DISCUSSIONS IN EDUCATION:               A POSTMODERN APPROACH                            L. Meyer                         ...
DISCUSSIONS IN EDUCATION:                   A POSTMODERN APPROACH                                L. Meyer                 ...
DeclarationI declare that the research project, Discussions in Education: A Postmodern Approach, is my ownwork and that ea...
AcknowledgementsMy sincere gratitude to the following individuals without whom this research journey would nothave been po...
AbstractThis research endeavour explored local and global provider accreditation and external moderationframeworks, within...
development is at the axis of social cohesion, affluence, and sustainable employment creation, asthe emphasis and focus on...
Table of contents1.        Chapter 1 – Contextualisation ....................................................................
2.2.2     Modernist philosophy ..............................................................................................
2.5.6      Conclusion .......................................................................................................
3.6.2     The German accreditation framework ................................................................................
4.8     Data analysis........................................................................................................
7.        Chapter 7 – Recommendations for Practice and Further Research ............................................ 2867....
List of tablesTable 2.1      Modernist versus postmodernist thought .........................................................
List of figuresFigure 2.1:     Periods related to epistemological approach ..................................................
List of acronymsAAU              Association of African UniversitiesABA              American Bar AssociationABET         ...
CAT            Credit Accumulation and TransferCBT            Competency Based TrainingCCEA           Council for Curricul...
EHEA       European Higher Education AreaEQARF      European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for Vocational         ...
IEEE           Institute of Electrical and Electronic EngineersILO            International Labour OrganizationINQAAHE    ...
NQF             National Qualifications FrameworkNSA             National Skills AuthorityNSC             National Senior ...
SAICA            South African Institute of Chartered AccountantsSAIVCET          South African Institute of Valuers - Con...
Definition of Key TermsArticulate                           To provide for learners, on successful completion of accredite...
Professional Education   Refers to educational programmes that lead to professional                         registration.Q...
1. Chapter 1–Contextualisation  “There is only one education, and it has only one goal - the freedom of the mind. Anything...
that maximises both public and private educational provisionto build capacity in addressing socialand economic transformat...
discourseconcerningaccreditation and external moderation frameworks within the occupationallydirected education and traini...
Public institutions are predominantly financed from the national budget(National Treasury, 2011),whilst private providers ...
on Higher Education, Umalusi and the Quality Council for Trades and Occupations. Options areproposed for clarifying their ...
a non-primary focus ETQA to deliver training with the authority from their primary focus ETQA.Said permission isobtained t...
validity of uploaded data to the National Learners’ Records Database (NLRD). SETAs strive to attain“green” status in confi...
properly. We are about to change that, particularly for those who are guilty of wrongdoing in thepublic service”(Kgosana, ...
challenge of employment creation, as businesses avoid employing graduates exiting from theseinstitutions. Poorly resourced...
operation and ETQA applicable jurisdiction, with each ETQA being responsible for qualityassurance in a specific economic s...
1.4             Research objectivesIn an attempt to achieve the purpose study, it is necessary to implement a phase or ste...
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1.5            Research questionsThe research questions address the research purpose and its objectives by scrutinising th...
instrumental, and collective (Stake, 2000). The desktop case study collected, collated andcombined data related to 500 rel...
1.6.2          Research methodologyThe research design was qualitative in nature. The research methodology was based on gr...
part of the research, thereby representing the fourth population group. Semi-structuredinterviews were conducted with this...
1.7            Quality of dataIt was imperative that the quality of data integrity remaineduncompromised during the resear...
1.9            Outli ne of the thesisThe chapter archetype, as set out below, formulates the thesis construct as it is imp...
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1.9.4          Chapterfive – Research reportThe fifth chapter outlined the research report and provided context and analys...
postmodern advent. Conventional and unconventional perspectives as they emerged during theresearch process informed the pr...
As South Africa embraces a newfound political will to address the youth education andemployment wastelands, no responsible...
2. Chapter 2 – Literature Review      “By three methods we may learn, wisdom first, by reflection, which is noblest; secon...
exceptional quality standards in the provision of education(UNESCO , 2005).Theoreticians havelong proposed structures for ...
2.2.1          IntroductionIn considering whether the potential effectsof the evolution of educational from modernism topo...
The modern         The romantic                                  The critical              The                            ...
Modernism served as the precursor to postmodern development (Cahoone, 2003). Time serves aproverbial purpose, as evolution...
Indicator             Modernism                                  Postmodernism Society and social    Equilibrium,         ...
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DISCUSSIONS IN EDUCATION:
A POSTMODERN APPROACH
PhD - Thesis , South Africa
Dr. Linda Meyer

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Linda Meyer phd thesis 2012 04-13 v 5

  1. 1. DISCUSSIONS IN EDUCATION: A POSTMODERN APPROACH L. Meyer ThesisPhilosophiae Doctor in the Management of Technology and Innovation The Da Vinci Institute for Technology Management 2012
  2. 2. DISCUSSIONS IN EDUCATION: A POSTMODERN APPROACH L. Meyer Student number: 5286Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degreePhilosophiae Doctor in the Management of Technology and Innovation at The Da Vinci Institute for Technology Management Academic supervisor: B. Anderson, PhD Field supervisor: W. Goosen, DBA 2012
  3. 3. DeclarationI declare that the research project, Discussions in Education: A Postmodern Approach, is my ownwork and that each source of information used has been acknowledged by means of a completereference. This thesis has not been submitted before for any other research project, degree, orexamination at any university.…………………………………….(Signature of student).............(Date)Johannesburg, South Africaii | P a g e
  4. 4. AcknowledgementsMy sincere gratitude to the following individuals without whom this research journey would nothave been possible: To my Academic Supervisor, Professor Ben Anderson, for his leadership, insight and encouragement on my journey of self-discovery and self-directedness; To my Field Supervisor, Dr. Wynand Goosen, who played an instrumental role in stretching the boundaries of normative thinking to the realm of meta-cognition; To my partner, Deonita Eulalia Damons, for the encouragement and support of my academic goals; To my colleagues,Professor M. Mehl,Dr W. Guest-Mouton, Dr K. Deller, Dr. M. Serfontein, Mrs. K. Thusi, Mr. S. Louw, Mr. T. Tshabalala, Mrs. V. Forest, Mrs. A. Roode, andMrs.H. Van Twiskfor sharing their progressive views and encouragement to complete this research study; To the staff and faculty of The Da Vinci Institute; particularly Onicca Maculube, Simon Gathuaand Dr Marthie de Kock who went beyond the call of duty in their support and as true ambassadors of the Institute; and To all research participantswho made this research journey possible.__________________________Initials and surname of studentRandburgCity/town of student’s residenceiii | P a g e
  5. 5. AbstractThis research endeavour explored local and global provider accreditation and external moderationframeworks, within the context of the available challenges and best practice models applicable tooccupationally directed education and training provision. The emerging South African diaspora,with specific reference to the legislative and policy frameworks for occupationally directededucation and training, necessitated a robust discourse on pivotal challenges faced by providers inthe accreditation and external moderation domains. The research outcome proposed alternativeframeworks for accreditation and external moderation activities in South Africa.Educational reforms are challenging in the face of historically established traditions that definedacademic quality standards. Innovative learning and assessment themes, which pose a definedvalue proposition in reshaping traditional pre-defined academic standards, are at the heart of theresearcher’s recommendations.Great philosophers, including Plato, Socrates and Osho, have contributed to the debate ofeducational philosophy. More recent, and contemporary, educational experts have authored vitalinputs into the educational milieu. Globally, accreditation and moderation frameworks have beenimplemented to varying degrees of control and self-regulation. Regulatory policies have oftenformed both an enabling and restrictive environment where limited innovation was evident. In aworld where it is impossible to contribute to a knowledge economy without information, manylearners in South Africa remain deprived of access to basic information technology and goodlearning practices.South Africa is currently facing fundamental economic and transformative growth challenges,compounded by an educational system that prepares large numbers of citizens for lifelongstructural underemployment or unemployment. Economic growth must be informed by intelligentaccountability and social and educational transformation. In this context, South Africa requiressustained high impact human capital development systems and a nation of conscious individualswho could facilitate the journey of transformation to a knowledge economy. Human capitaliv | P a g e
