assessment methods and instruments Scrutinise internal moderation systems Conduct thorough sampling, monitoring and observing assessment processes and learners’ evidence to ensure reliability athwart providers Examine assessor decisionsETQAs will have to demonstrate that they have the competence to manage an externalmoderation system that facilitates and ensures that these activities can be done successfully andresourcefully prior to them gaining accreditation (South African Qualifications Authority, 2001).ETQAs must make certain that moderation systems established are reliable with capability andmeans. The external moderation procedure could be centralised and directive or it could consist ofan arrangement of local networks.If a centrally directed system is set up by an ETQA, it couldallocate the moderation function to one or a permutation of agent/s (South African QualificationsAuthority , 2000).202 | P a g e
  • 210. The following are examples of agents accountable to the appropriate ETQA(South AfricanQualifications Authority , 2000): A panel established to oversee the assessment of unit standards or qualifications A national professional association An individual provider or consortium of providers Private consultantsModerators use criteria as set out below(South African Qualifications Authority , 2000): Coverage of core syllabus; Presentation of question paper; Standard of question paper; Instructions to learners; Language usage; Competence of examiners; Internal moderation; Number of times question paper had to be externally moderated; Time allocation.SAQA specifies that individuals conducting external moderation should be skilled, know thelearning area well, have undergone training for moderation and have credibility among assessorsand within their area of knowledge and expertise. A high level of personal and interpersonal skillsis also required (South African Qualifications Authority , 2000).3.8.4 Sector Education and Training Authorities(SETAs) and Education and Training Quality Assurance bodies (ETQAs)Introduction203 | P a g e
  • 211. The Skills Development Act (No. 97 of 1997) established SETAs. An ETQA is a body accredited interms of section 5(1) (a) (ii) of the Act(South African Qualifications Authority, 1995). ETQAs areresponsible for monitoring and auditing achievements in terms of national standards orqualifications, and to which specific functions relating to the monitoring and auditing of nationalstandards or qualifications have been assigned in terms of section 5(1) (b) (i) of the Act(SouthAfrican Qualifications Authority, 1995).SAQA has prescribed the same set of standards and reporting requirements to all ETQAs. EachETQA has latitude of interpretation to adapt the regulations to their requirements. Thisinterpretative value has resulted in a proliferated and fragmented approach of uncertainty tooccupationally directed providers. Providers must comply with different moderation percentages,levels of reporting compliance and external moderation processes, notwithstanding a standard setof guidelines having been issued (South African Qualifications Authority, 2001). i. The following SETAs accreditation and external moderation systems are outlined in the section below: Clothing, Textile, Footwear and Leather SETA (CTFL SETA); ii. Media, Advertising, Publishing, Printing, Packaging SETA (MAPPP SETA); iii. The Mining Qualifications Authority (MQA), Transport Education and Training Authority (TETA),The Construction Education and Training Authority (CETA); iv. Services SETA (SSETA); v. The Bank SETA; vi. Wholesale and Retail SETA (W and R SETA) and vii. The Education, Training and Development Practices Sector Education and Training Authority (ETDPSETA).SETA ETQAs report directly to SAQA and DHET at the time of this research. SETA ETQAs will infuture report to the QCTO and DHET(Department of Higher Education and Training, 2012).As ETQAstaff are replaced or leave the organisation, providers often have to adapt to a new way of doingthings as processes are amended to suit new incumbents. SAQA should conduct regular ETQAaudits. Limited available research on the performance of specific ETQAs is available. ETQAs areprovided with guidelines for auditing by SAQA (South African Qualification Authority, 2001).204 | P a g e
  • 212. SETA establishment andmoderation policy confirmationSAQA specifies that sub-regulation 9(1) (d) of the South African Qualifications AuthorityRegulations 1127, 1998, promulgated underthe South African Qualifications Authority, 1995,Section 14, requires ETQAs to “evaluate assessments and facilitation of moderation amongstconstituent providers”. The (National Qualifications Framework Act, 2008) replaced the(SouthAfrican Qualifications Authority, 1995).SAQA’s ETQA regulations require all ETQAs to evaluate assessment and moderation amongconstituent providers as a central part of its quality assurance function (South AfricanQualifications Authority, 2001). All the evaluated ETQAs that formed part of this thesis studymirror the requirements specified by SAQA in their policy framework. The ETQAs confirm inavailable policy frameworks, that providers must ensure that learners are assessed in a consistent,accurate and well-designed manner.The Media, Advertising, Publishing Printing and Packaging SETA(MAPPP SETA) ETQA confirmstheMAPPP SETA’s responsibility for the verification and auditing of assessments. Central to the MAPPSETA ETQA moderation process are the development, planning and review phases(Media,Advertising, Publishing Printing and Packaging SETA, 2001).The Clothing, Textile, Footwear and Leather (CTFL)SETA ETQA draws a division in the planning of amoderation system amongst provider moderation (internal) and verification (external moderation)at the level of the ETQA. The CTFL SETA ETQA evaluates assessment and moderation amongconstituent providers as a central part of its quality assurance(Clothing, Textile, Footwear andLeather SETA ETQA, 2005).The CTFL SETA commits to developing and enlarging its skills base of allemployed within the Clothing, Textiles, Footwear and Leather economic sector through thepromotion and implementation of effective learning programmes and skills planning which willadvance workplace security and productivity as part of this process (Clothing, Textile, Footwearand Leather SETA ETQA, 2005).205 | P a g e
  • 213. The Wholesale and Retail SETA ETQA confirms that the quality assurance of assessment andmoderation of providers, learnerships and/or qualifications includes a wide-ranging confirmationof achievements and guarantees that a learner is given the greatest prospect to achievecompetence prior to external moderation (Wholesale and Retail SETA, 2007).The Construction Education and Training Authority (CETA) ETQA embraces the principles that bestpractice moderation will occur. The process of moderation encompasses an active interactionbetween assessor and moderator to provide an opportunity to support consistency of assessment.The accredited training education provider must have systems that lead to the appointment ofprofessional assessors with appropriate technical skills and relevant industry experience (TheConstruction Education and Training Authority ETQA, 2007).The BANK SETAconfirms that the quality assurance of assessment and moderation of providers,learnerships, and/or qualifications includes a wide-ranging confirmation of achievements andguarantees that a learner is given the greatest prospect to achieve competence prior to externalmoderation (BANK SETA, 2009).The BANK SETAoutlines that their basic values and principlesgoverning public administration are enshrined in Section 195 of the Constitution (Constitution ofthe Republic of South Africa, Act 108, 1996). In particular,the BANK SETA commits to use resourcesin provider assessment and moderation processes economically, efficiently and effectively,andthat the administration of assessment and moderation processes shall be development-oriented,especially regarding assessors who are registered through emerging and SMME providers(BANKSETA, 2009).The Mining Qualifications Authority (MQA) position on internal moderation articulates that thedeveloped assessment and moderation guidelines are applicable to providers who are within theMQA’s primary focus jurisdiction. Training providers have to ensure that they have qualityassessment and moderation systems in place with a code of conduct for the registered assessorsagainst which the credibility of assessment decisions with regard to unit standards andqualifications will be measured(Mining Qualifications Authority , 2003).206 | P a g e
  • 214. Transport Educationand Training Authority (TETA) confirms its moderation guidelines areapplicable to all those involved in the moderation of assessments conducted by registeredassessors for specific nationally recognised qualifications and unit standards within the primaryfocus of TETA(Transport Education and Training Authority , 2003).The Services SETA (SSETA) articulates that moderation is the process of ensuring that assessmentsconducted are fair, valid, reliable, consistent and practical. Moderation must confirm credibilityand quality of qualifications awarded within the National Qualifications Framework can bemaintained. The SSETA provides a moderation pack to providers who have been awardedaccreditation by SETQAA, (SSETA ETQA), outsourced partners and Services SETA constituentregistered moderators (Services SETA ETQA Moderation Pack QALA-G 002, 2007).The Education, Training and Development Practices Sector Education and Training Authority (ETDPSETA) confirms that since 2003 the ETDQA has had its own guidelines on assessment, moderationand verification that have been revised and updated (the latest versions are from 2010). ETDQAprovides guidelines that must be used by stakeholders seeking more detailed guidance and adviceon good assessment practices. .The ETDP SETA is mandated to promote and facilitate the deliveryof education, training and development in order to enhance the skills profile of the Education,Training and Development (ETD) sector and contribute to the creation of employmentopportunities especially for those previously disadvantaged (ETDP SETA , 2010).207 | P a g e
  • 215. Internal moderation requirementsThe functions of the internal moderators are specified by the ETQAs in line with SAQArequirements as: Standardise workplace assessments; Embrace plans for internal moderation; Monitor consistency of assessment proceedings; Examine the design of assessment materials for appropriateness before they are used; Monitor assessment processes; Check learners evidence and check the results and decisions of workplace assessors for consistency; Use sampling process; Coordinate consultation of workplace assessors; Liaise with external moderating bodies (ETQAs); and Provide appropriate support, advice and guidance to workplace assessors.All ETQAs evaluated confirmed compliance with the requirementsstipulating that internalmoderation processes endorse the provider’s assessment practices and that theymust beaccurate, reliable, well designed and consistent across learners as required by SAQA. Externalmoderation guarantees that providers assess reliably to the same unit standard or qualification.CETA endorses that moderation activities confirm that correct decisions have been made withregard to competencies assessed by assessors. It guarantees that all assessors who assess aparticular unit standard or qualifications are using comparable assessment approaches and aremaking analogous and consistent judgments about learners’ performance and that strategies existto communicate improvements in the assessment process to enhance the consistency ofpronouncements in the future (Construction Education and Training Authority , 2002).CETA prescribes that accredited training providers should have individuals to manage theirmoderation systems. CETA specifies that internal moderators should establish systems to208 | P a g e
