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Thesis: Human Capital Management: A South African Perspective Thesis Dr. W. Goosen

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Thesis: Human Capital Management:

Thesis: Human Capital Management:
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Thesis Dr. W. Goosen

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Thesis: Human Capital Management: A South African Perspective Thesis Dr. W. Goosen Document Transcript

  • 1. Human Capital Management: A South African Perspective W. Goosen ThesisPhilosophiae Doctor in the Management of Technology and Innovation The Da Vinci Institute for Technology Management 2012
  • 2. ii | P a g e
  • 3. Human Capital Management: A South African Perspective by Wynand Goosen Student number: 4470 Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Philosophiae Doctor in the Management of Technology and Innovation at The Da Vinci Institute for Technology Management Academic Supervisor: Prof B Anderson PhD Field Supervisor: Prof M Mehl PhD January 2012iii | P a g e
  • 4. DECLARATIONI declare that the research project, quantifying human capital: A SouthAfrican perspective is my own work and that each source of information usedhas been acknowledged by means of a complete reference. This thesis hasnot been submitted before for any other research project, degree orexamination at any university.…………………………………….(Signature of student).............(Date)Johannesburg, South Africaiv | P a g e
  • 5. Human Capital Management: A South African Perspective AbstractThe research problem addresses the issue of learning taking place on broadwalks of life and not just in formal contexts. Learning so obtained attractslimited formal recognition. The objective of the research is aimed atdeveloping a system whereby structure could be given to such learning, forinclusion in formal human capital management systems. The researcherconsiders amongst other the role of organizational objectives, in determiningrequired skills. It is suggested that required human capital could bebenchmarked against “formal learning programs”, with a view to create aformal credit transfer system. The research also probes the possibility ofusing such a system to determine specific skills gaps. Collectively, theresearch is contextualized within the relevance of a Corporate QualificationsFramework (CQF), a system that measures human capital in terms of astrategic plan. A Corporate Qualifications Framework operates on threeprinciples – the required human capital (demand side), the actual humancapital (supply side) and the gap between the two. The demand side consistsof job descriptions, qualifications and occupational profiles. Supply sidestandards are used to measure actual human capital by means ofperformance management, performance assessment and the recognition ofprior learning (RPL).The literature survey demonstrates how “thinking” has evolved overcenturies. The research indicates that the pursuit of knowledge seems tofocus on knowledge and not on profit.v | Page
  • 6. The development of a Meta Business Framework suggests a businessconsciousness that recognizes the role of thinking and the development ofalternative realities that recognizes the evolution of humanity. Meta Businesssuggests that business honours the relationship between mind and matter aswell as the interconnectedness of all things. Thus, the evolution ofeducational thought, being integral to Meta Business, suggests thedevelopment of learning to serve business requirements, whilst business isdesigned for the benefit of humanity at large.The research concludes with an overview of the research process. Thediscussion is centered on the possibility of using non-formal learning asformal credit in a process termed “work based learning”. The process entailscreating a system whereby the training conducted at the workplacetranslates into credits within formal education programs. The roles ofacademic institutions are important to enhance legitimacy and credibility.The net result is the creation of a framework that is industry based – thatconsiders the needs and objectives of industry. The implications of theresearch findings are that a CQF can be used to develop an integratedsystem of human capital management.The integrated conclusion suggests a redesign of the current educationalsystem in South Africa, to become adaptable and effective, serving theneeds of industry and society at large.vi | P a g e
  • 7. AcknowledgementsMy sincere gratitude to the following individuals without whom this researchjourney would not have been possible:  To my Academic Supervisor, Professor Ben Anderson, for his leadership, insight, patience, dedication and encouragement on my journey of self-discovery and self – directedness;  To my Field Supervisor, Professor Merlyn Mehl, who has always been a mentor and a guide  To, George Lupke, Patrick Mugumo and Celeste Smith, for their help and encouragement.  To Dr. Linda Meyer for sharing her views and encouragement to complete this research study;  To the staff and faculty of The Da Vinci Institute; particularly Onicca Maculube who went beyond the call of duty in her support and as true ambassadors of the Institute;  To the research participants, without whom, this research journey would not have been possible.W. GoosenInitials + surname of studentBryanston, JohannesburgCity/town of student’s residencevii | P a g e
  • 8. List of Diagrams and TablesDiagram 2.1 Development of knowledgeDiagram 2.2 MorphologyDiagram 2.3 Fractal WallpapersDiagram 2.4 Literature SurveyDiagram 3.1 Action Research CycleDiagram 3.2 Developmental Action EnquiriesDiagram 3.3 Overlapping Phases of ResearchDiagram 3.4 The Paradigm ModelDiagram 4.1 From Concept to TheoryDiagram 5.1 The Current StateDiagram 5.2 The Future StateTable 3.1 The Framework of RelationshipsTable 4.1 Personal Experience ConceptsTable 4.2 Categories developed from Personal ExperienceTable 4.3 Literature Survey ConceptsTable 4.4 Categories developed from Literature SurveyTable 4.5 Research Questionnaires ConceptsTable 4.6 Categories developed from Research Questionnairesviii | P a g e
  • 9. AnnexuresAnnexure A Research QuestionnaireAnnexure B Concepts and categories from personal experienceAnnexure C Concepts and categories from literature surveyAnnexure D 1 Concepts and categories from research questionnaireAnnexure D2 Consolidation of research categoriesAnnexure E Results from research questionnaireAnnexure E1 Total jobs, vision and objectivesAnnexure E2 How are people doing in their jobsAnnexure E3 Recommended training and skills GAPAnnexure E4 How would SDF measure actual human capitalAnnexure E5 Is there a project plan to drive closure of GAPAnnexure E6 Management review processAnnexure E7 How is CQF implementedAnnexure F Alignment of researchAnnexure G Discourse in the literature surveyix | P a g e
  • 10. List of AcronymsABET Adult Basic Education and TrainingANC African National CongressATR Annual Training ReportCAT Credit Accumulation and TransferCEP Community of Expert PractitionersCHE Council on Higher EducationCPD Continuous Professional DevelopmentDHET Department of Higher Education and TrainingDOL Department of LabourECTS European Credit Transfer SystemEQF European Qualifications FrameworkETD Education Training and DevelopmentETQAs Education and Training Quality Assurance AuthoritiesFET Further Education and TrainingGDP Gross Domestic ProductionGET General Education and TrainingHE Higher EducationHEQC Higher Education Quality CommitteeHET Higher Education and TrainingHEQF Higher Education Qualifications FrameworkHRD Human Resource DevelopmentMoU Memorandum of UnderstandingNATED National Education PolicyNCV National Certificate (Vocational)NQF National Qualifications FrameworkNLRD National Learners’ Records Databasex | Page