  6. 6. development is at the axis of social cohesion, affluence, and sustainable employment creation, asthe emphasis and focus on broader aspects of value creation and skills base reforms prepareSouth Africa for participation and positioning as a leading global competitor.The research methodology in this thesis is qualitative in its design. Grounded theory was appliedas a general methodology for developing theory that is grounded in data, which has beenmethodically collected and evaluated through continuous triangulation. Data was collectedthrough focus group engagements, the completion of a research questionnaire, semi-structuredinterviews, and a desktop evaluation of 250 accreditation and 250 external moderation providerreports.This research study advances particular propositions concerning the structural and methodologicalpedagogy of occupationally directed education and training providers’ accreditation and externalmoderation practices. The analysis of the data suggests that the current occupationalaccreditation and external moderation frameworks require significant interventions to redressbureaucratic and punitive processes that significantly inhibit innovative education and trainingdelivery, which could support social and educational transformation.South Africa should prepare a cohesive integrated economic and transformation strategy thatconfirms specific social outcomes, acknowledging the inter-relationships of economic, human andsocial capital. The proposed educational growth path should include the improved performance ofoccupationally directed education and training provision, which in turn should result in economicgrowth. Educational throughput will have a limited impact on skills advancement, and the focusmust transcend to informed learning outcomes that are grounded in innovative practices, criticaland cognitive thinking and capitalise on new technology in a heterogeneous global context.The central theme of a credible and predictable education system is informed by internal andexternal quality assurance structures. Educational reform must advance economic growth(Sahlberg, 2004). Excellent research, tangible achievements and an adaptive and supportiveenvironment that translates into remarkable systems improvements, must inform theoccupationally directed education and training arrangements as a central value proposition.v|Page
  7. 7. Table of contents1. Chapter 1 – Contextualisation ...................................................................................................... 161.1 Rationale ...................................................................................................................................... 161.1.1 Human capital development in the broader South African environment ..................................... 161.1.2 Regulatory framework for quality management of education, training and development in South Africa .................................................................................................................................. 181.1.3 Quality assurance of accreditation and external moderation ....................................................... 201.2 Description of the research problem ............................................................................................ 221.3 Research purpose ......................................................................................................................... 251.4 Research objectives ...................................................................................................................... 261.5 Research questions....................................................................................................................... 281.6 Research methods used ............................................................................................................... 281.6.1 Theoretical framework ................................................................................................................. 281.6.2 Research methodology ................................................................................................................. 301.6.3 Population and sampling method................................................................................................. 301.7 Quality of data .............................................................................................................................. 321.8 Delineations and limitations ......................................................................................................... 321.9 Outline of the thesis ..................................................................................................................... 331.9.1 Chapter two – Literature review................................................................................................... 331.9.2 Chapter three – The global educational context ........................................................................... 331.9.3 Chapter four – Research methodology ......................................................................................... 331.9.4 Chapter five – Research report ..................................................................................................... 351.9.5 Chapter six – Analysis and interpretation ..................................................................................... 351.9.6 Chapter seven – Recommendations for practice and further research ........................................ 351.10 Conclusion of chapter one ............................................................................................................ 352. Chapter 2 – Literature Review ...................................................................................................... 382.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 382.2 The modernist / postmodernist debate........................................................................................ 392.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 40vi | P a g e
  8. 8. 2.2.2 Modernist philosophy .................................................................................................................. 412.2.3 Postmodernist philosophy ............................................................................................................ 442.2.4 Conclusion: link to this study ........................................................................................................ 512.3 The revolution and philosophy of education ................................................................................ 532.3.1 Socrates (470 BC – 399 BC) ........................................................................................................... 542.3.2 Plato (424 BC - 347 BC) ................................................................................................................. 572.3.3 Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) ........................................................................................................... 582.3.4 Avicenna (980 - 1037) ................................................................................................................... 622.3.5 Descartes (1595 - 1650) ................................................................................................................ 632.3.6 Locke (1632 - 1704) ...................................................................................................................... 642.3.7 Rousseau (1712 - 1778) ................................................................................................................ 652.3.8 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 662.4 Self-directedness in learning ........................................................................................................ 682.4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 682.4.2 Edward De Bono (1933 - ) ............................................................................................................. 692.4.3 Reuven Feuerstein (1921 - ).......................................................................................................... 702.4.4 Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980) ............................................................................................................. 712.4.5 Merlyn Mehl (1956 - )................................................................................................................... 722.4.6 Maria Montessori (1870 – 1952) .................................................................................................. 742.4.7 Rudolf Steiner (1861 – 1925) ........................................................................................................ 752.4.8 Osho (1931 – 1990) ...................................................................................................................... 762.4.9 Lev Vygotsky (1896 - 1934) ........................................................................................................... 792.4.10 Carl Jung (1875 – 1961) ................................................................................................................ 802.4.11 Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 – 1519) .................................................................................................. 842.4.12 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 852.5 Principal approaches to learning models ...................................................................................... 852.5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 852.5.2 Behaviourism................................................................................................................................ 862.5.3 Cognitivism ................................................................................................................................... 872.5.4 Connectivism ................................................................................................................................ 872.5.5 Constructivism.............................................................................................................................. 88vii | P a g e
  9. 9. 2.5.6 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 902.6 Teaching styles versus learning styles........................................................................................... 912.6.1 Teaching styles ............................................................................................................................. 912.6.2 Learning styles .............................................................................................................................. 922.6.3 Kolb’s learning styles inventory .................................................................................................... 952.6.4 Honey and Mumfords learning styles .......................................................................................... 972.6.5 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 992.7 Conclusion of chapter two ............................................................................................................ 993. Chapter 3 – The Global Educational Context .............................................................................. 1033.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 1033.2 South African youth unemployment .......................................................................................... 1053.3 South African labour and education legislative context.............................................................. 1063.4 The South African qualifications sub-frameworks ...................................................................... 1073.4.1 Primary and secondary education .............................................................................................. 1083.4.2 Further Education and Training (FET) ......................................................................................... 1093.4.3 Higher Education and Training (HET) .......................................................................................... 1123.4.4 National Skills Development Strategy III (NSDS III) ..................................................................... 1123.5 Accreditation models ................................................................................................................. 1143.5.1 International accreditation models and guidelines..................................................................... 1143.5.2 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) .......................................... 1153.5.3 The International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education (INQAAHE) ..... 1163.5.4 The Association of African Universities (AAU) ............................................................................ 1173.5.5 The Asia-Pacific Quality Network (APQN) ................................................................................... 1193.5.6 Global Initiative on Quality Assurance Capacity (GIQAC) ............................................................ 1203.5.7 European Higher Education Qualifications Framework .............................................................. 1213.5.8 Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) ........................................................... 1263.5.9 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................. 1273.6 Country accreditation models .................................................................................................... 1293.6.1 The South African accreditation framework ............................................................................... 129viii | P a g e