  • 216. standardise assessment, including the plans for internal moderation, and monitor the consistencyof assessment records. Additionally, internal moderators must confirmthe design of assessmentmaterials for appropriateness before they are used; monitor assessment processes, checkcandidates evidence and check the results and decisions of assessors for consistency. Internalmoderators play an important role in co-ordinating assessor meetings and reviewing moderationsystems and processes, and the liaison with external moderators/verifiers. Internal moderatorsmust provide appropriate and necessary support, advice and guidance to assessors and submitquarterly reports to CETA (Construction Education and Training Authority , 2002).The MQA ETQA specifies the need to be assured that robust, effective and consistent internalmoderation processes are operational. All assessed training submitted for credits are subject to aprocess of internal moderation (Mining Qualifications Authority, 2003)The BANK SETA specifies that the internal moderator is at the core of quality assurance in allprogrammes, both within the national framework and within the quality and managementsystems of each approved centre; the character of managing assessment is that it consistentlymeets national standards specified by SAQA (BANKSETA, 2009).Transport Education and Training Authority (TETA) confirms that moderations ensure that theassessments conducted by registered assessors are credible, valid, fair, reliable and practical. Italso ensures that assessments are conducted in a consistent, accurate and well-designed manner.The credibility of learner achievements is dependent on the assessment and moderation systemsand is an important element of the total TETA provisioning framework (Transport Education andTraining Authority , 2003). ETQA internal moderation sampling requirementsThe CTFL SETA requires that twenty % of assessments areinternally moderated. The CTFL SETAspecifies that this percentage may be reduced to 10% depending on the capacity of the provider toconduct reliable assessments and in performance with the moderating committee of the provider.Prima facie, it appears that the CTFL SETA makes provision for the acknowledgement of mature209 | P a g e
  • 217. providers that have successfully implemented tested internal assessment and moderationprocesses. There is,however, no available policy framework to determine the criteria for saidevaluation and endorsement (Construction Education and Training Authority , 2002).The MAPPPSETA ETQA regulation specifies a minimum of 10% of completed Portfolios of Evidencewhen internal moderation reports are completed and assessment results forms are received fromthe training provider. Assessors notify internal moderators when they are ready to be moderated.Before assessment results are uploaded, assessors must ensure that an internal moderation isdone of at least 10% of the Portfolios of Evidence, based on the moderation report (Media,Advertising, Publishing Printing and Packaging SETA, 2001).BANKSETA ETQA specifies that the verification of providers and qualifications is a comprehensiveactivity. The objective of the external moderation is to confirm learner achievement and ensuresthat a learner is provided with support to achieve their best quality of work and therefore theirbest overall competency.The BANK SETAexternal verification is directed at ETQA level by anexternal organisation; the external verifier uses a random sample of 10% (BANK SETA, 2009).CETA specifies that to enhance the credibility of the assessment CETA requires that a providerconducts internal moderation of a minimum of 80% of all assessments. The selection of the 80% ofthe Portfolios of Evidence must vary from learner to learner to include those who are “Not YetCompetent”(Construction Education and Training Authority , 2002).The MQA requires that 10% of assessments be internally moderated and the SSETA requires thatinternal moderation is completed by the internal moderator on a random sample of 25% ofassessments (Mining Qualifications Authority, 2003).Transport Education and Training Authority (TETA)internal moderation will, within the first year ofaccreditation, be conducted on 75% of all assessments on a sampling basis as determined by theaccredited provider and agreed to by TETA ETQA on all batches of assessments conducted by theprovider (Transport SETA, 2003).210 | P a g e
  • 218. The SSETA requires that 25% of assessments be internal moderated .The sample of 25% ofassessments must be random (Services SETA ETQA Moderation Pack QALA-G 002, 2007) and theETDP SETA requires 10% internal moderation (ETDP SETA , 2010).211 | P a g e
  • 219. External moderation requirementsETQA specification of the functions of verification / external moderation processes are highlightedbelow.The CTFL SETA outlines that the verification includes developing, planning and reviewing theexternal moderation system, including the appointment of the external moderators by the ETQAas specified by SAQA. The provision of advice and guidance to providers and the maintenance of asummary of provision through providers is also established as an ETQA function. The ETQA willfurther also verify that all providers’ assessors and moderators are suitably qualified and confirmthe reliability and validity of workplace assessment instruments supplied by the provider.The ETQA is responsible for checking the provider’s internal moderation systems and maintenanceof a provider appeals procedure. The ETQA specifies that they have a further responsibility todeliver comments to SAQA on unit standards and qualifications.The CTFL stresses that it willexamine all the staff involved in assessment, and ensure that they are suitably qualified andexperienced. The examination of the reliability of assessment methods and instruments and thescrutiny of internal moderation systems is conducted by sampling, monitoring and observing andlearners’ evidence to guarantee stability across providers, and the inspection of assessors’decisions(Clothing, Textile, Footwear and Leather SETA ETQA, 2005).The CETA confirms that it manages the external moderation systems in line with SAQAspecifications. The CETA moderation/verification process involves the examination of the systems,mandatory to support the provision of learning programmes through the institution/learningsite,as suitable and working meritoriously and substantiating advice and guidance to educationand training providers. The CETA further confirms that it will sustain a summary of provision acrosseducation and training providers and maintain an overview of provision across education andtraining providers (Construction Education and Training Authority , 2002).The W and R SETA confirms that they appoint an external moderator to verify provider compliancein relation to the developed structured curriculum, the application instruments of the provider’s212 | P a g e
  • 220. QMS, elected workplaces, the required exposure to workplace learning as per the qualification/learnerships / skills programme requirement and specifications. The W and R SETA furtherconfirmsthat developed learning material and the significance to the qualification / learnerships /skills programme have been correctly completed. The constituent status of assessors andmoderators are also confirmed during external moderation processes. The provider is required topresent evidence that assessment guides are available and are compliant. The learner Portfolio ofEvidence (PoE) is evaluated and the training provider for verification must present the formativeassessments, summative assessments, progress and assessor reports, learner records databaseand upload of enrolment / achievement. The provider is also required to present their moderationguides and reports (Wholesale and Retail SETA, 2007).The BANKSETA ETQA confirms that the verification of providers, and/or qualifications, is aninclusive framework on accomplishment and safeguards that a learner is given the best chance toachieve their best quality of work and consequently their best overall competency.The BANKSETAoutlines the external moderation activity will involve confirming provider accreditation status,structured curriculum and the confirmation of the implementation mechanisms of the provider’sQMS. BANKSETA places emphasis on the external moderation of elected workplaces providinglearners with the required exposure as per the qualification, including learnerships and skillsprogramme requirements. Additional areas for verification include confirmation of the learningmaterial and assessment instruments used by the provider and the relevance to qualifications,learnerships, and skills programmes; and the use of constituent assessors and moderators (BANKSETA, 2009).The Services SETA provisionally accredited provider is not only required to conduct training that isaligned to the NQF registered unit standards and/or qualifications, but to also conductassessments and internal moderation activities. Note that moderation of assessment, organisedand conducted by a provider, is a SAQA requirement for provider accreditation. Moderationcovers assessment instruments, assessment design and methodology, assessment records,assessment decisions, reporting and feedback mechanisms. Where a training provider isparticipating in a full qualification, including learnerships, or skills programme, the provider will berequired to conduct and participate in the moderation process. Providers will be subject to213 | P a g e
  • 221. submitting four internal moderation reports for providers offering full qualifications andlearnerships. SETQAA will conversely conduct three external moderation visits for providersoffering full qualifications and learnerships. Providers offering skills programmes are required tosubmit one internal moderation report. One external moderation visit will then be conducted bythe SETQAA.The SSETA moderation pack still specifies, though defunct, that certification partners (outsourcedpartners) are responsible for assisting SETQAAin promoting and maintaining quality within theirrespective industries, in line with SETA’srequirements. The certification partnersare required tohave a clear understanding of moderation activities and systems. (Services SETA ETQA ModerationPack QALA-G 002, 2007). Ironically, the QCTO is inadvertently planning on implementing acomparable model.TETA ETQA specify that the ETQA conducts the planning and the preparation of externalmoderation activities; conducts verification activities; appraises verification plans and processes;records and reports verification conclusions and recommendations; and covers the advising andprovision of external moderators and providers (Transport SETA, 2003).The MAPPPSETA ETQA conducts external moderation as part of the monitoring and auditing visitsto training providers. The ETQA conducts external moderation within one month of receiving therelevant information from the training providers. If applicable, a development plan is agreed to,which the assessors must comply with before assessments can resume (Media, Advertising,Publishing Printing and Packaging SETA, 2001). ETQA external moderation sampling requirementsThe CTFL SETA requires that the external moderator sample 10% of learner assessments and thatthey be signed off by a designated external moderator. Prior to certification of a qualification, theCTFL SETA ETQA will conduct a moderation of all assessment evidence of the learner. The CTFLSETA ETQA will additionally moderate all assessment instruments. The topographies of the214 | P a g e