  • 11. NSA National Skills AuthorityNVQ National Vocational QualificationQCTO Quality Council for Trades and OccupationsQMS Quality Management SystemsRPL Recognition of Prior LearningSACP South African Communist PartySADC Southern African Development CommunitySAQA South African Qualifications AuthoritySAQI South African Quality InstituteSDA Skills Development ActSMME Small-, Medium-, and Micro EnterpriseSETA Sector Education and Training AuthoritySSETA Services Sector Education and Training AuthoritySMME Small, Micro, and Medium EnterprisesTQM Total Quality ManagementVET Vocational Education and TrainingWSP Workplace Skills Planxi | P a g e
  • 12. Definition of Key TermsArticulate To provide for learners, on successful completion of accredited prerequisites, to move between components of the delivery systemAssessment The nature of the assessment task given totools/instruments the learner to do. Guidelines for the Assessment of NQF registered Unit Standards and Qualifications (SAQA; 2000).Higher Education Higher Education refer to education that normally takes place in universities and other higher education institutions, both public and private, which offer qualifications on the Higher Education Qualifications Framework.Further Education Further Education refers to education offered in Further Education and Training (FET) colleges and similar programs in other vocational colleges. 12
  • 13. Occupationally directed Training that principally is conducted in theeducation, training and workplace. It is also referred to as ‘on thedevelopment job training’, ‘workplace training’, ’vocational education and training’ or ‘career-oriented education’.Occupational Education Occupational education refers to educational programs that are focused on preparation for specific occupations, as well as ongoing professional development and training in the workplace.Professional education Professional education refers to educational programs that lead to professional registrationQuality Assurance The sum of activities that assure the quality of services against clear pre-determined and described standards. Guidelines for the Assessment of NQF registered Unit Standards and Qualifications (SAQA; 2000) 13
  • 14. TABLE OF CONTENTSAcknowledgements viiList of Diagrams and Tables viiiAnnexures ixList of Acronyms xDefinition of Key Terms 12TABLE OF CONTENTS 14CHAPTER 1: RESEARCH ORIENTATION 201.1. INTRODUCTION 201.2 BACKROUND AND DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM 231.2.1 THEORETICAL CONTEXT 251.2.2 APPLIED CONTEXT 271.2.3 BASIC CONSTRUCT AND CONCEPTS OF THE PROBLEM 271.3. THE RESEARCH QUESTION 331.4 IMPORTANCE OF THE RESEARCH 341.4.1 BENCHMARKS, MOBILITY AND EXIT POINTS 351.4.2 ORGANISATIONAL INTEGRATION 37 14
  • 15. 1.4.3 MACRO ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS 381.5 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 391.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 401.6.1 RESEARCH APPROACH 401.6.2 RESEARCH DESIGN AND LITERATURE REVIEW 421.6.3 DATA COLLECTION 441.6.4 DATA ANALYSIS 451.7 STRUCTURE AND OUTLINE OF STUDY 471.8 THE RESEARCH ASSUMPTIONS 511.9 CONCLUSION 52CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE SURVEY 542.1 INTRODUCTION 542.2 THE CASE FOR ACCREDITATION IN EDUCATION AND TRAINING 692.2.1 THE RELEVANCE OF ACCREDITATION TO STUDENTS 762.2.2 THE RELEVANCE OF ACCREDITATION TO BUSINESS 782.2.3 ACCREDITATION AND BUSINESS NEEDS 81 15
  • 16. 2.2.4 VOCATIONAL ACCREDITATION 872.3 THE CASE FOR RECIPROCITY IN EDUCATION AND TRAINING 912.4 CORPORATE QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORKS 1012.4.1 CREDIT ACCUMULATION 1022.5 POLITICAL OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION 1042.6 STRATEGIC PLANNING AND SKILLS NEEDS 1072.7 BENCHMARKING OF SKILLS AND COMPETENCE 1112.8 SKILLS, PERFORMANCE AND CERTIFICATION 1132.9 CONCLUSION 116DIAGRAM 2.4 LITERATURE SURVEY 118CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1213.1 OVERVIEW 1213.2 DATA GATERING AND ANALYSIS 1393.2.1 DATA GATHERING 1393.2.2 DATA ORDERING PHASE 1413.2.3 DATA ANALYSIS 142 16
  • 17. 3.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THE RESEARCH QUESTIONAIRE 1493.4 THE DEVELOPMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING 1513.5 CONCLUSION 151CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH REPORT 1534.1 BACKGROUND 1534.2 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH REPORT 1544.3 THE RESEARCH STAGES 1574.4 RESEARCH FINDINGS 1584.5 THE RESEARCHER’S PERSONAL EXPERIENCE 1594.5.1 CONCEPTS IDENTIFIED FROM THE RESEARCHER’S PERSONALEXPERIENCE 1594.5.2 CATEGORIES IDENTIFIED FROM CONCEPTS RELATED TO THERESEARCHER’S PERSONAL EXPERIENCE 1624.5.3 CONCLUSION 1644.6 THE LITERATURE SURVEY 1644.6.1 CONCEPTS THAT DEVELOPED FROM THE LITERATURE SURVEY 1654.6.3 CONCLUSION 172 17
  • 18. 4.7 THE RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE 1734.7.1 CONCEPTS THAT DEVELOPED FROM THE RESEARCHQUESTIONAIRE 1734.7.2 CATEGORIES IDENTIFIED FROM THE CONCEPTS RELATED TOTHE QUESTIONNAIRE 1744.7.3 CONCLUSION 1774.8 CONCLUSION 178CHAPTER 5 - ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 1815.1 INTRODUCTION 1815.2 THEMES THAT EMERGED FROM THE STUDY 1815.2.1 THEME 1: THE ROLE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT IN THEDEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENTSYSTEM 1815.2.2 THEME 2: THE ROLE OF SKILLS AS A PRODUCTIVY DRIVER 1845.2.3 THEME 3: THE ROLE OF NON-FORMAL LEARNING IN A FORMALLEARNING ENVIRONMENT 1865.2.4 THEME 4: THE ROLE OF AWARNESS AND CONTEXTUALUNDERSTANDING 1895.3 THE CURRENT SITUATION IN SOUTH AFRICA 192 18
  • 19. 5.4 CONCLUSION 193CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION 1966.1 INTRODUCTION 1966.2 REVIEW OF CHAPTER OBJECTIVES 1976.3 PROPOSED FURTHER RESEARCH 1996.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 2016.5 SUMMARY 201 19
  • 20. CHAPTER 1: RESEARCH ORIENTATION1.1. INTRODUCTIONIn April 1994 a new socio-political dispensation took theaccountability and responsibility for governing South Africa. One ofthe objectives of the new government was to make education andtraining available for the entire population. According to the findingsof the Reconstruction and Development Program (RDP) of 1994, thestructure and capacity of education in South Africa became seriouslyoutmoded (ANC, 1994). The consequence was that the educationsystem no longer delivered the industry competence required forsustainable economic growth. The development of business skillsand competence has therefore been influenced by the limitationsrelating to primary, secondary and tertiary education system inSouth Africa.This comes as a result of the modern economy demanding skills thatare focused on both professional and vocational competence. A newsystem that integrates education and workplace training has to bedesigned and developed. As part of such development, industrytraining would have to assume increased responsibility for thedevelopment of industry skills, using in-house industry training tosupplement, assist and in some cases, replace formal training. Thisphenomenon is a precursor to the development of a system wheretraining and education would need to be more measurable. However,it deserves to be mentioned that norms, developed because ofeffective measurements, are in fact a result of social construction.Thus, the existing norms, being the existing qualifications in our 20