  10. 10. 3.6.2 The German accreditation framework ....................................................................................... 1573.6.3 The United States of America accreditation framework ............................................................. 1653.6.4 The Canadian accreditation framework...................................................................................... 1693.6.5 The United Kingdom accreditation framework........................................................................... 1733.6.6 The Singaporean accreditation framework................................................................................. 1773.7 Country moderation models ...................................................................................................... 1833.7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 1833.7.2 The German moderation framework.......................................................................................... 1833.7.3 The United Kingdom moderation framework ............................................................................. 1853.7.4 The Singaporean moderation framework ................................................................................... 1883.7.5 The Canadian moderation framework ........................................................................................ 1903.7.6 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................. 1933.8 The South African moderation model......................................................................................... 1943.8.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 1943.8.2 Umalusi quality assurance and assessment ................................................................................ 1953.8.3 The South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) .................................................................... 1993.8.4 Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs) and Education and Training Quality Assurance bodies (ETQAs) .......................................................................................................... 2033.9 Conclusion of chapter three ....................................................................................................... 2174. Chapter 4 Research Methodology ............................................................................................ 2194.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 2194.2 Research objective ..................................................................................................................... 2214.3 Research questions..................................................................................................................... 2224.4 Qualitative research outline ....................................................................................................... 2234.4.1 Objectivity .................................................................................................................................. 2294.4.2 Reliability .................................................................................................................................... 2304.4.3 Validity ....................................................................................................................................... 2324.5 Grounded theory ........................................................................................................................ 2334.6 Research population and sampling............................................................................................. 2344.7 Data collection methods............................................................................................................. 236ix | P a g e
  11. 11. 4.8 Data analysis............................................................................................................................... 2434.8.1 Research rationale...................................................................................................................... 2494.8.2 Purposive and narrow sampling ................................................................................................. 2504.8.3 Rationale for selected data collection methods in this research................................................. 2504.9 Conclusion of chapter four ......................................................................................................... 2515. Chapter 5 – Research Report ...................................................................................................... 2535.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 2535.2 The research design stages: ........................................................................................................ 2535.2.1 Focus group ................................................................................................................................ 2555.2.2 Desktop evaluation of 250 accreditation reports ....................................................................... 2575.2.3 Desktop evaluation of 250 external moderation reports ............................................................ 2585.2.4 The research questionnaire ........................................................................................................ 2595.2.5 The semi-structured interviews .................................................................................................. 2615.2.6 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................. 2625.3 Conclusion of chapter five .......................................................................................................... 2636. Chapter 6 – Analysis and Interpretation ..................................................................................... 2666.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 2666.2 The accreditation process........................................................................................................... 2686.2.1 Theme 1: Quality Management Systems ................................................................................... 2686.2.2 Theme 2: Industry specifications and requirements .................................................................. 2716.2.3 Theme 3: Provider capacity ....................................................................................................... 2726.2.4 Theme 4: Market demand and barriers to entry ....................................................................... 2746.3 The external moderation process ............................................................................................... 2766.3.1 Theme 1: Quality Management Systems ................................................................................... 2766.3.2 Theme 2: Peer review mechanisms ........................................................................................... 2786.3.3 Theme 3: Industry validation ..................................................................................................... 2806.3.4 Theme 4: Maturity status validation .......................................................................................... 2816.4 An alternative accreditation framework ..................................................................................... 2836.5 An alternative external moderation framework ......................................................................... 2846.6 Conclusion of chapter six ............................................................................................................ 284x|Page
  12. 12. 7. Chapter 7 – Recommendations for Practice and Further Research ............................................ 2867.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 2867.2 Recommendations for practice .................................................................................................. 2887.3 Proposed further research ......................................................................................................... 2897.4 Limitations of the study .............................................................................................................. 2897.5 Conclusion of chapter seven....................................................................................................... 2907.6 Thesis conclusion........................................................................................................................ 2927.6.1 Contextualisation ....................................................................................................................... 2937.6.2 Literature review ........................................................................................................................ 2937.6.3 Global educational context......................................................................................................... 2947.6.4 Research methodology ............................................................................................................... 2957.6.5 Research report .......................................................................................................................... 2957.6.6 Analysis and interpretation ........................................................................................................ 2957.6.7 Recommendations for practice and further research ................................................................. 2968. Works Cited ............................................................................................................................... 2979. Appendices ................................................................................................................................ 33510. Appendix A – Research questionnaire sample .......................................................................... 33611. Appendix B – The focus group stage.......................................................................................... 34012. Appendix C – Semi-structured interview reports ...................................................................... 34413. Appendix D – The desktop evaluation of 250 accreditation and 250 external moderation report14. Appendix E – Research questionnaire findings ......................................................................... 42915. Appendix F – SAQA 8 core criteria for provider accreditation .................................................. 43516. Appendix G – UK external verifiers (National occupational standards directory). ................... 441xi | P a g e