  • 222. internal moderation scheme of the provider must be moderated annually as part of a qualityassurance visit (Clothing, Textile, Footwear and Leather SETA ETQA, 2005).The MAPP SETA ETQA audits a minimum of 10% of completed portfolios of evidence as and wheninternal moderation occurs, with a completed assessment. The ETQA conducts externalmoderation within one month of receiving the relevant information from the training provider(Media, Advertising, Publishing Printing and Packaging SETA, 2001).The W and R SETA (Wholesale and Retail SETA, 2007)and ETDP SETA (ETDP SETA , 2010)requirethat external moderation is conducted on 10% of learner portfolios. SSETA requires a 25% externalmoderation sample (Services SETA ETQA Moderation Pack QALA-G 002, 2007) and the CETArequirement is unclear. TheCETA reporting and storage of moderation results specify that registersof accomplishments of learners (hard copies) must be kept and filled for 1 year, and thereafter asummary of the learner assessment must be kept and learner Portfolio of Evidence (PoE) returnedto the learner. The provider must have control measures in place for returning of PoE files(Construction Education and Training Authority , 2002).TETA specifies that external moderation will be conducted on 50% of all assessments on asampling basis as agreed between the external moderator/moderation body and TETA ETQA interms of the contractual agreement (Transport Education and Training Authority , 2003). Moderator constituent registration requirementsThe MAPPPSETA specifies that the ETQA is responsible for the verification of assessments results,whilst the accredited training provider and registered assessors should ensure thata MAPPPSETAregistered internal moderator moderates their assessments. Assessors and moderators arerequired to register with the MAPPP SETA against the relevant unit standards (for skillsprogrammes) or qualification (for learnerships) by submitting a form as part of the providerapplication pack. The MAPPP SETA ETQA evaluates the application as part of the provideraccreditation / independent moderator registration process. The MAPP SETA confirms the215 | P a g e
  • 223. requirement for assessors and moderators to register within their industry (Media, Advertising,Publishing Printing and Packaging SETA, 2001).The W and R SETA, ETDP SETA, CTFL SETA, CETA and SSETA confirm that constituent registrationwill be confirmed during the provider’s external moderation process, and that registration isrequired prior to conducting assessment and/or moderation activities.The MQA requires that assessors, moderators and verifiers must be constituently registered(Mining Qualifications Authority, 2003).The BANK SETA states that moderators who are not subject-matter experts should establishpartnerships with others who are proficient to provide ratification of decisions relating to thesubject matter of an assessment. This may include another competent moderator (BANK SETA,2009). ConclusionExternal moderation processes intend to confirm that the assessment practices in qualificationsare valid, authentic, current, reliable and practicable. The credibility of an external moderationprocess is vested in the credibility of the external quality management processes, the assessmentprocess, endorsement by industry, realistic working environment and the occupational expertiseof assessors, internal moderators and external moderators. The South African nationaloccupationally directed education system must be effectively quality assured to confirm thatreliable and accurate quality standards are being implemented and maintained.Prior to the SETA system being implemented in the late 1990’s, the accreditation of occupationalworkplace providers was regulated by Industry Training Boards (ITB’s). This system presentedover-regulation and bureaucratic red tape distracted from providing workplaces with the skillsthey required. SETA ETQAs perform inconsistently across industries. Limited ETQAs have builtreputations for excellence in customer service and ensuing quality standards in provision andassessment. ETQAs have largely become bureaucratic, administrative vehicles that are216 | P a g e
  • 224. predominantly reliant on consultants to perform most functions because of a basic lack ofcapacity.3.9 Conclusion of chapter threeThe purpose for this chapter was to outline available literature and demonstrate the current stateof affairs that contribute to the logical models for accreditation and external moderationframeworks. It is clear that occupational workplace-based education differs from traditionalacademic models. The occupational framework is over-regulated and inconsistent notwithstandingbeing governed by standard sets of regulations and legislation. Modernism and postmodernismhave been outlined and discussed in a broader context of societal influences. The writings ofprominent philosophers and respected educationalist have been outlined in relation to theircontribution to, and the importance of, cognitive development initiatives.Available literature relating to quality assurance models for provider accreditation and externalmoderation processes was provided for the South African, Canadian, German, Singaporean, U.S.A.and UK education landscape, policy and legislative frameworks.A baseline was provided to highlight the South African education and skills development arena andthe progress made in relation to employment creation. The current education system is failing theSouth African population. It was conceded that South Africa is by no means the worst achiever inthe global economy. It was however clear that a holistic integrated strategy must be at theforefront of the development agenda if a solution is to be implemented on the ticking social timebomb of unemployed and unemployable South African youth.The International Commission on Education for the 21st Century proposed four pillars of learning:Learning to Be, Learning to Know, Learning to Do, Learning to Live Together (Kusumiadi, et al,2010). In the global knowledge-based economy of the 21st Century, future affluence and securityas well as harmony, social coherence and cultivation of the environment will be contingent onpeople’s admittance and competence to make choices, to acclimatizes, to prompt transformation217 | P a g e
  • 225. and to find sustainable elucidations to challenges. Indeed, education and lifelong learning is key(Yang and Liang, 2011).“An important initiative proposed by the Green Paper is the establishment of a South AfricanInstitute for Vocational and Continuing Education and Training (SAIVCET) as a key part of a long-term strategy to build institutional capacity. A study will be done soon to further conceptualiseand make specific and concrete recommendations for the Institute. The Institute’s main functionshould be to strengthen the occupational and continuing education sector by playing a supportingrole to existing institutions, especially the FET colleges and the Sector Education and TrainingAuthorities” (Nzimande, 12th January 2012).This chapter has framed the underlying design and development of a strategic framework for theaccreditation and external moderation of occupationally directed providers in the South Africancontext.218 | P a g e
  • 226. 4. Chapter 4 Research Methodology4.1 IntroductionChapter 4 outlines the methodology chosen for this thesis and presents the underlying philosophyrelevant to the research. The respective protocols used for collecting and analysing the researchdata are also outlined. The foundation for a qualitative approach has been investigated in thischapter.The research objectives outline a framework directing the research questions being investigatedand outline a consideration of the policy framework embraced for the research study referred toas ‘policy sociology’. This was done after the research andis grounded in the contention thatresearch for policy analysis should be “rooted in the social science tradition, historically informedand drawing on qualitative and illuminative techniques” (Ozga, 1987:14).Critically the research presents the underlying paradigm that drew a nexus to the policyframework relating to research approaches, and outlined the specific methods used to collect andanalyse data and conclude the specifics of the research design.The research is pragmatic in thedetermination of the required foundation for the development of a generic framework for theaccreditation and external moderation of occupationally based education and training providers.Critically the research methodology recognised current accreditation and external moderationmodels, policies, approaches, philosophy and challenges that exist within the local and globalcontext.Grounded theory endorsed the researcher soliciting imperative research questions that endorsedfor the formulation of a series of questions to inform this research.The research considered theformulation of an effective accreditation andexternal moderation framework and reviewedcurrent accreditation andexternal moderation frameworks both globally and locally. Theestablishment of groundwork towards the development of anexternal moderation andaccreditation framework for occupationally based education and training providers was crucial to219 | P a g e
  • 227. the research process. The research process originated with the stating of the research problemtrailed by the research design(Nachmias and Nachmias, 1996). designThe final stages of the research involved the data analysis and the generalisation of the findings of involveddesktop evaluations (Yin, 2003). 2003) Figure 4.1: Research process(Adapted from Yin; 2003)Additional information that informed the research outline is provided below: belowDeveloping a research Formulating the research questionsproblemResearch design Preliminary activities and pilot study Literature review Developing a theoretical framework220 | P a g e
  • 228. International evaluation of accreditation and external moderation models Establishing preliminary information and background Investigation regarding research topic Scoping the research dimension and pilot study (Yin; 2003) Investigating conceptual models (Kamuzora; 2009) Measurement of variables (Ritchie and Lewis; 2006) Selection of qualitative research dimension Selection of case study / desktop methodology to evaluate accreditation and external moderation reports (Yin, 2003 and Silverman, 2006)Framework Literature review findingsdevelopment Research questions Alternative accreditation and external moderation framework First empirical findingsMeasurement Techniques for measurement definedData collection Accreditation and external moderation reports Interviews Research questionnairesData analysis Data management (Yin; 2003:109) Descriptive and exploratory analysisGeneralisation Grounded theory (Glaser and Strauss; 1967) Analytical Generalisation (Yin, 2003) Table 4.1: Research phases undertaken4.2 Research objectiveThe research objective was confirmed as the formulation of an alternative accreditationandexternal moderation framework for occupationally based education and training providers.The researcher undertook an analysis of global and national accreditation andexternal moderationframeworks. The conceptualisation and legislative policy analysis constructed a discoursetrajectory as the basis of this study. Research questions were settled in relation to different221 | P a g e