  • 21. society, are assumed to be the correct benchmarks for learning andindustry requirements.The correctness of such an assumption is debatable. In order for thenorms to be valid, the system for engagement of stakeholders wouldhave to be addressed. This research is not focused on the process ofstakeholder engagement but rather on how alternative norms couldbe applied for existing learning. The development of a systemwhereby learning programs could be identified in terms ofcomplexity levels, and subject matter, is imperative. The SouthAfrican education and training system is under review for the pasteleven years, considering the role and impact of, amongst others, aNational Qualifications Framework (NQF).It was believed that by establishing a National QualificationsFramework, learners would be empowered to advance to higherlevels of learning (RDP, 1994:63). According to Aber (1998:49) theNational Qualifications Framework is both an enabling frameworkand a social construct. This means that it should enable people toco-ordinate their learning throughout their lives. Thus, it enables anormative system where a learner can build a portfolio of skills thatis measurable, comparable and mobile. Such an approach will enablea learner to “grow” a skills collection that can be used to obtain aqualification. In this regard the new system for skills development isboth holistic and sophisticated (Lategan, 2001:13). The interimreport of the Sub Committee appointed by the Committee forTutorial Matters (CTM), in South Africa, identified accessimpediments to South African higher education institutions as earlyas 1993 (Committee on tutorial matters, 1993:5). During 1993, 21
  • 22. Universities in South Africa, enrolled some 350 000 students, 44% ofwhom were white. The Technikons at that time registered 138 000students, of whom 54% were white. Access patterns in SouthAfrican education institutions improved over the past fifteen years interms of cultural identity and variety, but continue to mirror a highereducation system differentiated along racial lines (Committee ontutorial matters, 1993:5). The challenge is to create equitable accessthat recognizes the principles of human development, and to allowlearning that can take place inside as well as outside the class room(The Common Wealth of Learning, 1997:1). In South Africa, thisinitiative was driven by the introduction of the South AfricanQualifications Authority (SAQA), the Skills Development Act and theNational Qualifications Framework (NQF) since 1994.On 23 February 2010 the Quality Council for Trades and Occupations(QCTO) was launched in South Africa. The QCTO is tasked to developindustry profiles for occupations and to use the vocational profiles todevelop curriculums to inform national qualifications. The intention isnot to replace all developed qualifications and unit standards, butrather to compare and update existing qualifications to match thevocational needs of industry.The South African education system does, however, not allow forrecognition of any non-formal or prior learning, unless it is done viathe recognized, accredited residential or correspondence institutions.The only formal system for quantification of human capital,incorporating learning and competence, is the existing educationsystem. An individual can quantify (measure and compare) learningand competence in terms of a Matric certificate, a National Diploma 22
  • 23. or a Degree. The Higher Education Act (101 of 1997) formallycontrols the issuance of any form of “Degree” and thus thequantification of learning and ultimately, the quantification of humancapital.Non-formal training and education is seldom recognized by formalinstitutions within South Africa, with the result that suchdevelopment is not formally acknowledged, notwithstanding the factthat it takes place in company training rooms (Hamm andAssociates, 1997:1). Skills and competence developed in industrydoes therefore not enjoy the same recognition as skills andcompetence developed by elitist tertiary education systems,notwithstanding the fact that they may be equal in standing.Competency based models for performance and development needto be developed and implemented that will link strategy to businessgoals, clarifying the required and actual competency of individualsand establishing standards for performance (Venter, 1998:43).1.2 BACKROUND AND DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEMThe problem of no recognition of non-formal training and educationhas an historical origin and explanation. No evidence in practice orliterature could be found of recognition of non-formal training inSouth Africa prior to 1985. With the evolution of the South Africaneconomy, companies started training and later educating staff in-house. Company training started moving closer toward formalstructure requirements, and universities, in serving industry, startedcurriculating more and more according to industry needs. Accordingto the RDP (1994:61) industry based education and training should 23
  • 24. be consistent in design with the National Qualifications Framework(NQF) whereby government integrates industry education withformal education (Government Gazette, 1995:1). However, access tohigher education seems to be a challenge in that black andparticularly African student access to higher education, has beenmainly into academic institutions at which professional, naturalscience, postgraduate and research programs, were the leastdeveloped (Committee on tutorial matters, 1993:5). This, coupledwith the low performance of the Department of Higher Education andTraining (DHET) school system in mathematics and scienceeducation, has meant that African students in higher education arestudying predominantly in the fields of education, arts and socialsciences.Access is thus hampered by the “academic inability” of prospectivecandidates. By creating a system whereby all learning, irrespectiveof origin, can be assessed, measured and transferred as credittowards (for example), a Certificate or even Bachelors degree, theaccess challenge can be alleviated as learners obtain similar creditsfrom other sources. In addition, economic competency and skills canbe created without having to place additional strain on the educationsystem. Using the existing frameworks, such as the matric certificateand the degree qualification, one could facilitate the measurement ofskills, learning and competence. Such measurement should form thebasis for the quantification of human capital.Forty-one percent of South Africas privately held businesses cite theunavailability of a skilled workforce as the biggest constraint tobusiness growth (Business Report, 2009). At the same time, South 24