  13. 13. List of tablesTable 2.1 Modernist versus postmodernist thought ......................................................................... 43Table 2.2 Socratic method versus academic tradition ....................................................................... 55Table 2.3 Implications of education – Jung’s ten pillars of education ................................................ 84Table 2.4 Characteristics of constructivism (Murphy, 1997).............................................................. 90Table 3.1 NSDS III – Vicissitudes ...................................................................................................... 113Table 3.2 NSDS III – Priorities .......................................................................................................... 113Table 3.3 NSDS III – Determinants supported by NSDS III................................................................ 114Table 3.4 South African Quality Councils and NQF levels ................................................................ 131Table 4.1 Research phases undertaken ........................................................................................... 221Table 4.2 A modified policy cycle incorporating macro constraint and micro agency ..................... 223Table 4.3 Features of qualitative and quantitative research: (Neil, 2007) ....................................... 226Table 4.4 Correlations between the various types of interviews ..................................................... 239Table 4.5 The ten laws of interviewing ............................................................................................ 241Table 4.6 The components of data analysis..................................................................................... 244Table 10.1 Research questionnaire ................................................................................................... 338vi | P a g e
  14. 14. List of figuresFigure 2.1: Periods related to epistemological approach ..................................................................... 41Figure 2.2: Osho’s five dimensions of education .................................................................................. 78Figure 2.3: Kolb’s learning styles .......................................................................................................... 96Figure 2.4: Honey and Mumford’s learning cycle and learning styles .................................................. 98Figure 4.1: Research process.............................................................................................................. 220Figure 4.2: Elements of a research study ........................................................................................... 228Figure 4.3: Aspects of data analysis ................................................................................................... 249Figure 5.1: Summary of the research process .................................................................................... 255Figure 6.1 Proposed occupationally directed education and training provider accreditation framework 244Figure 6.2: Proposed occupationally directed education and training provider external moderation framework ................................................................................................... 284vii | P a g e
  15. 15. List of acronymsAAU Association of African UniversitiesABA American Bar AssociationABET Accreditation Board for Engineering and TechnologyABET Adult Basic Education and TrainingABET-CAC Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Computing Accreditation CommissionACS American Chemical SocietyACSB Accounting Standards BoardAET Adult Education and TrainingAICE Association of International Credentials EvaluatorsALS American Law SchoolsAMA-CME American Medical Association, Council on Medical EducationAMC American Medical CollegesAMS American Meteorological SocietyANC African National CongressAPL Accreditation of Prior LearningAPQN Asia-Pacific Quality NetworkAQF Australian Qualifications FrameworkAQP Assessment Quality PartnerASME Association of Mechanical EngineersASTD American Society of Training and DevelopmentATR Annual Training ReportBAC British Accreditation CouncilBANKSETA Banking Sector Education and Training AuthorityBIBB Bundesinstitut fur BerufsbildungBTEC Business and Technology Education CouncilCAR Cumulative Assessment RecordCASS Continuous Assessmentviii | P a g e
  16. 16. CAT Credit Accumulation and TransferCBT Competency Based TrainingCCEA Council for Curriculum Examinations and AssessmentCCMA Commission for Conciliation, Mediationand ArbitrationCEP Community of Expert PractitionersCETA Construction Education and Training AuthorityCETAC Canadian Education and Training Accreditation CommissionCHE Council on Higher EducationCHEA Council for Higher Education AccreditationCICIC Canadian Information Centre for International CredentialsCOSATU Congress of South African Trade UnionsCPD Continuous Professional DevelopmentCPIP Continuing Performance Improvement ProgrammeCTE Career and Technical EducationCTFL SETA Clothing, Textile, Footwear and Leather Sector Education and Training AuthorityCTS Conformance to SpecificationsCUMSA Curriculum Model for Education in South AfricaCVCP Committee of Vice-Chancellors and PrincipalsDATAD Database of African Theses and DissertationsDCELLS Department for Children, Education, Lifelong Learning and SkillsDETC (USA) Distance Education and Training Council (USA)DHET Department of Higher Education and TrainingDOE Department of EducationDOL Department of LabourDQP Development Quality PartnerEAAB Estate Agency Affairs BoardECTS European Credit Transfer SystemECVET European Credit for Vocational Education and TrainingEFMD European Foundation for Management DevelopmentEFQM European Foundation for Quality Managementix | P a g e
  17. 17. EHEA European Higher Education AreaEQARF European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for Vocational Education and TrainingEQF European Qualifications FrameworkEQUIS European Quality Improvement SystemESSEC Ecole Superieure des Sciences Economiques et CommericalesETD Education,Training, and DevelopmentETDP Education, Training, and Development PractitionerETDQA Education, Training, and Development SETA Quality AssurancebodyETQAs Education and Training Quality Assurance bodiesETQC Education and Training Quality CouncilFEDUSA Federation of Unions of South AfricaFET Further Education and TrainingFETC Further Education and Training CertificateFETI Further Education and Training InstituteFHEQ Framework for Higher Education QualificationsGCE General Certificate of EducationGENFETQA General and Further Education and Training Quality AssuranceGET General Education and TrainingGIQAC Global Initiative on Quality Assurance CapacityHDI Historically Disadvantaged IndividualHE Higher EducationHEI Higher Education InstitutionHEQC Higher Education Quality CouncilHEQF Higher Education Qualifications FrameworkHET Higher Education and TrainingHNC Higher National CertificateHRD Human Resource DevelopmentHSRC Human Sciences Research CouncilIEB Independent Examinations Boardx|Page
  18. 18. IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic EngineersILO International Labour OrganizationINQAAHE InternationalNetwork for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher EducationINSEAD Institut Europeen d’Administration des AffairesISCO International Standard Classification of OccupationsISO International Organization for StandardizationITB Industry Training BoardITE Institute for Technical EducationKMK KultusministerkonferenzLCME Liaison Committee on Medical EducationLMS Learner Management SystemLQW Lernerorientierte Qualitatstestierung in der WeiterbildungLSI Learning Styles InventoryLSQ Learning Styles QuestionnaireMAPPP SETA Media, Advertising, Publishing, Printing, Packaging Sector Education and Training AuthorityMIS Management Information SystemMIT Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyMoU Memorandum of UnderstandingMQA Mining Qualifications AuthorityMTEF Medium Term Expenditure FrameworkNACES National Association of Credential Evaluation ServicesNAMB National Artisan Moderation BodyNATED National Association for Tertiary EducationNCV National Certificate (Vocational)NDAQ National Database of Accredited QualificationsNEDLAC National Economic Development and Labour CouncilNLRD National Learners’ Records DatabaseNOPF National Occupational Pathway FrameworkNOS National Occupational Standardsxi | P a g e
  19. 19. NQF National Qualifications FrameworkNSA National Skills AuthorityNSC National Senior CertificateNSDS III National Skills Development Strategy ThreeNSFAS National Student Financial Aid Scheme of South AfricaNSPE National Society of Professional EngineersNSRS National Skills Recognition SystemNUS National University of SingaporeNVQ National Vocational QualificationN3 National Certificate level 3OCR Oxford and Cambridge and RSA exam boardOE Occupational EducationOECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOFL Occupational Foundational LearningOFO Organising Framework for OccupationsPISA Programme for International Student AssessmentPoE Portfolio of EvidencePSLE Primary School Leaving ExaminationPVE Professional and Vocational EducationQA Quality Assurance AgencyQALA Quality Assurance of Learner AchievementsQCF Qualificationsand Credit FrameworkQCTO Quality Council for Trades and OccupationsQMS Quality Management SystemQP Quality PartnerQPU Quality Promotion UnitROI Return on InvestmentRPL Recognition of Prior LearningSABPP South African Board for People PracticesSACP South African Communist PartySADC Southern African Development Communityxii | P a g e
  20. 20. SAICA South African Institute of Chartered AccountantsSAIVCET South African Institute of Valuers - Continued Education andTrainingSAQA South African Qualifications AuthoritySAQI South African Quality InstituteSC Senior CertificateSDA Skills Development ActSETA Sector Education and Training AuthoritySETQAA Services SETA Quality Assurance bodySLA Service Level AgreementSMME Small,Mediumor Micro EnterpriseSSETA Services Sector Education and Training AuthorityTAFE Technical and Further EducationTEFSA Tertiary Education Fund of South AfricaTETA Transport Sector Education and Training AuthorityTQEC Teaching Quality Enhancement CommitteeTQM Total Quality ManagementTVET Technical and Vocational Education and TrainingUK United KingdomUNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationUSA United States of AmericaVET Vocational Education and TrainingW and R SETA Wholesale and RetailSector Education and Training AuthorityWDA Workforce Development AgencyWE Workforce EducationWPE Workplace EducationWSP Workplace Skills PlanWSQ Workforce Skills QualificationsZPD Zone of Proximal Developmentxiii | P a g e
  21. 21. Definition of Key TermsArticulate To provide for learners, on successful completion of accredited prerequisites, movement between components of the delivery system.Assessment tools/instruments The nature of the assessment tasks given to the learner to do. Guidelines for the Assessment of NQF registered Unit Standards and Qualifications (South African Qualifications Authority, 2000).Credits The credentialing of learning as associated with the requirements for a qualification. (South African Qualifications Authority , 2000).Higher Education Refers to education that normally takes place in universities and other higher education institutions, both public and private, which offer qualifications on the Higher Education Qualifications Framework (HEQF). (Department of Higher Education and Training, 2012).Further Education Refers to education offered in Further Education and Training (FET) colleges and similar programmes in other vocational colleges. The Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) is considering renaming the FET colleges Vocational Education and Training Colleges, but since no final decision has beentaken in this regard, the existing name is used. (Department of Higher Education and Training, 2012).Occupationally directed education, Training that principally is conducted in the workplace. It is alsotraining and development referred to as ‘on the job training’, ‘workplace training’, ’vocational education and training or ‘career-oriented education’ (Wessels, 2005).Occupational Education Refers to educational programmes that arefocused on preparation for specific occupations, as well as ongoing professional development and training in the workplace (Department of Higher Education and Training, 2012).xiv | P a g e