  • 229. perspectives of the global and national legislative and operational policy practice, within thecontexts of influence, policy text production and the practice (Ball, 2003) and(Vidovich, 2002:86).4.3 Research questions Context of influenceWhat value proposition will be created by the inclusion of the cognitive development construct inoccupational and experiential qualifications? Context of policy text productioni. What are the fundamental challenges faced by providers that result in their inability to obtain provisional accreditation or programme approval with SETAs?ii. What are the emergent trends that have resulted in learners being unable to exit at band and unit standard level after external moderation activities have been conducted by SETAs? Context of practiceWhat is the optimal design framework for occupationally based education and trainingprovideraccreditation andexternal moderation activities?The first question related to ascertaining the dynamics informing the processes important up tothe first set of results, to create a framework in relation to the context of influence (Vidovich,2002:86).The perspective impact considered the macro level of the legislative policy frameworkand encompassed factors of global, regional and national eminence.222 | P a g e
  • 230. The second and third questions were interrelated to the context of legislative policy context, their werediscourse and the instructions and denotati denotations. The fourth question relayed the significances ofthe policy framework and the understandings of practitioners, and confirmed how practitioners understandingsunderstand legislative and policy frameworks frameworks. Table 4.2: A modified policy cycle incorporating macro constraint and acro micro agency Adapted from: (Vidovich, 2002).The framework for analysis of policy as recapitulated in the Table 4.1 conveyed numerous recapitulatedcoherent principles to the environment of the investigation and the selection of approaches for environmentthis research. The investigation of policy adaptation to this framework necessitated a qualitative adaptationapproach, to be able to pronounce and unravel “the complexities and messiness” of the processand to gain considerations of the denotations that actors brought to, or had of, the process(Taylor, 1997:24).Discovering the implications for the tenacities of data collection and analysis, an interpretivistparadigm ought to support the research methods. There are concerns of consistency andlegitimacy that recount to the investigation approaches engaged.4.4 Qualitative research outline esearch223 | P a g e
  • 231. Two research methodologies exist within the social sciences (Creswell, 1994) and (Leedy, 1997): i. Qualitative research ii. QuantitativeResearchQualitative research varies from quantitative research as it scrutinises the understanding of theposition of the participant contrasting to forecasting what will ensue from the position of anunfamiliar setting. The qualitative researcher attempts to present authentic analysis that issensitive to specific social-historical frameworks(Henning, Van Rensburg and Smit, 2004)and(Patton and Appelbaum, 2003).Qualitative research stresses inductive and practical methods that aim to figure a thick descriptionof the policy sequence (Punch, 1994).The researcher explored denotations of the policy development that are more pleasingly provokedby qualitative methods. “If you want to understand the way people think about their world andhow their definitions are formed, you need to get close to them, to hear them talk”(Bogdan,1998). These contemplations are incumbent upon one for the adoption of performances ofqualitative research such as in-depth orsemi-structured interviews.An evaluation comparing quantitative and qualitative research was possible by contrasting themajor approaches in the table below representing the differentiation in the researchmethodologies. The table was presented by(Viljoen, 2001) and informed by the work of(Creswell,1994), (Leedy, 1997)and (Maykut and Morehouse, 1994).The principal purpose in conducting qualitative research is dependent on the understanding andannotations of the participants. The anthology and accumulation of data during qualitativeresearch is less rigid, more open and flexible, and its analysis is not prescribed or based onmathematical rules (Neuman, 2000).Qualitative research relies profoundly on the prejudice and individual experiences or observationsof the participants(Adler, 1987). As such, a comprehensive understanding of subject matter orcontext of research is essential when conducting qualitative research. It is also common cause that224 | P a g e
  • 232. smaller groups participate in research conducted in a qualitative manner. Qualitative researchfurther relies on an in-depth understanding of human behaviour and the rationale for behaviouralexpression(Morganand Gibson, 1979), whereas quantitative research in comparison requires acomprehensive understanding of the underlying aspects of such behaviour (Taylor and Bogdan,1998) and (Patton, 2002).Qualitative research is a system of investigation, which characterises the researcher’sunderstanding of a social or cultural phenomenon derived from a “holistic, largely narrative,description”. Qualitative research takes place in natural settings and employs a combination ofobservations, interviews and document reviews. It could consist of a number of researchstrategies, namely case study, focus group, ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theoryand/or historical research perspectives (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). Qualitative research Quantitative research "All research ultimately has a qualitative "Theres no such thing as qualitative data. grounding"- Donald Campbell Everything is either 1 or 0"- Fred Kerlinger The aim is a complete, detailed The aim is to classify features, count them and description. construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed. Researcher may only know roughly, in Researcher knows clearly in advance what he/she advance, what he/she is looking for. is looking for. Recommended during earlier phases of Recommended during latter phases of research research projects. projects. The design emerges as the study All aspects of the study are carefully designed unfolds. before data is collected. Researcher is the data-gathering Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or instrument. equipment, to collect numerical data. Data is in the form of words, pictures or Data is in the form of numbers and statistics. objects. Subjective - individual interpretation of Objective - seeks precise measurement and events is important ,e.g. uses participant analysis of target concepts, e.g. uses surveys, observation, in-depth interviews etc. questionnaires etc. Qualitative data is more rich, time Quantitative data is more efficient, able to test consuming, and less able to be hypotheses, but may miss contextual detail. generalised. Researcher tends to become subjectively Researcher tends to remain objectively separated immersed in the subject matter. from the subject matter.225 | P a g e
  • 233. Table 4.3: Features of qualitative and quantitative research: (Neil, 2007)Qualitative research also refers to the process whereby there is an explanation of the what,where, when and how of the reality that is being investigated (Anderson, 1998). A furtherdescription outlines that “qualitative research refers to the meanings, concepts, definitions,characteristics, metaphors, symbols and descriptions of things” (Berg, 1995).Qualitative research also intends to investigate and reconnoitre human experience, perceptions,motivations, intentions and behaviour. Qualitative research is considered an interactive, inductive,adaptable, holistic and reflexive method of data collection and analysis. Although qualitativeresearch was conventionally limited to participating through observation and interviewing,photographic techniques (including video footage) and historical analysis, the analysis ofdocumentation and text and the social drama and ethnological research is seen as instances ofdifferentiations on the still developing qualitative research field(Berg, 1995).Seen from a systematic perspective the choice of a research method indicates that a specificperception, with reference to what is being researched, previously existed. It can be accepted thateach research method will unlock a different facet of the reality and,considering this, furtherresearch could possibly lead to a more comprehensive and substantiated interpretation of whatthe current reality is, that is being researched.Qualitative research techniques for the anthology of data embrace interviews, observation,documentation and analysis of documentation and text (Patton, 2002). The significance oftriangulation to improve the reliability and validity of the research is important in qualitativeresearch (Vidovich, 2002). Triangulation has two aspects in social science research as a ‘mode ofenquiry’ towards verification. These include “multiple sources and modes of evidence” and “anappreciation of understandings and perceptions” (Huberman and Miles, 1994).Throughout the research process the theory of triangulation, as derived from available literatureon qualitative research, was explored and was used in an attempt to obtain additional information226 | P a g e
  • 234. for the establishment(Berg, 1995)of the groundwork in developing an accreditation and externalmoderation framework.The four basic triangulation types can be described as follows: (Berg, 1998) i. Data triangulation – where various information sources are being consulted ii. Investigator triangulation – where a variety of researchers and scientists are consultediii. Theoretical triangulation – where a variety of theoretical summaries pertaining to specific data are dealt with andiv. Methodological triangulation – where a variety of methods are applied, including interviews, observations, questionnaires and documentation review.Triangulation is commonly applied in geographical enquiry, diagrammes and navigationprocedures during military operations (Berg, 1995:05).Available literature for the development ofa qualitative research paradigm indicated that the phenomenology, as a streaming in the anti-positivism, plays an important role in the development of qualitative research methodologies(Goetz and LeCompte, 1984).“The qualitative paradigm perceives social life as the shared creativity of individuals. It is thisshrewdness, which produces a reality perceived to be objective, extant, and knowable to allparticipants in social interaction. Furthermore, the social world is not fixed but shifting, changing,dynamic”(Filstead, 1979).Phenomenologists initially held the view that the elimination of any deduction in the investigativeprocess is essential for the purposeful analysis of the occurrence being examined. The researcherand the participant is an undivided total from which the “research process and the researchercannot be distinguished” (Huysamen, 1994:45).The role of the qualitative researcher focuses on structural planning. The review of currentliterature will be recurring to obtain a holistic and incorporated synopsis of the context and toarrange this logically into unambiguous and embedded parts. “The researcher’s role is to gain a227 | P a g e