  • 25. African unemployment rates have not been lower than 20% since1997 (Index Mundi, 2011). This raises the question whether there isa connection between unemployment and the absence of a skilledworkforce. The redesign of the education and training system shouldtherefore have as an objective, the increased economic output of thecountry as a whole and focus should be on a system that createsskills, productivity and consequently, enables employment for all itscitizens.1.2.1 THEORETICAL CONTEXTThe research is embedded in the human resources field andspecifically the skills development arena. Issues of using competencybased unit standards, as well as extracts from non-unit standardbased qualifications, to define job descriptions, will be investigated.The study will draw on existing labour market theories incompetency and skills creation. The literature survey is intended tounderpin the theoretical construct and illuminate the way forward forhuman capital development.The suggested system will have to be one where learning activitiescan be thought of as building blocks, so that the individual can builda portfolio of credits for qualifications, ranging from the FurtherEducation and Training band (FET) to the Higher Education andTraining band (HET). It is accepted that the skills and academicinability of students and prospective employees are mostlyconcentrated in the disadvantaged population groups within SouthAfrica (Index Mundi, 2011). To ensure the advancement of anunderdeveloped society, this syndrome will have to be counteracted 25
  • 26. by a constant supply of motivated, economically active and skilledlabour. A society of low achievers implies an ineffective economy andlow tax base for government, which in turn implies inferiorgovernment services like health, police and also, education (Sachs,2005:60).The sustained inability to afford further and tertiary education couldthus be viewed as a challenge that must be addressed at all possiblelevels - in formal as well as non-formal education (The CommonWealth of Learning, 1997:1). Worldwide the principle of CreditAccumulation Transfer as formal credits for primary, secondary aswell as tertiary education, occurs in different forms. In the UnitedStates of America, Bear (1991:45) describes the philosophyunderpinning credit for Life Experience Learning as follows:“Academic Credit is given for what you know, without regard forhow, when, or where credit was acquired”. In the United Kingdom, avery similar system is called the “National Vocational QualificationCouncil.” The credits so obtained by students are called, “NVQ”(Lycos, 1997:1). In the Netherlands, the system is referred to asHigher Vocational Training (Dekker and van Schalkwyk, 1990:105),whilst Germany’s “Bildungsgesamtplan” or education plan, providesfor vocational education (Dekker and van Schalkwyk, 1990:21). InNew Zealand a system called the National Qualifications Authority(NZQA), regulates the context whereby formal credit is given tovocational education (Kiwi, 1997:1). In essence, the recognition ofnon-formal learning as formal qualification credits is aimed atrecognizing existing expertise, thus formalizing learning and creatingadditional competence. 26
  • 27. 1.2.2 APPLIED CONTEXTAnother impediment to access in tertiary education in South Africa isthe availability of seats (Education Statistics South Africa, 2008: 5).While correspondence institutions such as the University of SouthAfrica (UNISA) are capable of coping with large student numbers,residential institutions have limited seating space. In 2008 only5.7% of all eligible learners in South Africa were enrolled in theHigher Education system (Education Statistics South Africa, 2008:5). The increasing private initiative to provide further and highereducation partly supports this crisis of access to higher education.Government is thus simply not capable of providing solutions for thecurrent challenge. A large number of private education and traininginstitutions can and does provide quality education products to thepublic. Yet, some are hampered from issuance of marketablecertification such as a degree, whilst the word “university” is actuallyforbidden to be used by such institutions. Private further and tertiaryeducation could therefore assist in the seat shortage in tertiaryeducation if their programs can be used for degree credits, providingthat the playing field is fair. Industry also engages in trainingconducted in-house. This is done by either appointing trainers on thepayroll of companies, or by contracting certain in-house trainingneeds to independent external providers.1.2.3 BASIC CONSTRUCT AND CONCEPTS OF THE PROBLEMForeign universities flooded into newly democratic South Africaduring the 1990s but most pulled out after being confronted byrigorous accreditation and registration processes, leaving the small 27
  • 28. but influential and increasingly stable private tertiary sectordominated by local groups (MacGregor, 2008). This rigorousaccreditation process further impedes formal recognition of non-formal training in South Africa (MacGregor, 2008). Within theShoprite Checkers stable, and specifically OK Bazaars, a majorplayer in the retail industry, it was found that several possibilitiesexist to re-package programs into subject equivalents. The reality isthus, that the equivalent of higher subjects are being offered on afragmented basis, as part of a so-called in-house company training,or non-formal training program. These fragmented training coursesdo not enjoy any recognition similar to that of higher educationsubjects. An employee, having completed such in-house training,can therefore not obtain any formal credits for such training, whenhe or she enrolls at a higher education institution in South Africa.The reason being that in-house training is not "accredited" by thefurther or tertiary education system in South Africa. The logic behindthis is that these in-house training courses vary in aspects such asquality, contact time and level. McLernon and Hughes (2004)examines the relationship between work-based learning (WBL) andinstitutional learning (IL) with a view to determining what academiccredit is awarded for and how it is awarded. The authors furtherstate that there is currently no rational method of awarding credit forwork-based learning and proposes that articulations in currentframeworks for credit accumulation and transfer schemes foracademic learning may provide a substantive and transparent meansof attributing academic credit to Work Based Learning. They alsorecommend that such a framework should be developed specificallyfor work-based learning (McLernon and Hughes, 2004). 28
  • 29. A system of accreditation is thus required whereby any in-houseprogram can be assessed for credit in relation to existing formalqualifications. No such national system exists in South Africa(Manning, 1991), although some higher education institutions doacknowledge such learning for credit purposes within qualificationsthrough a process of Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL). With theintroduction of the Sector Education and Training Authorities (Seta)driven Education and Training Quality Authorities (ETQA) and thepractical use of unit standards and RPL, this possibility may evolve inthe near future for South Africans.“Industrys original motive for training is to enable a worker toperform his or her job function better” (Decker and van Schalkwyk,1990:1). Later schools of thought introduced the "total personapproach" in management and human relations driven organizations(Harrison, 1993:189). This particular school of thought argued thatby developing the total person, the functional person performing thetask develops accordingly. The implication is that company trainingextends its involvement from task-orientated training to humandevelopment via education (Harrison, 1993). “This developmentimplied shrinkage in the differences between education and trainingas new knowledge and information became the driving force ofregional, national and global economic transformation “(Fehnel,2001:18). Thus, suggesting the initiation of at least a connectionbetween workplace training needs and the recognition of theemployee.The objective of the contemporary enterprise has evolved to long-term shareholder’s wealth, employee development and 29