  22. 22. Professional Education Refers to educational programmes that lead to professional registration.Quality Assurance The sum of activities that assure the quality of services against clear pre-determined and described standards. Guidelines for the Assessment of NQF registered Unit Standards and Qualifications (SAQA; 2000: 11, 20, 21, 30 – 35).Vocational Education Refers to a middle level of education, which provides knowledge and skills to enter the economy through a general, broad orientation in vocational areas, as well as general learning in essential areas such as Language and Mathematics.(Department of Education and Training, 2012).Strategy Formulation “The formulation of strategy can develop competitive advantage only to the extent that the process can give meaning to workers in the trenches.” (Hirst, 1995:02).xv | P a g e
  23. 23. 1. Chapter 1–Contextualisation “There is only one education, and it has only one goal - the freedom of the mind. Anything that needs an adjective, be it civics education, or socialist education, or Christian education, orwhatever-you-like education, is not education, and it has some different goal.The very existence ofmodified "educations" is testimony to the fact that their proponents cannot bring about what they want in a mind that is free. An "education" that cannot do its work in a free mind, and so must"teach" by homily and precept in the service of these feelings and attitudes and beliefs rather than those, ispure and unmistakable tyranny.” Mitchell1.1 RationaleThe impetus for embarking on this research studywas to document the researcher’s combinationof subjective, academic, and applied intentions, supported by the researcher’s experiences ineducation and skills development in the preceding twenty years. The researcher embarked on apersonal journey of discovery and emergencein the fields of theoretical and didactic prospecting,to formulate applied research constructs in the occupationally directed education and trainingenvironment, and the contextual exploration of education for sustainable economic development.1.1.1 Human capital development in the broader South African environmentThe current South African educational discourse is at an impasse. This epistemological disjuncturerequiresa critical examination of proposed amendments to the South African human capitaldevelopment strategy. The proposed amendments to the education and labour market policyframeworks are constricting sustainable employment creation. The South African economyrequires resoluteindustry validation and the development of an integrated human capital strategy16 | P a g e
  24. 24. that maximises both public and private educational provisionto build capacity in addressing socialand economic transformation.The universal knowledge economy demands the development of a global skills passportvalidatingknowledge and abilities and advanced cognitive competencies(Hamel,2004).Nationsrequire independent thinking citizensthat contribute to sustainable market growth.Withinthe framed landscape,knowledge and consciousness are symbiotic.Traditional institutionsand conventional skillssets are redundant vehicles in the pursuit of innovative excellence andglobal market competitiveness(Young, 2008). The accepted requirements of innovation andtechnology, combined with the current situational challenges of burgeoning unemployed youthfigures, require reviews of approaches to resolving the impasse set by restrictive labour marketpolicy, aneducation framework not delivering workplace requirements and an economyresearching growth injectors.As with traditional academic institutions, the occupationally directed education and trainingframework has brought hope of employment and prosperity to millions of unemployedyouth(Clayton,and McGill, 1999). Within this context, learnershipshave emerged as a means toobtain a basic stipend notwithstanding the paired qualification. Learnershipshave largely emergedas an extended social grant system, whilst limited industry and peer validation mechanisms existto corroboratethe value of occupationally directed education and training qualifications and skillsprogrammes. Youth unemployment remains a seminal issue, as the South African GeneralEducation and Training (GET), Further Education and Training (FET) and Higher Education andTraining (HET) sectors produce unemployed graduates en masse.The researcher was confronted with her participation in the occupationally directed education andtraining domain.The systemic foundation emulates a pendulum representing a flawed andcompromisedsystem and,conversely,a system of excellence in the skills development andemployment creation arena. The researcher became intrigued by the idea of exploring the qualityframework that underpins this occupationally directed education and training sector, in thecontext of postmodern skills validation and the South African economic and transformativestrategic growth imperatives. In particular, this research aims to evolve the17 | P a g e
  25. 25. discourseconcerningaccreditation and external moderation frameworks within the occupationallydirected education and training diaspora.In preparation, the researcherexplored the Kantian constructivistcontext that predicates aframework for the postmodern debate in education, curricula, epistemology, literature andlearning in general. Kantian constructivism informed the considerations of this research, as reasonalone does not facilitate knowledge acquisition. Experience appears to be indispensable forknowledge and cognitive aptitude(Kant, 1781).Kantian philosophy articulated thatmen are subjects who should not exploit each other as meansto an end.Kant’s didactic methodology was centred in students beingaccomplished to becomecomprehending, reasonable and scholarly persons, as young people entrusted to him wereexpected to acquire a supplementary, maturityacumenin relation to their own future(Kant, 1765 :66).This philosophy relates to the current South African educational context in that organisationsproviding learning facilitation are expected to provide supplementary, maturity acumen asevidenced in processes that firstly require approval prior to engaging in learning provisionactivities, and therefore being quality assured through rigorous external review.South Africa must be held accountable for investing in an education framework, and theformulation of a labour market policy, that has resulted in millions of unemployed andunderemployed citizens.The South African regulatory framework for occupationally directededucation and training providers is complex, over-regulated, and onerous. Private provision, inparticular, therefore, due to the imbalanced advantage allowed public educational institutions,necessitates a discourse for the pivotal challenges faced within the accreditation and externalmoderation spheres.1.1.2 Regulatory framework for quality management of education, training and development in South Africa18 | P a g e
  26. 26. Public institutions are predominantly financed from the national budget(National Treasury, 2011),whilst private providers receive no subsidies to advance the South African educational objectivesoutside of Sector Education and Training Authority (SETA) funding. The researcher is of the opinionthat the majority of South African universities are at this time failing to demonstrate constructivetransformation and a meaningful contribution to the national skills agenda. Unemployment, andparticularly youth unemployment, is a social challenge that must be addressed in the face of acompromised South African public education system. Government should not measure theperformance of public providers versus private providers arbitrarily. Of utmost importance are theROI and success ratios in creating sustainable employment after completing skills developmentinterventions. Government should focus on developing an integrated human capital strategy thataddresses skillsset deficits, and on enabling a complimentary environment to create sustainableemployment and economic growth.“Ultimately, the final responsibility for the provision of quality higher education programmes andproduction of marketable and employable graduates remains that of the Minister of HigherEducation and Training” (Mkhize, 2011). The Minister, therefore, provides the frameworks thatshould empower enable and encourage higher, and lifelong, learning.The current South African education statutory framework includes three distinct quality councils,namely Umalusi, the Quality Council for Trades and Occupations (QCTO), and the Council onHigher (CHE) (National Qualifications Framework Act, 2008). The South African NQF thereforeconsists of three sub-frameworks, namely the General and Further Education QualificationsFramework, the Occupational Qualifications Framework and the Higher Education QualificationsFramework. This environmentwas reviewed by the DHET and a green paper was published inJanuary 2012, in South Africa, for public comment (Department of Higher Education and Training,2012) on proposals in this regard.“Our qualifications and quality assurance framework is complex, with overlapping directives andongoing contestation between different quality assurance bodies in various areas of operation.Theprimary bodies with a direct role in quality assurance are the three Quality Councils – the Council19 | P a g e
  27. 27. on Higher Education, Umalusi and the Quality Council for Trades and Occupations. Options areproposed for clarifying their respective areas of jurisdiction” (Nzimande, 12th January 2012).The transitional phase for absorbing SETA ETQAs into the QCTO requires a clear analysis of reasonsexplainingoccupationally directed education and training providers having been efficaciousorconversely constrained in accreditation or external moderation activities. The current DHET greenpaper (Department of Higher Education and Training, 2012)raises some questions with theresearcher in relation to the finalisation of vicissitudes of the respectivequality councils.Theresearch will explorethe current challenges faced by occupationally directed private education andtraining providers in dealing with ETQAs vis-à-visaccreditation and external moderation activities.The research will culminate in proposed frameworks for streamlined accreditation and externalmoderation endeavours with respect to occupationally directed education and training providers.1.1.3 Quality assurance of accreditation and external moderationThe research study will investigate common trends experienced by occupationally directededucation and training providers in their engagementswith ETQAs.The researcher will further explorethe reasons that occupationally directed education and trainingproviders have been unable to obtain accreditation,and why providers have not been able to exitlearners, after external moderation activities have been conducted byETQAs.The findings of theresearch study will be beneficial to occupationally directed education and training providers,ETQAs, the QCTO and the DHET, asintelligibleaccreditation and external moderation frameworkswill be proposed to meet statutory compliance and industry requirements. In this regard, theresearch acknowledges Jansen and Christie in stating:“Certain education and training practitionershave an attitude that the NQF and the outcomes-based methodology to education and traininghas been a failure” (Jansen, 1999).Private providers are required to maintain an industry related primary focus accreditation underthe jurisdiction of a particular ETQA.SETAs conduct sector skills planning in consultation withstakeholders, and additional funded researchis undertaken to confirm the required skills andeducational requirementswithin specific sectors of the economy. Providers obtain permission from20 | P a g e