  • 235. ‘holistic; (systemic, encompassing, integrated) overview of the context under study: its logic, itsarrangements, and its explicit and implicit rules” (Miles and Huberman, 1994). 1994)The figure below depicts the various elements of the research study and the relationship they pictshave with each other. The paradigm illustrated in here is “the entire constellation of beliefs”(Kuhn, 1970). Figure 4.2: Elements of aresearch studyResearch data must consequently be construed at the termination of every phase. This will resultin important new stages of advancement where innovative objectives develop and newinformation is acquired for further approval of the research study. dThe significance of reflecting on the analysis of the research progression as one possible rogressionexplanation of the reality that is being investigated, is a reality notwithstanding the evolution of investigatedthe research development. Against this background, the meaning of the terms objectivity, validity lopment.and reliability in qualitative research, have been discussed.Knowledge and meaningful reality is reliant on human practices being constructed in and out ofinteraction between human beings and their world, and developed and transmitted within an enessentially social context (Crotty, 1998). The research was a qualified approach to this 1998)epistemology, having argued that reality does occur intrinsically, as a meaning, as social ideas or meaningconnotations to articles or events.228 | P a g e
  • 236. 4.4.1 ObjectivityObjectivity forms a fundamental element of any research study. Objectivity presupposes that acertainty or sovereign authenticity exists external of the research. The opinion that a researcherwill stay unpretentious or uninfluenced by what is experienced cannot be dismissed and withspecific reference to qualitative research, it is imperative for the researcher to remainunprejudiced and to concede one’s own presumption whilst functioning in an equitable way.Qualitative research requires the researcher to consider dispassionately into the authenticity thatis being examined and the development is strictly controlled and equitable (Filstead, 1979).Theamorphous and sometimes deliberately biased temperament of the qualitative researcher reflectsa particular dialogue (Smaling, 1994).The prejudice of the researcher in quantitative research is considered as qualified in naturewhereas the same intolerance within the qualitative realm of research is a significant factor in theresearcher’s views and incorporating their own understanding (Miles and Huberman, 1994).Objectivity is in certainty an intellectually acquired progression of prejudice to find the underlyingcause of a case and not the escape thereof. This is based on the viewpoint of being in the world,meaning that human behaviour cannot be understood or valued without taking into considerationthe context in which it took place (Smaling, 1994).Objectivity is raised by the quantitative researcher making use of specific standardised researchinstruments for the gathering of data. It implies that the researcher can function impartially andseparate from the research investigation and can, in essence, be replaced by a robot (Smaling,1994). Qualitative researchers are of the opinion that independence is achieved through thecommitment of the researcher and the participants.“If the scholar wishes to understand the action of people, it is necessary for him to see the objectsas they see them. Failure to see their objects as they see them, or a substitution of his meaningsfor the objects of their meanings, is the gravest kind of error that the social scientist can commit”(Blumer, 1969).229 | P a g e
  • 237. In the case of this research, objectivity was maintained through the triangulation of data from avariety of sources, including a questionnaire in which respondents compiled the data. Similarly,the review of 250 accreditation and 250 external moderation reports was compiled against pre-setcriteria. In turn, the interviews were transposed in order to eliminate researcher bias orinterpretation.4.4.2 ReliabilityQualitative research stresses thoroughness to endorse reliability and validity concomitant withquantitative research methods. Reliability is generally concerned with the capability of theresearch design to be duplicated to create the equivalent outcomes, whereas validity is concernedwith the magnitude of the researchers observing or determining what they think or wish theywere evaluating (Punch, 1998:100).‘Reliability’ is a concept used for testing or evaluating quantitative research, however, it can alsobe linked to all kinds of research. If the idea of testing is seen as a way of information elicitationthen the most important test of any qualitative study is its quality. A good qualitative study canhelp us “understand a situation that would otherwise be enigmatic or confusing(Eisner, 1991:58).Reliability is defined as the degree to which results are dependable over time.The preciseinterpretation of the entire populace under study is referred to as dependability.When the resultsof a study can be replicated under a comparable methodology, then the research instrument isconsidered dependable. The construction of results that are continually comparable, are directlylinked to the dependability of the research (Joppe, 2003).The following questions can be asked to validate consistency (Goetz, 1984): Is the research process consequently handled over a reasonable period? Did other researchers undertake a similar research process?230 | P a g e
  • 238. Are alternative data collection methods used in this research process? The following steps can be taken to enhance the reliability in qualitative research: (Miles and Huberman, 1994): i. The terms of a justification of the theoretical framework and recognition thereof throughout the research studyii. A unambiguous description of the position and purpose of the researcher during the performance of triangulationiii. The employment of matching groups assessment and the use of audio and/or video recording for the gathering of in sequence and the storage of all data, information, recording and interpretation - important to the examination for the reason of authentication by independent individualsiv. The implementation of coding controls to establish if there are enough correspondence connecting the data indicated v. The performance of cross quality checks via the results of the analysis to contrast with that of previous researchvi. The prologue of paradox/incongruity achieved from the composed data, to the participants, for further clearance and the implementation of the principles of consensus by means of an open conversation with all the participants regarding the findings of the investigation Guidelines on managing the responsiveness to the quality of the data are necessary(Punch, 1994). The effective handling of the abovementioned procedures will step up the reliability of the qualitative research terms related to reliability and assessment validity (Miles and Huberman, 1994)where the researcher confirmed validity by embracing a locus of critical self-awareness at all stages of the research and continuously applying a reflexive research approach. In this research study, four different methods of data collection and triangulation were used, including a focus group, to ensure the reliability of the data. The quantity of reports reviewed (500) also supported data reliability. 231 | P a g e
  • 239. 4.4.3 ValidityValidity has a number of descriptions in relation to qualitative studies. Validity involves that theperception is not a single, fixed or general theory, but “rather a contingent construct, inescapablygrounded in the processes and intentions of particular research methodologies and projects”(Winter, 2000).Internal legitimacy in qualitative research investigates specific theory. The following descriptorsare applicable: (Miles and Huberman, 1994) Narrative (what occurred in specific situations during the investigation?) Analysis (what meaning did the research have to the participants?) Theoretical (which concepts are relevant, the hypothesis between concepts and the uses thereof, to interpret the behaviour?) Evaluation (what is the nature of the decisions taken concerning the values and connotations of specific behaviours/ conducts/ actions?) To ensure the external validity of qualitative research it would be necessary that the researcher take the subsequent aspects into consideration (Miles and Huberman, 1994): The characteristic /qualities of the original participants The circumstances and the development, enlightened exclusively so that enough information is available to compare with similar participants that participate in follow-up investigations The weighting of the theoretically diverse sample with the possibility of a broader application Whether the findings are identical with, connected to, or corroborative of existing theory Spelling out the application possibilities of the theoretical findings in the research Whether a recommendation can be made in a report concerning the suggestion for similar investigationsAddressing the validity deliberation within qualitative research, one requires proficiency,competence and robustness from the researcher as the spectator, as it is the researcher thatwould be the influential aspect or become the measuring apparatus (Patton, 1990).232 | P a g e
  • 240. For the solidification of the legitimacy of the assessment, the researcher should incessantly bereminded of at least three imperative questions: Is the research being conducted a true reflection of the intended research? To what extent do other researchers test the discovery previously?(Goetz, 1984) “Are the events and settings studied uncontrived, (and) unmodified by the researcher’s presence and actions?” (Miles and Huberman, 1994). The qualitative research paradigm confirms (Smaling, 1994): The research epitomises the substance or an occurrence that is defined as experience seen by all the participants, in relation to the research procedure; The data compilation technique is open and accommodating; The method of data analysis does not compose as a prerequisite for a method where the collected data automatically is articulated by numerical mathematical methodology; During the stage of research, a cyclical interface exists connecting data anthology and data analysis, which can express the analysing of accrued statistics, and/or research problems, can be edited.This research study has proven valid in that the sources of data are accurate, concrete, clear andvaried. Much of the research included after-the-fact analysis, where the researcher could have noinfluence on events. It is clear, too, from the researcher’s aims that this research has reflected theintended research.4.5 Grounded theoryGrounded theory is an approach for developing theory that is "grounded in data systematicallygathered and analysed" (Strauss, 1964)Grounded theory represents one of the six researchstrategies included within the qualitative research approach. Grounded theory has beenextensively used as an apparent and cited qualitative research methodology in the social sciences(Bryant, 2007).233 | P a g e