  • 30. environmental responsibility (Senge, 2010). The employee hasunlimited needs and limited resources. The need for synergybetween employee and organization is thus always present.Management is faced with the task of finding ways to ensure theattainment of organizational objectives via its people, and in theprocess, satisfying employee needs (Senge, 2010). By linkingtraining to employee needs and organizational objectives,productivity can be increased. “In the process, training must addmeaning and value to the trainees life” (Eveden and Andersen,1992:296). Training must contribute to the employee’sdevelopment, and in such scenario, training must be cost effective,not only for the organization, but also for the country (Dekker andvan Schalkwyk, 1990). In order for workplace training to make sucha contribution systems to formalize such training will have to bedeveloped.According to Orphen (2003:26) companies should “engage inscenario planning in order to ensure strategic success”. Strongeremployee rights have also been established with the introduction ofnew legislation (Whysall, 2003). It should be taken into account thatmoney spent on education in South Africa is tax deductible andtherefore decreases the tax income of a country. The money lost ontaxes could be re-applied in formal education. “Training shouldtherefore be documented, registered, assessed or measured. In thisregard modern companies have formal assessment feedbacksystems in place “(Gering and Pienaar, 2001:40). Training and alsocompetency, must therefore be assessed, relative to existingstructures in education, for example the degree. The process, called"accreditation" implies recognition of training for credit elsewhere, 30
  • 31. such as a degree (Bear, 1990:23). In order to establish suchaccreditation or recognition, a comparison of non-formal trainingwith formal training has to be made. According to Firer (2002)organizations should view training as a strategic priority – thisimplying that it should follow from the strategic plan.Urquhart (2001) believes that the strategic challenges of theorganization need to be well defined, to enable the organization toidentify what it intends to achieve and how successful it is atdetermining its goals. Such activity could assist in determining therequired human capital priorities. The registration of such humancapital will imply automatic mobility of training - once a company’straining is compared, assessed and accredited; employees will beable to transfer their learning when changing employers.Documentation, registration and accreditation imply theestablishment of a database for the administering of such a system.Such a system would have to be capable of handling large volumescost effectively and timeously.Mobility implies articulation at further and tertiary levels betweenqualifications and institutions. According to the 1992 "Reconstructionand Development Plan" (RDP) South Africa need to develop anintegrated system of education and training, providing equalopportunities to all, irrespective of race, gender, class, color,language and political or other opinion (RDP, 1994). It is alsorequired to address the development of knowledge and skills toproduce high quality goods and services to develop the South Africaneconomy and its people. “Education must be geared towards thedevelopment of the individual and the community, and should also 31
  • 32. promote tolerance and a spirit of co-operation amongst all people”(Eveden and Anderson, 1992:83).In view of the above a new national human resources developmentstrategy must be developed based on the principles of democracy,non-racism, non-sexism, equity and redress to avoid theshortcomings of the previous South African regime (RDP, 1990). Itis considered the duty of government to ensure that humanresources are developed effectively via industry-based education andtraining boards, with union and employer participation, to design andimplement programs within industries, consistent with the standardsdeveloped for an integrated national framework. The Industry will,for purposes of this study, be defined as all companies engaging theactivity of in-house training of staff.Education and training for skills development should adhere to thefollowing principles: • It must be modular and outcome-based; must recognize prior learning and experience; must develop transferable and portable skills; must have common standards, and • It must be integrated within the national qualifications and accreditation system.Bear (1991:9) defines the term degree as a title conferred by aschool to show that a certain course of study has been successfullycompleted. Degree requirements are all outcomes required for theattainment of such a title. Manning (1997:54) identifies three goals 32
  • 33. to begin with, namely; ensure that every person in the organizationknows what to do; focus attention on a few key themes and inspirepeople to explore their potential.1.3. THE RESEARCH QUESTIONThe questions related to this research are four fold: a) Could an organizational strategic plan be used to determine the required human capital for an organization? b) Is it possible that industry experience, workplace learning competence and non-formal training programs could be compared favorably in content, level and outcomes, with each other? c) Does a benchmark system exist to determine a gap analysis of skills? d) Is it possible to quantify human capital in relation to a Corporate Qualifications Framework?The question extends to whether industry can quantify humancapital in companies as a mechanism for skills assessment. If such amechanism could be established the process of developing aWorkplace Skills Plan in terms of the South African Skills Act, wouldbe greatly advanced.The expected outcome of this study is that a system of normativemeasurement for skills auditing can be developed. The problemaddressed in this study is thus the absence of an integrated,vocational education and training accreditation system that enablescompanies to determine the required level of skill, and the effects 33
  • 34. thereof on employees and the economy at large. Thus, the researchalso intends to address the inability to “count”, measure, recogniseor compare skills, irrespective of the origin of such skills.1.4 IMPORTANCE OF THE RESEARCHEducation as it has evolved implies the furnishing of an individualwith a collection of skills as well as the development of his/ hercognitive ability – thus, creating a human capital base. Trainingrefers to the task orientated transfer of technology to participants,with the objective of empowering them to perform specific tasks.The skills and competence of a society determines the economicoutputs of such a society (Sachs, 2005:72). Therefore, if a systemcan be developed whereby a business community can develop itsbusiness competence, productivity would be enhanced. Education isgenerally believed to be taking place at tertiary institutions likeuniversities, while training is believed to be taking place on the job,in industry, by the company itself, or it’s appointed representatives(McLernon and Hughes, 2004). Competent members of industry witha proven track record of ability - having performed successfully attheir jobs for long periods of time, are often people without formalqualifications.Such individuals, when applying for entrance to tertiary education,receive no credit for in house training, nor do they receiverecognition for their proven track record of ability. In contrast, theseapplicants are being treated the same as a person with a matriccertificate. No recognition is therefore given to human capital, unlessformalized in a formal system. What the system implies is that 34