  28. 28. a non-primary focus ETQA to deliver training with the authority from their primary focus ETQA.Said permission isobtained through aMemorandum of Understanding (MoU)process(South AfricanQualifications Authority, 2001). Such delivered training is subject to programme approval. Thisresearch study will include an evaluation of common areas of benefit as well as impedimentsproviders face during the respective ETQA accreditation and programme approval phases.Additionally, the common trends and challenges experienced by occupationally directed educationand training providers in relation to their residual compliance requirements will be explored aspart of this research study. This research will expose valuable information to postulate greaterinsight into the required structural interventions by respective ETQAs in an attemptto re-evaluateinclusivesupport and oversight to constituent providers.Providers are required to navigate througha myriad of inconsistent and prejudicial interpretations from ETQAs relating to statute andregulations. Furthermore, additional ETQA self-interpreted and imposed rules, undefined deliverytimelines, and lack of accountability remain significant challengesto the occupationally directededucation and training arena.Uncertainty and perceived uneven levels of performance by ETQAs in e.g.accreditation andprogramme approval processes and the Quality Assurance of Learner Achievements (QALA),remain major impairments to learner certification within reasonable timeframes. The QALAprocess involves learner achievement uploads to ETQAsand external moderation by ETQAappointed external moderators and, where applicable,quality partners. This process compoundsthe challenges affecting learners exiting at band and unit standard level.The QALA process involves a preliminary phase that requires that learner achievementsbevalidated from, in some instances, a manually inputExcel spread sheetthat contains thousandsof line items. Provider upload non-compliance is generally related to the capturing of incorrectdata (e.g. wrong gender code entries). Without the external moderation, though, theachievements cannot be validated and therefore cannot be uploaded to the Learner ManagementSystem (LMS), resulting in an impasse in providing certification to successful learners.ETQAs upload their learner achievements, after external moderation confirmation, to the SouthAfrican Qualifications Authority (SAQA). SETAs are awarded a performance status based on the21 | P a g e
  29. 29. validity of uploaded data to the National Learners’ Records Database (NLRD). SETAs strive to attain“green” status in confirmation of validated quality assurance practice. SETAs that are in the“amber” and “red” status bands are at risk of losing their upload status. In order to some levels ofconsistency, all ETQAs, including SETAs, are in the process of migrating to the EDUDEX LMS. TheEDUDEX LMS is being implemented to ensure greater predictable accuracy because of animproved verification system(Shapiro, 2010).A credible LMS will have a positive impact nationally for occupationally directed providers,learners, business, government, and labour.A reliable LMS repository would provide a “citizen’sskills passport” that would reliably inform the country’snational human resourcesdevelopmentplanning strategy. The currentoccupationally directed education and training framework must berevised to optimally contribute to social and economic transformation. Something must be doneto curb the avalanche of South African unemployed, and particularly youth unemployment.Institutional review is not an emergent global challenge and neither should it be in South Africa. AsSchon pointed out in 1973, “we must, in other words, become adept at learning. We must becomeable not only to transform our institutions, in response to changing situations and requirements;we must invent and develop institutions which are ‘learning systems’, that is to say, systemscapable of bringing about their own continuing transformation”(Schön, 1973:28).1.2 Description of the research problemFrom the previous discussion it can be concluded that South Africa is facing a number oftrials inrelation to employment creation and higher and further educational opportunities. Thetransitional phase of the operationalising of the QCTO requires a clear analysis of the challengesand advancements made byoccupationally directed education and training providers in relation toaccreditation and external moderation processes. Inconsistent arbitrary compliance requirementsand the compounding limited skills base in certain ETQAs, remaincumbersome andincomprehensible in relation to the broader social accountability agenda. Public Service andAdministration Minister, Roy Padayachie, has acknowledged general accountability that shouldexist in the public service."People think that there are no consequences if you dont do your job22 | P a g e
  30. 30. properly. We are about to change that, particularly for those who are guilty of wrongdoing in thepublic service”(Kgosana, 12 February, 2012). It is hoped that pronouncements such as this will leadto improved support and focus in the public service agencies supporting skills development.Available research is limited concerning the value propositionof cognitive modifiability inoccupationally directed educationand training qualification constructs, resulting in over-relianceon rote learning. Learners often displaylimited understanding in relation to the underlyingreasonfor performing a task. Research confirms that the ability to understand and rationalise atspecific cognitive levels is critical for both personal and organisational advancement(Feuerstein,1990).Finland and Singapore offer worthy positive examples of education systems that have beentransformed into global knowledge creation leaders. Central to Finland and Singapore’s successhas been the unquestionable commitment tothe implementation of quality systems,learnercenteredness, focus on educator excellence, emphasis on cognitive and creative thinking skills,innovation and optimisation of technological advancements(Open Mind Foundation, 2011). Thereis no reason that South Africa cannot and should not aspire to similar standards.Access to higher and further education and training, and more especially access to publicuniversities, are the central theme in perceived educational advancement and employmentcreation in South Africa. Notwithstanding the official dropout rate from South African publicuniversities costing the taxpayerR 4, 5 billion in grants and subsidies to higher education institutions, no fundamental interventionsare underway to validate incumbent university access in relation to a commensurate return oninvestment from the national fiscus. The perception still prevails that a university qualification isreliable measure of employability.Tertiary institutions in South Africa, however, have a confirmed dropout rate in the region of 80%(Macfarlane, 22–28 September 2006). Therefore, the advancement of government’s nationaleducational policy should not exclude private providers from the agenda, but rather embracethem as complimentary delivery partners. Perceived second-rate public universities compound the23 | P a g e
  31. 31. challenge of employment creation, as businesses avoid employing graduates exiting from theseinstitutions. Poorly resourced and predominantly located in rural areas, with limited resourceoutput and academic achievement, significant support should be provided to these publicinstitutions.The Deputy Minister of Higher Education and Training confirms“, 17 Years after the end ofapartheid, the” Homeland Universities”, established on racial and tribal and/or ethnic basis duringthe apartheid era, are still with us in the form and shape they were meant to be. These universitiesare still attended, predominantly, by black students from rural communities with poor grades”(Mkhize, 2011). Private provider and public institution partnerships could generate an insurgenceof belief, and self-belief, in these potentially positive catalysts.Quality and suitability lay at the heart of many skills development institutions. South Africahasimplemented a number of questionable decisions regarding the advancement of globaleducational comparative excellence and quality assurance. These decisions include forcedthroughput quotas, low pass rate thresholds to obtain a senior certificate,a poorly qualified andunder resourced pool of educators, in schools, and lecturers, in FET colleges. The prohibitive effecton quality education is compounded within the context of limited availability and an overstretchedinfrastructure across educational institutions. South Africaranks poorly amongst internationaluniversities, with only the University of Cape Town placing in the global top 200universities(Mchunu, 2012).South Africa has adopted a debatable system of advancing the imperialisticUK regulationprohibiting private HET institutions from utilising the word “university” in their name. Theseactions appear to beperplexingin a quality framework where the HEQC implements rigorousverification standards prior to approving private HET provider offerings. South Africa should seekto expand on the maximum delivery base for skills validation from universities, be it private orpublic, focusing on the quality of provision rather than disputed naming rights. Private FETproviders aresubject to significantly compounded oversight from no less than three statutoryinstitutions. This figure increases incrementally in relation to the FET provider’s sector/s of24 | P a g e
  32. 32. operation and ETQA applicable jurisdiction, with each ETQA being responsible for qualityassurance in a specific economic sector only.The need for optimal educational capacity output cannot be overstated in the quest for economicand social transformation,and intellectual and knowledge-based asset optimisation for sustainableemployment creation.With due consideration to the aforementioned, this research will culminate in a proposedframework for streamlined accreditation and external moderation interventions for occupationallydirected providers. In parallel , the researcher takes note of the statement made by the previousChief Executive Officer of SAQA,(Isaacs, 2001)in relation to developments within the South Africaneducational landscape:“The evolving NQF will tend toward particular theoretical directions as aconsequence of intellectual scrutiny, rather than being determined in advance by tightdefinition”(Isaacs, 2001).1.3 Research purposeIt is against the outline of the stated problem that the purpose of the research becomes clear,namely:i. The creation of a platform for the consideration of proposedaccreditation and external moderation frameworks, which offer defined value propositions in the creation of an inclusive provider base for occupational directed education and trainingprovision in South Africa.ii. The identification of the challenges faced by private providers in the solicitation of accreditation, and external moderation activitiesin South Africa. To this end, the researcher will investigate the global educational context in relation to accreditation and external moderation activities and consider other “logical models” of operation (Wholey, 1987) and(Bickman, 1987).25 | P a g e