  • 241. Grounded theory is a universal methodology for developing theory that is grounded in data,methodically collected, and evaluated. Theory advances during actual research and it does thisthrough continuous interplay between analysis and data collection (Charmaz, 2000:509-536).Withlittle more than a research question, one can begin an investigation, and possible theories willdevelop during and from the data collection process (Hutcheon, 1989)and (Glaser and Strauss,2006). This is seen as an inductive method of researching where the theory resides in the data andhence develops from the investigation that precedes it (Neuman, 2000).In events where gaps of knowledge exist in a research domain, or a single theory exists wherebyhuman behaviour can be evaluated, the ‘grounded theory’ approach, is very suitable (Hutcheon,1989). Grounded theory may therefore be defined as an inductive, comparative and interactiveapproach that is flexible, non-restrictive and provides strategies to conduct emerging enquiries orthemes (Glaser and Strauss, 2006).The research conducted in this study used a range of data, much of which was factual, and someof which was narrative; all of it authentic and external to the researcher.4.6 Research population and samplingPopulation validity refers to “the degree to which findings obtained for a sample may begeneralised to the total population to which the research hypothesis applies” (Huysamen,1994:45). Sampling is the process of selecting a number of study units from a defined studypopulation (Varkevisser, 2003).The research objectives and the characteristics of the study population determine which and howmany participants to select. The pragmatic considerations, like the amount of information that hasto be processed and the time and cost that holds regard to the investigation play a role indetermining the amount of participants (Goetz, 1984).234 | P a g e
  • 242. It is not wise to calculate the amount of participants of a qualitative investigation beforehand,seeing that one must continue with the process of response and analysis until a theoreticalsaturation point can be reached (Goetz and LeCompte, 1984).Niemann describes theoretical saturation as the stage where no new confirmed or negativeinformation can be elicited at a particular stage of the research and that the data accumulationmay now be concluded and therefore no further participants are required. Niemann indicated thatstriving towards theoretical satisfaction strengthens the validity and reliability of a research study(Niemann and Kotzé, 1994).The researcher initially “chooses interviewees with a broad knowledge of the topic” and thereforepurposeful sampling occurs. Grounded theorists use a narrower focused sample and “seeks outparticipants who have experience, the most experience, in the topic of interest” (Cutcliffe, 2000).Three of the most common sampling methods used in qualitative research are: Purposive sampling - a common strategy, participants are grouped according to pre-selected criteria relevant to a particular research question Quota sampling - sometimes seen as a derivative of purposive sampling. When the study is designed it is decided on how many people, with which characteristics, to include as participants Snowball sampling – also referred to as “chain referral sampling”, is a subset of purposive sampling. Social networks are made use of to broaden the researcher’s scope. “Hidden populations” are accessed in this manner.This narrow sampling is directed by the concept that the researcher intends to induce a theory(Cutcliffe, 2000). If the researcher is interested in inducing a formal theory, he/she will have toselect dissimilar substantive groups from the larger class, and thus increase the theory’s scope(Cutcliffe, 2000).An adequate and appropriate sample is critical in qualitative research. The eventual quality of theresearch is contingent on the appropriateness and adequacy of the sample (Morse,235 | P a g e
  • 243. Dennerstein,Farrell, Varnavides, 1991). “Information is gathered through interviews andobservations, which generate documentation. This form of research is still developing, although itenjoys preference to investigate social phenomena in society” (Filstead, 1979:43).In systemic terms, qualitative research is recursive, and objectivity, reliability and validity couldbecome concerns within this form of research. There is more subjectivity and personal opinionsand perceptions and this method is often used to understand human behaviour and is mostly for,but not restricted to, work situations.“Within the qualitative research design the researcherwishes to explore and describe the meaning and promote the understanding of the human’s livedexperience”(Brink, 2007:113).The sampling in this research was largely purposive in nature, and the population groups were inpart selected in order to elicit the most valuable and comprehensive sets of data, and in partnarrowly collected, as in the case of the accreditation and external moderation reports being onlyfrom selected ETQAs, in order to ensure a broad spectrum of data.4.7 Data collection methodsThere exist various means of obtaining and collecting data during the qualitative researchapproach. Within the qualitative research approach, there are specific data collection techniques,which include interviews, observation, documentation and analysis of documentation and text(Patton, 1980)and (Berg, 1995:05).These methods can be divided into two distinct categories whereby either little or no interaction isinvolved and whereby interaction takes place (Niemann and Kotzé, 1994). These categories arelabelled as “interactive methods” and “non-interactive methods”. Interactive methods imply thatthere will be interaction between the researcher and research participants, andinformation(Niemann and Kotzé, 1994).Non-Interactive methods therefore imply that there will belittle if any interaction, directly between either the researcher and research participants, orinformation.236 | P a g e
  • 244. Interactive methodsThe following provide an outline of collection methods, which are categorised as interactivemethods. Participant observationParticipant observation is a qualitative method frequently used in social science research. It isbased on a long tradition of ethnographic study in anthropology. In participant observation, theobserver becomes “part” of the environment, or the cultural context. The method usually involvesthe researcher’s spending considerable time “in the field” (Savenye and Strand, 1989). In thisregard the researcher is involved with the everyday life of the participants, personally understandsthe realities and minutiae of their daily lives (Patton, 1980). The researcher is therefore able toreconstruct the interaction and activities with the assistance of the field notes (Goetz, 1984).In instances where larger groups are involved, it could be difficult to be so directly involved withthe participants and distance with the participants is then unavoidable. With individuals andsmaller groups it is thus(Patton, 1987)of cardinal importance that the researcher is personallyinvolved with the participants. Irrespective of the procedure followed with regard to that of theparticipants’ observation, Patton states that “Closeness does not make bias and loss of perspectiveinevitable; distance is no guarantee of objectivity. The mandate of qualitative methods is to gointo the field and learn about the program first-hand”(Patton, 1987:17). InterviewsAn interview is defined as a “face-to-face, interpersonal role situation in which an interviewer asksparticipants questions designed to elicit answers pertinent to the research hypotheses” (Frankfort-Nachmias and Nachmias, 1996:232).237 | P a g e
  • 245. Interviews need not be face-to-face as it can be conducted by means of a through-the-telephoneor can even be computer-assisted (Sekaran and Wiley, 1992).Interviews are normally defined as “simply a conversation with a purpose. Specifically, thepurpose is to gather information” (Berg, 1995) and (Gordon, 1995). Gordon is of the opinion thatany person can be trained in the recording of an interview, while (Berg, 1995)is of the opinion thatthere is a difference between successful interviewers and general interviewers. Successfulinterviewers will, according to Berg, be aware thereof that the qualitative research process mustbe run in two distinctive phases; firstly, the enrolment to the research investigation and, secondly,the analysis of the accumulated data. Interviews can further be described as a technique used to: Describe the meanings of central themes in the life and world of the research participants. The primary objective is to understand the meaning of what the interviewees are saying (Kvale, S, 1996); Obtain and gauge the story behind the research participant’s experiences by allowing the interviewer to pursue in-depth information around the topic; Involve as a follow-up tool in respect of respondents’ responses to questionnaires, i.e. to further investigate their responses (McNamara, 1999). Interviews can further be classified into either structured or unstructured (or non-directive interviews). Others identified a third category- the focused interview, which is a variation of the structured interview (Nachmias and Nachmias, 1996).(Fitzgerald and Cox; 1987) also refer to only two types of interviews, namely, the formal and theinformal interview, whereas (Patton, 1990) and (Berg, 1995)refer to three types namely: The standardised or structured interview The un-standardised or unstructured interview The semi-standardised or semi-structured interview238 | P a g e
  • 246. Standardised Semi-standardised Un-standardised Focus groupsstructured semi-structured unstructured interviewInterviewFormal and rigid Informal approach No formal or A group interviewapproach predetermined approachRequires No consistency required Conversational rather Researcher facilitatesconsistency in and additional questions than an interview conversation or debatebehaviour across all or points of clarificationinterviews may be askedPre-determined list No pre-determined list Researcher does not Questions are formulatedof questions of questions know which questions to based on discussions in the ask focus groupQuestion posed in No prescribed order No order, no script andsame order no limitations by protocolMost often by Most often by Most often used in Examine experiences ofquantitative qualitative researchers ethnographies and case individuals and is effectiveresearchers studies for exploring the attitudes and needs of staffData collected is Researcher has the Researcher is able to Simultaneous collection ofconcise, researcher ability to gain rapport uncover information that data from severalbias reduced and participants trust, would not have been participants encourages as well as a deeper exposed using structured participation from those understanding of or semi-structured who are reluctant to be responses interviews interviewed on their own Table 4.4: Correlations between the various types of interviews239 | P a g e