  • 35. education is only education when it is obtained via the process ofexposure of the self to formal tertiary education and in-housetraining is thus not recognized at all.As a result of non-recognition of in-house training towards formalqualifications, individuals have in the past opted to obtain formalqualifications rather than in-house training. The result was that theobjective for learners became to obtain qualifications rather than todevelop competence. The result has therefore been certificationwithout competence, with no link between the qualifications and thestrategic objectives of the business. The effect is resulting in thecreation of qualifications that do not serve the community at large.In this study the possibility of using business strategic objectives todetermine required competence, will be investigated. The requiredcompetence, so determined, will be tested against acceptablebenchmarks of education and training, to determine whether theattainment of such competence can lead to a qualification.The research intends to contribute to the professional context in asmuch as it assists to define the application of an OrganizingFramework for Occupations, as an instrument to measure humancapital and to quantify jobs in relation to business plans and toenable performance management against a national standard.1.4.1 BENCHMARKS, MOBILITY AND EXIT POINTSBoth education and training in South Africa lack mobility and exitpoints. In the banking industry in South Africa, for example, banksoften do not recognize each other’s teller training programs. The 35
  • 36. employee moving from one employer to another is thereforeregarded as not being competent or having any training, or havingtraining that cannot be compared or measured formally. Theabsence of mobility is due to the fact that human capital is notquantified in forms other than formal degrees, certificates ordiplomas. It is therefore very difficult to benchmark a one-daytraining program against a degree, diploma or certificate. There iscurrently no system in South Africa by which training can becompared or expressed in relative terms to a formal qualification.The intention is that the National Qualifications Framework willultimately fulfill this requirement. However, the question remainswhether it is possible for companies to quantify their actual humancapital and compare it on a normative scale to an independentbenchmark.Exit points in the present education system are very limited. The useof unit standards in South Africa, however, enables the accumulationof credits on a piece meal basis. Learners who have completed askills program will qualify for access into a certificate program. Thissystem should at least alleviate the problem of exit points, in asmuch as it could provide an avenue to recognize smaller "units" oflearning. Programs such as the National Diploma in Banking andPublic Relations in South Africa, would for example, only havereasonable exit points after the second year. This is due to the factthat the first level of meaningful skill, being the level at which aperson is employable in industry, is reached after the completion of24 months of this three-year National Diploma. 36
  • 37. 1.4.2 ORGANISATIONAL INTEGRATIONTraining and education programs often lack organizationalintegration. Training is quite often geared to supply the person withskills that are only task orientated, without taking into considerationthe aspect of total person development. Staff is often being trainedin a vacuum resulting in a situation where they are capable ofperforming a task without the understanding of the importance ofthat task. This tunnel vision training limits the employeesunderstanding of the total task, the organization and its mission,vision and objectives (Senge, 2010:297). The employee ends upfunctioning without an holistic vision of the enterprise. According toWylie (2002:48) the answer lies in using scenario planning for thedevelopment of organizational strategies to address developmentissues related to performance. In this regard Addison (2002:25)believes that leadership should be conducted with vision, whilstMotloung (2009) quotes a statement from Telkom employee,Charlotte Mokoena, who states that human capital development, callfor a holistic, multi pronged approach, to serve both business andemployee needs.Education at tertiary institutions in turn, often function on academicgrounds that fail to take into consideration the real needs ofindustry. Graduate recruits often find themselves educated but nottrained for a specific task. Both education and training should takeinto consideration the needs of the individual, and endeavor to unitethe needs of the individual with the objectives of the organization.The employee should therefore obtain some form of credit for in-house courses completed. Such courses must contribute to the 37
  • 38. fulfillment of the needs of the individual and contribute to theattainment of the organizational objectives. When individual needsare satisfied in striving towards organizational objectives, trueharmony and synergy can be reached within an enterprise. Cole(1998:32) suggests that leading people requires knowledge of theorganization and its strategy.Human capital is considered to be that which the business uses as abase for its operations. Human capital is thus the collective ability ofindividuals to sustain organizational outputs.1.4.3 MACRO ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESSAccording to the Reconstruction and Development Program (1994)an integrated system of education and training that provides equalopportunities to all, irrespective of race, color, sex, class, language,age, religion, geographical location and political belief, is needed.“Education must be directed to the full development of the individualand community, and strengthen respect for human rights andfundamental freedoms. It must promote understanding, toleranceand friendship among all South Africans and must advance thoseprinciples contained in the Bill of Rights. In this regard educationshould be based on the principles of democracy, non-racism, non-sexism, equity and redress, to avoid the pitfalls of the past” (RDP,1990:60).Statutory bodies, based on appropriate democratic representation ofstakeholders, should establish standards and advise the nationalministry and provincial departments on policy and developmentprograms in education and training. Industry-based education and 38