  33. 33. 1.4 Research objectivesIn an attempt to achieve the purpose study, it is necessary to implement a phase or step approachof which, the following are deemed most vital:i. To assess and evaluate the legislative and regulatory policy framework as it relates to education and training within South Africa.ii. To assess and evaluate the challenges faced by occupationally directed education and training providers as they relate to accreditation and external moderation activitiesin the context of ETQAs.iii. To assess and evaluate the legislative and regulatory policy framework as it relates to education and training in selected global frameworks.iv. To develop proposed frameworks for streamlined occupationally directed education and training accreditation and external moderation interfaces.Stakeholders and providers within the occupationally directed education and training sectors,including regulatory authorities such as SETAs and the QCTO, stand tobenefit from the researchstudy as an analysis of provider accreditation and external moderation experiences andotherresearchthatwill be conducted amongstoccupationally directed education and trainingproviders and relevant parties. The outcome of such analysis will additionally be compared tosimilaroccupationally directed education and training systems internationally.The research results will contribute to the existing knowledge base within the field ofoccupationally directed education and training, and identify possible interventions required inaddressing deficiencies in the provider accreditation and external moderation domains. Commontrends will correspondingly be identified that will undoubtedly assist ETQAs in auxiliaryinterventions for HistoricallyDisadvantaged Individuals (HDI) emerging as occupationally directededucation and training providers.26 | P a g e
  34. 34. 27 | P a g e
  35. 35. 1.5 Research questionsThe research questions address the research purpose and its objectives by scrutinising thefollowing:i. What are the fundamental challenges faced by providers resulting in their inability to obtain provisional and/or full accreditation or programme approval from ETQAs?ii. What are the emergent trends that have resulted in learners being unable to exit at band and unit standard level after external moderation activities have been conducted by ETQAs?iii. What are the optimal design frameworks for occupationally directed education and training,private provider,accreditation and external moderation activities?To conduct research and find answers to the above questions, it was necessary to identify aframework in which to discuss the course of action.1.6 Research methods used1.6.1 Theoretical frameworkAliterature review placedthe research topic in the relevant research context and demonstrated anawareness of seminal research. The literature review included germane information gatheredabout provider accreditation and external moderation frameworks. The information collectedfrom the review included books, journal articles, newspaper articles, historical records,legislativeframeworks, and other seminal research contributions, was used to support thegrounded theory approach followed.The researcher utilised the constructivist–grounded theory approach, which included, focus group,semi-structured interviews, research questionnaire and the desktopcase study methodology aspart of the research process. There are three types of case studies identified by Stake: intrinsic,28 | P a g e
  36. 36. instrumental, and collective (Stake, 2000). The desktop case study collected, collated andcombined data related to 500 relevant events. The range of research dimensions applied in theresearch allowed for rich breadth and depth to the identified research constructs and context.29 | P a g e
  37. 37. 1.6.2 Research methodologyThe research design was qualitative in nature. The research methodology was based on groundedtheory principles and the researcher specifically utilised the constructivist approach withingrounded theory. The survey of available literature was conducted, and was so designed, toprovide a knowledge base for strengthening the ways in which future users can access theresearch results.The research design included data collection methods including focus group discussions,completion of a research questionnaire by selected participants, scheduling of semi-structuredinterviews with industry experts and an analysis of data from 250 accreditation and250 externalmoderation reports.1.6.3 Population and sampling methodThe researcher identified different populations as part of the research study. The first populationincluded two hundred and fifty site visit reports of visitsto providers for the purposes ofaccreditationthat had been conducted in the preceding 24 months. It also included a separate twohundred and fifty provider external moderation reports that hadcorrespondingly been completedin the preceding 24 months.The second population consisted of a selected number of participantsrepresenting industry experts. These participants formed part of a focus group, which wasconsulted with throughout the research process.In an attempt to obtain detailed information from education and training practitioners regardingaccreditation and external moderation activities, the researcher identified and selected, as part ofthe third population, a cohort of industry practitioners. This population was requested tocomplete an appropriate research questionnaire.Following a grounded theory approach, the emergence of data from representatives of differentconstituencies is important. In this regard, the researcher identified suitable, experiencedrepresentatives from training providers, external moderators and industry experts who became30 | P a g e
  38. 38. part of the research, thereby representing the fourth population group. Semi-structuredinterviews were conducted with this population.31 | P a g e
  39. 39. 1.7 Quality of dataIt was imperative that the quality of data integrity remaineduncompromised during the researchprocess. The premise of valid research resides in the fact that data is valid, authentic,and current.Methods of data gathering were qualitative in nature and were therefore be centred in thecollection, primarily, of text as opposed to numerical data. The interpretative narrative that wasprovided was based on research evolution and findings.The quality of data was synthesised and emerged as the research process evolvedand contentformulation emerged. The knowledge gained during the research study wasengagedwith todevelop proposed alternative frameworks for accreditation and external moderation processes, ofoccupationally directed education and training providers. The researcher expected to be exposedto a number of new experiences during the research process, which extended the researcher’sscope of understanding and contextual reality. "Human beings construct models of theirenvironment and new experiences [and information] are interpreted and understood in relation toexisting mental models or schemes" (Driver, 1995).1.8 Delineations and limitationsThe scope of the qualitative research was delimited to two distinct components. The firstinvolvedthe accreditation ofoccupationally directed education and training providers and thesecond component the external moderation of assessment, internal moderation and certificationprocesses conducted by occupationally directed education and training providers.It was assumed that the following limitations may be experienced during this research study:i. The exclusion of learner experiences from a research dimension;ii. The study, though representative and reflective, might not include an evaluation of all ETQAs;iii. Respondents might not all have the prerequisite expertise to provide meaningful input.32 | P a g e
  40. 40. 1.9 Outli ne of the thesisThe chapter archetype, as set out below, formulates the thesis construct as it is important toensure an objective and detailed research outcome. Chapter one provides the context andlimitations within which the research will be conducted and sets the parameters for the researchproblem and methodology that will be implemented.1.9.1 Chapter two –LiteraturereviewThe second chapter provided insight from available literatureexplored relating to the modern andpostmodern educational debate. A comparative analysis and brief overview of seminalphilosophies in education was explored, to provide a framing context to the debate.1.9.2 Chapter three – The global educational contextThe third chapter assesses the South African educational construct by exploring unemployment,with specific reference to youth unemployment, and an investigation into national policy andlegislative parameters. A broad overview was provided for the global and South Africaneducational landscapes and policy and legislative frameworks. A comparative analysis of ETQAprocesses, the CHE, QCTO (as currently proposed) and Umalusi was provided to outline thecomparative accreditation processes andrequirements.Research focused on comparative accreditation and external moderation processesin South Africa, Singapore, UK, Canada, USA, and Germany.1.9.3 Chapter four – ResearchmethodologyThe fourth chapter provided a description and insight into the selected research approach andmethodology. The problem statements and research questions were articulated and exposed. Theresearcher outlined the research approach and data collection strategies. The purposeof includingspecific research methodologies and processes was also be charted.33 | P a g e
  41. 41. 34 | P a g e
  42. 42. 1.9.4 Chapterfive – Research reportThe fifth chapter outlined the research report and provided context and analysisof the researchdata and outputs, as obtained from the focus group discussions, the research questionnaire, thesemi-structured interviews and the desktop evaluation of 250 accreditation reports and 250external moderation reports. The chapter served as the catalyst for emerging concepts andcategories, which informed the emerging themes in chapter 6, for the formulation of alternativeaccreditation andexternal moderation frameworks for occupationally directed education andtraining providers.1.9.5 Chapter six – Analysis and interpretationThe sixth chapter providedtheemerging themes that informed the recommended frameworks foroccupationally directed education and training providers’accreditation and external moderationwithin the ETQA landscape. Details were provided on the proposed quality assurance mechanismsto ensure the credibility and reliability of the proposed frameworks.1.9.6 Chapter seven – Recommendations for practice and further researchThe seventh chapter provided a summary and overview of the research study. Key discoveries thatemerged during the research phase were outlined and the implications of the findings argued. Acritical assessment of the research was enunciated and a personal reflection on the researchprocess provided. Additionally, recommendations for future research were proposed.1.10 Conclusion of chapter oneThe research study articulated seminal issues related to occupationally directed education andtraining provideraccreditation andexternal moderation frameworks. The outcome of this researchwill focus on the meaningful contribution to the educational debate in the context of modern and35 | P a g e