  • 247. The structured interview assumes a more formal and rigid approach and that the researcherknows exactly what information is needed. The researcher is able to formulate a list of pre-determined questions. It is theoretically grounded and assumes that the researcher wants toinvestigate specific aspects, which are established beforehand. An important pre-prejudice thatthe researcher makes in this case, is that he/she is convinced that his/her formulation of thequestion or questions, will be acceptable and understandable to all the participants of theinvestigation (Berg, 1995). (Denzin, 1978:114)reacts as follows to the aforementioned: “theseassumptions remain untested articles of faith”.The same questions are administered to all participants throughout the research study although incertain cases, depending on the circumstances or participants’ responses, the researcher mayelicit additional information by asking additional questions. “Through this process new factorsmight be identified and a deeper understanding might result” (Sekaran, 1992:92). In contrast tothe structured nature of the standardised interview, for the purpose of the un-structuredinterview, no use is made of structured schedules.An important presumption, with regard to the use of the un-structured interview, is that theresearcher does not know, beforehand, which question will be relevant for the participant andthat it would be accepted that the participants could differ in their understanding of the questionsbeing asked (Schwartzand Jacobs, 1979).The semi-structured interview contains a number of pre-determined questions or themes, whichare in the same manner, continuously stated to each participant while the interviewer encouragesthe participants to, as far as possible, expand on each question or subject being discussed (Berg,1995).In the non-structured interview, the questions are not posed in a specific order and researchparticipants are therefore encouraged to relate their own experiences and to reveal their attitudesand perceptions on the topic of interest. The researcher therefore has an opportunity to probevarious areas and to raise specific queries during the interviews. Based on the preliminary240 | P a g e
  • 248. discussions, it appears that the structuring of interviews is important to allow participants an equalopportunity to express themselves in understandable terms.As the manner in which the interview is conducted is of relevance and utmost importance to thedata accumulation and data analysis process, the interview must be structured in an effectivemanner and followed through (McKillip, Moirrs and Cervenka, 1992).In this regard, reference is made to table 4.5, where the so-called ten laws with regard tointerviewing are outlined (Berg; 1995: 57-58): # Ten laws of Interviewing 1 Never begin an interview cold. 2 Remember your purpose. 3 Present a natural front. 4 Demonstrate aware hearing. 5 Think about appearance. 6 Interview in a comfortable place. 7 Do not be satisfied with monosyllabic answers. 8 Be respectful. 9 Practice, practice and practice some more. 10 Be cordial and appreciative. Table 4.5: The ten laws ofinterviewingFinally, the purpose of interviewing in qualitative research is combined. Patton states, “Thepurpose of interviewing is to find out what is in and on someone else’s mind. Qualitativeinterviewing begins with the assumption that the perspective of others is meaningful, knowable,and able to be made explicit” (Patton, 1990: 278). Non-interactive methods241 | P a g e
  • 249. The following provides an outline of a collection method that is categorised as a non-interactivemethod:242 | P a g e
  • 250. Non-participating observationsThis type of observation happens without the researcher participating in any activity whereby theparticipant is concerned. The researcher will observe, though only from a distance, record whathappens and note it accordingly. Methods of recording the observation could include hiddencameras, tape recordings, and one-way mirrors as aids during these non-participating observations(Goetz and LeCompte, 1984).Data collection methods used in this research were both interactive and non-interactive. After-the-fact reports and literature reviews involved no involvement with participants and were merelyanalytical in nature. Interactive data collection included a focus group and semi-structuredinterviews. A questionnaire was also used for data collection purposes.4.8 Data anal ysisData analysis necessitates the researcher to “find meaning using qualitative contentanalysis”(Henning, E, 2004:104). According to Neuman “data analysis means a search for patternsin data of recurrent behaviours, objects or a body of knowledge in order to uncover the meaningsattached to participants’ discourse by searching for clues to the multiple meanings inherent intheir discourse” (Neuman, 2000 : 426).Two of the three central approaches of qualitative research data collection were applied in thisresearch study: document analysis and interviews. The data collection process of field observationprecluded the use of the third central technique. Data for the purpose of this research werecollected over a twenty-four month period and data reduction and analysis were at times almostsimultaneous with data collection.Most analysis in qualitative research is facilitated through a process of continuous interactionbetween the researcher and the participants involved in the investigation. The information isinterpreted and explained predominantly in terms of words without the use of standardisedinstrumentation (Miles and Huberman, 1994).243 | P a g e
  • 251. There is no prescribed approach for the analyses of data inqualitative research investigations(Neuman; 1994). In extension thereof, Powney and Watts are of the opinion that there exists noconcrete structure for the analysis and interpretation of data as found in an interview: “… eachresearcher will adopt and adapt particular methods to suit his or her own purpose” (Powney andWatts, 1987:168).According to (Miles and Huberman, 1994), qualitative data analysis can therefore be defined interms of three distinctive, possibly consecutive, but concurrent activities, namely: The reduction of data The display of data The verification or conclusion of dataThe components of data analysis could be represented as follow: Data collection period Data reduction Anticipatory = Analysis Data displays Conclusion drawing/verifying Table 4.6: The components of data analysisHuberman and Miles’ model of data analysis is denoted as analytical induction, and is based onthe theoretical assumption that there are “regularities to be found in the physical and socialworld” (Miles, 1994:431) and(Neuman, 2000 : 426). Grounded theorists such as (Strauss,1998),refer principally to the processes of coding as the primary means of data analysis. For thepurpose of this research, the processes of coding and decoding are identified separately. Toensure high quality of analysis, methods were subject to an approach of “constant comparison”and one of constant questioning (Glaser and Strauss, 2006). Documents as data244 | P a g e
  • 252. The first source of data for this study was the evaluation of a range of appropriate documents inthe form of two hundred and fifty accreditation reports and two hundred and fifty externalmoderation reports evaluated in a desktop case study process.Records are those texts that are the formal transactions, such as contracts, legal documents,official government gazetted statements and the like. “Documents are prepared for personalrather than official reasons and include diaries, letters, field-notes and so on” (Hodder, 1994:394).Hodder’s two categories are somewhat narrow, and additional written resources such as formalreports have been included in this research study for data collection. Reports were nominatedrandomly, and knowledge gained from literature reviews informed the analysis. There were alsocases in which interview respondents directed the researcher towards documents.Data collected from documents and reports recognised the context for the data collected frominterviews, and allowed for a deeper understanding relating to the contexts by providingadditional information. Definite trends emerged during the course of the research. InterviewingInterviewing was an important method for balancing data collection for this study and was theprincipal means of determining the understandings of the key stakeholders involved in theresearch trajectory.Various types of interview methods that are available to the researcher are outlined by(Berg,1998) and(Bogdan, 1998). Interview types are articulated as a variety from the structured, orstandardised, interview at one end, to the unstructured interview at the other end. For thepurpose of this research, the semi-structured interview was applied. Respondents wereencouraged to participate without reservation and to talk freely about their frame of referenceand experiences.The sample of respondents for the interviews involved key actors or stakeholders identified in thepolicy process, either from the literature and documents reviewed, or from the recommendations245 | P a g e
  • 253. of other respondents. As such, it represented a deliberate, purposive sample. The respondentsincluded a variety of stakeholders including training providers, SETA representatives andpractitioners.The researcher applied the advice obtained through literature and used a pilot interview with asuitable candidate, to practice and familiarise the procedure, and identify possible difficulties(Burns, et al., 1986:190-195)advised, and this was done with the help of a ‘critical friend’(Vidovich, 2002:86).Preparation of the respondent was imperative. Participants were formally invited by e-mail toparticipate in the research study, which included a short written presentation about the interviewand the aims and nature of the research. Participants were advised on the importance of theresearch data; the recording and analysis methodology; duration of the interview session andreassurances provided in relation to confidentiality. Introductory discussions were undertaken tothe effect of reassuring the respondent and confirming that all information would be valuable. Itwas the experience of the researcher that this technique valued significant results in terms of thequality of the data generated.Ensuring rapport with the respondent was influenced by the quality of preparation as described.The researcher made a conscious effort to be well organised and knowledgeable whenparticipating in the Interviews. The reduction of dataData reduction refers to a process of selection, focusing on simplification, abstraction andtransformation of available data as it appears on the research notes and transcripts(Miles andHuberman, 1994). The process begins with the initial planning of the research investigation whenthe researcher among others things, decides over the conceptual framework that shall be used,who the participants will be, and in which circumstances the investigation will take place.246 | P a g e
  • 254. Considering this, all the information as obtained in contact is recorded. This data, together withthe notes made during the contact occasion, is studied to identify possible themes. Wherepossible codes of the identified themes and tendencies can be accounted for. Thereby, datareduction becomes part of the data analysis process, according to (Miles and Huberman, 1994).While listening to the insertions, codes must be allocated to the individual themes and a bindingsummary of the data made at each key word. To ease cross-reference, the number on theinsertion is indicated next to eachof the key words(Miles M.B., 1984).247 | P a g e