  • 39. training boards should be established with union and employerparticipation, to design and implement programs within industries.The definition of economics refers to how society satisfies itsunlimited needs with limited resources (Samuelson and Nordhaus,1989:5). The RDP, as an economic development program, addressesthe very "HOW" of need satisfaction. This "HOW" thus pertains to thestimulus and application of human ability to ensure optimal needsatisfaction. Education and training is responsible for thedevelopment of new and innovative methods of need satisfaction -the "HOW" of macro-economic needs satisfaction (Abel andBernanke, 1991). From there then, arises the need for a nationallyco-ordinate strategy and plan to ensure that the nation is providedwith the required skills for optimum needs satisfaction (Dekker andvan Schalkwyk, 1990:11). At a corporate level, human resourceexecutives need to develop systems to identify and measure its skillsbase. According to Vinassa (2002:8) Human Resource executivesmust become more aware of financial goals and align humanresource functions with strategic goals.1.5 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDYIt is the aim of this study to develop and establish a framework forthe assessment of non-formal training, and in the process, quantifyhuman capital. In doing so, this study has the following objectives: o To demonstrate how a strategic plan can be unpacked into a set of required competencies that can be aligned to educational standards 39
  • 40. o To demonstrate how non-formal training can be assessed against formal benchmarks and how non- formal programs can become credit bearing o To demonstrate how a benchmark system can be used for a GAP analysis in human capital management. o To demonstrate how a Corporate Qualifications Framework can be developed whereby industry can quantify and manage human capital for purposes of performance management.1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY1.6.1 RESEARCH APPROACHIn pursuit of the research aim and objectives, a literature study andqualitative investigation will be conducted. The literature study willinvestigate how educational thought evolved in order to develop thecontext in which a Corporate Qualifications Framework will findapplicability, using strategic planning and non-formal training in theprocess. It is proposed that strategic planning be considered as apossible source to determine the required human capital of anorganisation. The process that should be followed in determining astrategic plan should incorporate aspects related to the vision,mission and objectives of the organisation. The strategic objectiveswill be analyzed to determine the required tasks to be performed byemployees. These tasks will then be compared and benchmarkedagainst the system of educational standards and unit standardsregistered on the NQF. This will be followed by the development of agraph on which all the required unit standards of competence (for an 40
  • 41. organization) will be displayed. Thus, the part of the NQF thatapplies to the specific business will be displayed. By using this microapplication of the NQF a business would be building a “CorporateQualifications Framework” (CQF). The study will investigate whethera CQF can be used as a benchmark to consolidate the objectives ofthe business with that of the qualifications of an employee.A grounded theory approach will be followed in order todemonstrate:  How a strategic plan can be unpacked into a set of required competencies aligned to educational standards.  How non-formal training can be assessed against formal benchmarks.  How non-formal programs can become credit bearing.  How a Corporate Qualifications Framework can be developed whereby industry can quantify and manage human capital for purposes of performance management.Grounded theory is a systematic methodology in social scienceinvolving the generation of theory from data (Borgatti, 2011). It ismainly used in qualitative research, but can also be applicable inquantitative data (Borgatti, 2011). The grounded theory is suitablefor this research based for the following reasons:  The research occurs within the natural environment of the respondents (Bogdan and Bilken, 1982:9). There companies identified are asked a set of probing questions to investigate the research question. 41
  • 42.  Grounded theory is about discovering the participants main concern and how they are constantly trying to resolve it (Glasser, 1998). This research is investigating the possible use of corporate qualifications frameworks and their applicability in the business.  The result of grounded theory is not a report of statistically significant probabilities, but a set of probability statements about the relationships between concepts (Glasser, 1998). This research is focused on exploring relationships between issues and demonstrating frameworks that present new applications and solutions.  Validity in its traditional sense is not an issue in grounded theory, which instead should be judged by fit, relevance workability and modifiability (Glasser and Strauss, 1967). This research is not aimed at providing proof of any hypothesis. Instead a set of research questions are addressed with a view to develop improved business efficiency.1.6.2 RESEARCH DESIGN AND LITERATURE REVIEWDue to the nature of the research, the methodology will bequalitative (Houp and Pearsall, 1987:60). Individual investigationsare the main method of eliciting evidence. Thus, the main source ofinformation would be the people who currently employ specificsystems in skills development, human resources and businessplanning, as well as performance management in South Africa.However, the source of information from people will be testedagainst a solution that will have its origin firmly in applied theory.The development of the framework will result from reports, the 42
  • 43. internet, books and publications and also conference papers. Acritical analysis of policies, reports and other publications in businessand related industry magazines will also be used. Measurement andobservation of results and situations will be integrated in thedevelopment of the proposed framework.Personal interviews have been shown to have widespread relevancewhen trying to establish opinions in research (Hannan, 2007). Aquantitative survey does not allow for dissenting views, and limitsthe type of responses available to the respondents (Hannan, 2007).When using a qualitative methodology, the company representativesare able to give their exact opinions and are allowed the opportunityto discuss the topic in detail. All the pros and cons can be tabled andanalyzed in detail. This not only allows the participants freedom torespond, but also allows the researcher the chance to obtain varyinginformation and to develop a good understanding of how theconcerned individuals feel, rather than relying on specific questionswhich do not necessarily elicit relevant and important information.The research findings will be presented in a qualitative format andused to discuss the results and recommendations of the researchstudy. A step-by-step plan for the management of the literaturereview and data gathering process will be discussed in the datacollection section.The literature review and data collection will follow closely on eachother. For more information see Annexure A.According to Lester (1993:104) the literature review is a mini essayabout the source material of a research topic. It also sets the 43