  43. 43. postmodern advent. Conventional and unconventional perspectives as they emerged during theresearch process informed the proposed alternative accreditation and external moderationframeworks.36 | P a g e
  44. 44. As South Africa embraces a newfound political will to address the youth education andemployment wastelands, no responsible citizen can sit idly by in the face of an inevitableeducational revolution. “The new mandate was born out of a crisis, emanating from the perceivedfailure of our system to produce employable graduates, manifested through the inability of ourgraduates to meet the needs of labour markets. Of even more serious concern, is the failure of oursystem to absorb the 2.8 million youth between the ages of 18 and 24 who are neither at schoolnor at work” (Mkhize, 2011).37 | P a g e
  45. 45. 2. Chapter 2 – Literature Review “By three methods we may learn, wisdom first, by reflection, which is noblest; second, by imitation, which is easiest; and third by experience, which is the bitterest.” Confucius2.1 IntroductionThe second chapter place emphasis on availableliterature relating to modernism andpostmodernism in furthering educational discourse. In addition, literature relating to educationalphilosophy, learning frameworks, models and styleswill be reviewed and a comparative analysisdrawn in relation to the formation of an empirical foundational context informing theresearchperspective.Following this debate, Chapter 3provides an outline of some of the available literature relating tounemployment and in particular youth unemployment in South Africa. The chapter furtherexpandson literature relevant to the South African educational legislative frameworkand providesa broad overview of the South African, Canadian, German, Singaporean, USA, and UK educationlandscapes with particular relevance to accreditation and external moderation frameworks. Thesignificance of these contemporary debates in education cannot be overstated. In this particularcase, cognition and quality assurance models for provider accreditation and external moderationremain a central theme in global educational dialogue.South Africa is failing to produce the required skills sets and levels of competencies that arerequired to address employment creation.(National Treasury, 2011) The South African privateoccupationally directed education and training fraternity is patently exploringnew social andeconomic equilibriums in the context of its potential contribution and defined valueproposition.Meanwhile the global knowledge society demands adaptive learning methodologies of38 | P a g e
  46. 46. exceptional quality standards in the provision of education(UNESCO , 2005).Theoreticians havelong proposed structures for educational standards and theseare defined by extensiveepistemological and pedagogical views.The principal resolution of the research conducted in this thesis was to design and developproposed alternative frameworks for the accreditation and external moderation of occupationallydirected education and training providers. Available literature revealed that accreditationvalidationpractices are important in the broader global educational credibility context, as areexternal moderation processes.Institutional credibility is not primarily dependent on the accreditation status awarded based onlegislative bureaucracy, but is rather embedded in the credibility of institutional history, record ofaccomplishment and reputation. Harvard and Oxford Universities have drawn the brightest amongSouth Africans to their hallways. Graduates from these institutions have gone on to becomeprolific politicians, academics, and industry leaders. Academic and corporate standing attracts thebest academic minds to institutions and creates a sustainable business demand for endorsedgraduates. Notwithstanding this, legislative requirements cannot be eschewed, and thus thestreamlining of these processes is both desirable and necessary.Current escalations in unemployment statistics are systemic of a global economic and educationalmalfunction. An increased pool of unemployed university graduates confirms that a universityqualification is no guarantee for employment. However, confirmed research highlights that SouthAfrican youths’ prospects of employment increase significantly with a school leaving certificateand even further when attaining an FET or HET qualification(Branson, Murray and Zuze, 2009).2.2 The modernistand postmodernistdebate “The only absolute truth is that there are no absolute truths.” Feyerabend39 | P a g e
  47. 47. 2.2.1 IntroductionIn considering whether the potential effectsof the evolution of educational from modernism topostmodernism, educational philosophy must consider thereframing of educational epistemology.This literature review explores the foundational importancefor the purposeof context evolution.Postmodernism has advanced from modernism and is considered an epistemological evolution ofmodernism. Modernist knowledge had its origins in the enlightenment period whilstpostmodernists are profoundly opposed to modernist thought (Milovanovic, 1992).The modern versus postmodern discussion highlight issues that may have specific impact oneducation(Lippard, 1990).Primarily, education is more critical than ever in the evolution of humancapitalconstruction. Nations are evolving into knowledge economies that compete strategically formarket share, making cognitive capacity critical. Countries are revising their strategic educationalalignment and embracing the value of thinking individuals and productive citizens. Singapore, hasevolved their education landscape to create“Thinking schools and a learning nation” (Hodge, 2010)and this evolution of education has catapult the country into economically sound and desirablemarket.The observation of the collective consciousnesstowards anopen, yet focused, approach toeducation and one that criticallyreflects on what has worked and what has been a dismal failure,the link between an evolved education and country economies, lends itself to the argument that aglobal evolution of education is emerging.“We cannot forget that while the iron curtain has beenbrought down, the poverty curtain still separates two parts of the world community” (Perez deCuellar, 2003).There are four general period-based categories related to epistemological modern approaches(Nel, 2007).40 | P a g e
  48. 48. The modern The romantic The critical The approach - approach – pre theory postmodern 1900 - 1800 - pre approach – approach – post industrial industrial 1980 – 1990s 1990s period Figure 2.1: Periods related to epistemological approachThe reflected delineation between modernism and postmodernismexplains the evolution of the elineation explainsconstructs (Clarke, 2005). Modernism is summarised as establishedin grounded theory, only as it establish inpertains to social psychology. According to Charmaz, modernists focus on discovering and finding . A findinknowledge that is centred in being post post-realists, whilst a narrative is favoured and the comparativeanalysis of human elements are always pivotal(Charmaz, 2000:509-536). sThe researcher is of the opinion that postmodern thought will become increasingly important as hthumanity evolves its collective and social consciousness. Fluidity and the transcendence ofself- .inflictedframed cognitive borders will mark the evolution and confirmation of alternative realities.The limits of our imagination will in future define our framed boundaries. As the global socialimpasse transcends from greed to philanthropy and benevolence, alternative solutions must bepresented for age-old challenges that historically appear impossible to transcend. oldThe link between modernism and postmodernism is the critical theory approach. Whereasmodernism arose out of an avant garde dispute with romanticism, it was the reviewing of avant-gardemodernism, through interpretation, understanding, and self-reflection, which led to reflection, tpostmodernism.2.2.2 Modernistphilosophy hilosophy41 | P a g e
  49. 49. Modernism served as the precursor to postmodern development (Cahoone, 2003). Time serves aproverbial purpose, as evolutionary and exploratory developments allow for an emergence ofthought and evolutionary developments. The foundational basis of modern world edict is inter-connected to the socio-economic developments of modernisation and the cultural movement ofmodernism (Sarup, 1993).Insufficient context exists to sanction the modification from modernism to postmodernphilosophy. According to Neperud postmodernism followed in the evaluation of modernism as aderivative (Neperud, 1995). Modern perspectivesare celebrated from the primordial perspectivethat arose in the philosophy of antediluvian Greece and has continued tenaciously through therenaissance and reformation of medieval deliberation (Thompson, 1995).Modernist views endured the evolution of postmodern opinions. Art and education are functionalrealities where the factors of the context, for example time and content, may change whereas thebasic context would remain constant. Debates have been divergent in value alignments, forexample the level of application on purpose versus perspective (Neperud, 1995). “Postmodernismpresages a radical alteration of art, of its means of describing the world, its relationship to itsaudience, and ultimately, its social function (Russel,1993:287). Modernism accentuates precariouschanges to cope with impediments in deciphering modern as well as supplementary art (Feldman,1967).Technology also has had a profound impact on the insurrection from modern to postmodernevolution, in that it resulted in the mass accessibility of new and available technologies in thelatter part of the 1980s. This equipped a primary foundation for the process of socio-economicrestructuring (Castells, 1996). It is now inconceivable to imagine the removal of the internet andlaptops from the current knowledge economy and educational constructs in the postmoderndigital age. The eighteenth-century edified modernity and delineated into three separate domains:“science, morality and art, or specific aspects of validity: truth, normative rightness, authenticity,and beauty" (Habermas, 1990:60). Modernist versus postmodernist thought42 | P a g e
  50. 50. Indicator Modernism Postmodernism Society and social Equilibrium, homogeneity, Chaos theory, spontaneity, diversity, anti- structure foundationalism and closure. foundationalism, constitutive theory. Social roles Symphony orchestra player / Jazz Player / Poet Violinist Subjectivity/agency Positivistic, homoeconomicus and Polyvocal, subject of desire and subject of autonomous being. misidentification. Discourse Dominant; master/university Ultiaccentral; fractal signifiers; regime of discourse; primacy to signs; discourse of the hysteric/analyst; paradigm/system; major literature. linguistic coordinate systems; discursive formations. Knowledge Global, discourse of the master and Constitutive processes; meta-narratives; university, education as liberating, power/knowledge; knowledge for sale; absolute postulates, deductive logic. education as ideology and functional; narrative knowledge; dialogic pedagogy. Space/time Three-dimensional, quantitative Multidimensional, imaginary, quantum differential equations and mechanics/relativity, qualitative andno continuities; reversibility of time. reversible time. Causality Linear, certainty and predictability. Non-linear, chance, quantum mechanics and catastrophe theory Social change Darwinian, evolutionary, dialectical Standpoint epistemology, play of the materialism, discourses of the imaginary, proliferation of complexity and hysteric. language of possibility, discourse of the hysteric/analyst. Table 2.1 Modernist versus postmodernist thought43 | P a g e

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