  • 255. The display of dataExhibition implies the presentation of the organised bound collection of evidence that gives theobserver the opportunity to make an observation and to formulate a plan of action. Miles andHuberman advise that more attention is given to the presentation of the display, including graphs,charts, networks and matrices. “All must be designed to assemble organised information into animmediately accessible, compact form so that the analyst can see what is happening and eitherdraw justified conclusions or move on to the next step of analysis which the display suggests maybe useful” (Miles, 1994:11).In this process, data is organised and grouped into manageable units. Miles and Huberman referto this phase as ‘matrix display and examination” (Miles and Huberman; 1984: 211– 213). The verification of conclusion of dataThe final phase involved in the analysis of qualitative data is the verification of the data or thedrawing of conclusion phase. By this time, the researcher has already identified possible themesand this process suggests the researcher has begun making notes with regard to the possiblesimilarities, patterns, connections and relationships between the data that has been collected. Foran experienced researcher this suggests that the process has an honest and ongoing criticalaptitude with regard to the investigation.In case the data can eventually be verified, it is important that the meaning thereof is a truereflection of the data (Miles and Huberman, 1994).In figure 4.3, it is illustrated that (Miles and Huberman, 1994)interactive model is used for theanalysing of qualitative data as explained above. In view of these suggestions, all three processesof data analysis function at equal levels during and after the data collection process.It is emphasised, that the results that are gained are presented in a meaningful manner in theresearch report. In this regard, (Miles and Huberman, 1994)put the following forward:248 | P a g e
  • 256. Count the amount of times a certain pattern appears; Determine which pattern is repeated; Investigate the acceptability of the results and if it can be logically explained; Classify and group the typical cases and persons; Use, if possible, analogues and metaphors to display certain information; If a lot of information about a specific aspect of the research is available, rather divide it into sub themes to later indicate the relationships between the data; Group categories where there is not much information available; Take into consideration the relationships and differences between the collected data; Take note of the factors which can lead to specific relationships between data, and Try to determine the origin of specific responses. Data collection Data Display Data Reduction Conclusions: drawing/verifying Figure 4.3: Aspects of data analysis Interactive model (Adapted from Miles and Huberman; 1994: 12)It was against this background, that the research design for the qualitative approach in theformulation of a framework for accreditation andexternal moderation of occupationally directedproviders was developed.4.8.1 Research rationale249 | P a g e
  • 257. Grounded theory is a strategy employed within a qualitative research method and is used inbuilding naturalistic theory, which is rooted in sociology (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). In this study,the researcher was aware of her preconceived ideas based upon her experience and was careful toafford the interviewees the opportunity to give an account of their own experience. Theresearcher could so formulate a hypothesis or theory(Berger, 1981)and (Hutchinson, S. A., 1993)in(Cutcliffe, 2000)regarding personal preconceptions, values and beliefs, which must be held inabeyance by the researcher.Cutliffe concludes that the grounded theory researcher must acknowledge his/her priorknowledge and tacit knowledge (Cutcliffe, 2000). The grounded theory approach was applied inconducting this study as this approach allowed the researcher the flexibility of exploring a socialphenomenon based on own perspectives and observations. The emergence of a theory andthemes for this body of work was based on the construction of such knowledge due to cognitiveinterpretation and linked to own experiences.4.8.2 Purposive and narrow samplingThe qualitative sample was purpose-based, narrow, and not random. Narrow sampling is directedby the concept that the researcher intends to introduce a theory (Cutcliffe, 2000).The population included participants from SETAs, practitioners and training providers. Thequalitative sample was purpose-based and not random. Individuals and/or institutions wereexplicitly recognised for inclusion.4.8.3 Rationale for selected data collection methods in this researchThe research chapter outlined the rationale, process and logic informing the collection of datarelated to the research. Within the qualitative research approach, there are specific data collectiontechniques that include interviews, observation, documentation and analysis of documentationand text (Patton, 1990) and(Berg, 1995).250 | P a g e
  • 258. In line with the discussions outlined in this chapter pertaining to data collection methods, theresearcher has confirmed that the following data collection techniques have been applied: Research questionnaire Interviews (personal histories, perspectives and experiences) Documentation (the review of literature or case studies) Focus groups (a group’s cultural norms and generating broad overviews of issues of concern to the cultural groups or subgroups represented)An interactive approach in the collection of data has been utilised. Interviews were scheduledwith the selected participants and took place accordingly. The researcher formulated a pre-determined set of questions but did make provision for the inclusion of additional questions tofurther gauge participants’ understanding.Upon completion of the questionnaires by the research participants, face-to-face interviews andtelephonic interviews were scheduled with some participants to clarify collected data from theresearch questionnaire. The research questions were formulated to enable self-administration andclear guidelines were provided to participants on interpreting questions, completing thequestionnaire and returning the questionnaires. Participants were also advised on due dates forsubmission and dates of face-to-face interviews if required.The literature review was detailed and covered both global and local accreditation andexternalmoderation frameworks. Related topics such as unemployment rates and education policy wereexplored to provide an informed perspective.4.9 Conclusion of chapter fourChapter 4 sought to outline the aims and research questions that guided the study, and to providean overview of the frameworks, perspectives and methods that informed the research. Attentionto the latter has been identified as essential for ensuring the quality of the research output.251 | P a g e
  • 259. The next three chapters have outlined the outcomes of the research, in elaborating the findingsacross four phases of the research journey. For the purposes of facilitating the data collectionprocess, the context of each phase was explored in an attempt to guide the researcher inidentifying emerging themes and how these could potentially inter-relate with each other.The grounded theory research methodology was set out to meet the specified requirements ofthis research project. The sample size as determined by the roles of the key stakeholders withinthe occupationally directed education and training environment allowed for individual experiencesand perspectives to be accommodated. The groundwork for the research has validated theprinciples, whichultimately informed the development of an alternative framework foraccreditation and external moderation of occupationally directed education and trainingproviders.The following chapter reports on the findings and outcomes of the data-collection process asbased upon the literature review, the research questionnaire, desktop evaluations of accreditationand external moderation reports, semi-structured interviews and the focus group discussions.252 | P a g e
  • 260. 5. Chapter 5–Research Report “Education makes a people easy to lead, difficult to drive: easy to govern, but impossible to enslave.” Brougham5.1 IntroductionChapter 5 presents the research results of the extrapolated data. The researcher applied groundedtheory principles outlined in the preceding chapter. The research report contains details of theresearch findings as referred to below. The purpose of this chapter was to present the discoveriesof the conductedresearch including the literature review, focus group discussions, the desktopevaluation of 250 accreditation and 250 external moderation reports, research questionnaires andsemi-structured interviews.5.2 The research design stages:Stage 1 involved constructing ideas regarding “postmodernism”, “accreditation” and “externalmoderation”, and exploring perspectives from both a conjectural context and conversely from apractical context. The findings of this stage were presented in the literature review in chapter 2and parts of chapter 3 of this thesis.As part of Stage 1, the research study also involved a desktop evaluation of two hundred and fiftyaccreditation evaluation reports that had been conducted in the preceding 24 months andafurther two hundred and fifty external moderation reports, which had been completed in thepreceding 24 months.During this stage, the researcher also identified experienced professionalsand practitioners within the occupationally directed education and training field to participateinafocus group that served the purpose of being an ongoing “reflective vehicle” within the researchprocess.253 | P a g e
  • 261. Stage 2 involved the finalisation and dissemination of the research questionnaire that wascompleted by thirty participants. Participants represented different constituencies, includingindustry expert practitioners, training providers and current or former representatives fromregulatory bodies as well as respected academics. Participants were contacted after they hadreceived the research questionnaire to assess if they required additional information.During stage 3, six questions which emerged from the data gathered during Stages 1 and 2 werefinalised and constructed in a research questionnaire. The questionnaire was then disseminated totwenty providers, evaluators, external moderators and current or former ETQA employees. Theresearch questionnaire’s intent was to gain valuable insight into the perceptions and experiencesof industry stakeholders and to validate emerging trends. The semi-structured interviews wereconducted by means of a face-to-face interview, a telephonic interview or video conferencing.Participants received an invitation by email and a follow-up telephone call was made to confirmthe interview as required. Participants confirmed consent by e-mail.Stage 4 involved the interpretation and analysis of data gathered from participants in Stage 1, thequestionnaire data (Stage 2) and data gathered from the semi-structured interviews (Stage 3), aswell as discussing these findings with representatives of a community of expert practitioners(focus group). The focus group included representatives of participants from Stage 1, 2, and 3.During this journey, the researcher became involved in an iterative process of reflection andidentification of concepts, categories and emerging themes.The research study sought to explore lucidity in provisos of epistemology, ontology andmethodology in current accreditation and external moderation models.Chapter 5 presents the findings of this research and discusses the findings in relation to thedevelopment of an alternative accreditation a