  • 44. context for the investigation of the topic and it organizes andclassifies the resources for the benefit of the reader. In this researchthe literature survey is intended to orientate the research and tooutline the present and possible future environment of skillsdevelopment in South Africa.1.6.3 DATA COLLECTIONThe population, from which the sample will be drawn, will be theservices industry in South Africa. From the population, companieswill be invited to participate, based on the following purposive andconvenience sampling criteria:  Companies must be service seta members  Companies must have been levy paying members for 5 years or longer  Companies must have a minimum of 30 and a maximum of 200 employees  Companies must employ a qualified SDF with at least 5 years experience  Companies must be in good standing with the service seta  Companies must have sent a representative who completed the skills development-training program between 2007 and 2009.From the above, 169 qualifying respondents from a selection ofcompanies were identified. The 169 participants will be used to testthe application of a CQF. Concepts and categories will be developedfrom personal experience, literature survey and researchquestionnaires. Skills Development Facilitators will be asked to 44
  • 45. complete the questionnaire as a POE. The research will consider allrelevant parties in the 169 respondents who would be influenced andconcerned by the establishment of a CQF.The steps that will be followed:1. Identifying the service industry as target sector2. Identifying and listing of companies in industry whose trainingwill be measured3. Conducting formal quantification of human capital fromselected companies4. Interacting with Skills Development Facilitators to determinetheir opinions5. Auditing skills set of companies - assessment of non-formallearning outcomes6. Comparing non-formal learning outcomes with formal learningoutcomes7. Building an in-house Corporate Qualifications Framework8. Identifying shortcomings1.6.4 DATA ANALYSISAnalysis of data is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transformingand modeling data with the goal of highlighting useful information,suggesting conclusions and supporting decision making (Ader,2008). Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches,encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, indifferent business, science and social science domains (Shamoo,1989). In statistical applications, some divide data analysis into 45
  • 46. descriptive statistics, exploratory data analysis (EDA) andconfirmatory data analysis (CDA). EDA focuses on discovering newfeatures in the data and CDA on confirming or falsifying existinghypotheses (Veryard, 1984). Predictive analytics focuses on theapplication of statistical or structural models for predictiveforecasting or classification, while text analytics applies statistical,linguistic and structural techniques to extract and classifyinformation from textual sources, a species of unstructured data. Allare varieties of data analysis (Shamoo, 1989).The analysis of data will include the following: o Inspecting Data - Identification and qualification of the participants to partake in the research. o Cleaning Data - Consideration of the number of participants that support and are able to implement a CQF o Transforming Data – Investigating the ability of participants to unpack human capital required in relation to a strategic plan o Modeling Data - The ability to align required skills into job descriptions aligned to educational standards o Allocation of functional skills to jobs, as required tasks, from where the alignment to educational standards will commence o Modeling Data into the development of an integrated human capital management framework. 46
  • 47. The data analysis will be conducted in alignment with the principlesof grounded theory.1.7 STRUCTURE AND OUTLINE OF STUDYCHAPTER 2In this chapter literature available on the subjects of accreditation,credit accumulation, vocational credits and degree (qualification)worthiness would be surveyed and discussed. The material will bereviewed for relevance to the research question. Global trends willbe explored, while the success and failure of different systems willbe considered in light of the South African context. At the same timea definition of human capital will be explored. The purpose of thischapter is to consider accreditation as an element in developing abenchmark against which non-formal training can be measured. Therole of strategic planning in the development of a CQF will beinvestigated via the literature review. Chapter 2 will also address thephilosophical evolution of knowledge and thinking. The concept willbe explored within the principles of quantum physics andmetaphysics to demonstrate how all thinking originates from asource that is potentially bias. The researcher will also consider therisk that such bias may have on resultant constructs such asqualifications.CHAPTER 3The methodology followed in this research is considered to be actionresearch and grounded theory. Action research is a reflective 47
  • 48. process of progressive problem solving, in a team of practice, butlead by a person from the group, with the view to analyse andimprove management issues and problems in such an organisation(Lewin, 1946). Lewin further described action research as acomparative research methodology on the conditions and effects ofvarious forms of social action, utilizing a spiral set of steps, eachconsisting of planning, action and fact finding about the result of theaction. Such an application of action research suggests that agrounded theory approach should be followed. Grounded theoryrefers to the methodology where data is analysed in concepts andcategories and theory elicited from such data. This will be achievedby studying the 169 portfolios of evidence, submitted by individualsfrom the participating companies. These portfolios will representevidence in categories enabling the grounded theory process to beused. In so doing, the companies will be investigated on anindividual basis. Findings will be scored on a data table, with a viewto eliciting theory on quantification of human capital.CHAPTER 4The research findings will be analyzed and discussed in Chapter 4, asa research report. Different stages of the research will be discussedand the application interpreted. The feedback from the research willbe considered in three sections – the researcher’s personalexperience, the literature survey and feedback from researchquestionnaires. From each section a series of concepts will begenerated and clustered into categories. From the concepts andcategories will themes will emerge. 48
  • 49. Research objectives will be considered in relation to emergingthemes. Categories will be discussed in relation to the statedobjectives to draw analogies and inform the emerging themes.The research will also debate the practical implications of anintegrated human capital management system for industry. Theconcept of a corporate qualifications framework is investigated as asystem of measuring human capital required within an organization.The purpose of this chapter is, amongst other to inform the questionwhether the NQF can in fact function as the benchmark againstwhich formal and non-formal training can be measured. This chapterserves as the formal documentation of data related to the researchquestion.CHAPTER 5In Chapter 5 the emerging themes for an alternative framework forhuman capital management is outlined. The chapter will discuss thethemes to emerge from the research. The creation of a frameworkwhereby non-formal programs can be accommodated within formalprograms will also be presented. The outcomes of in-house trainingare compared with the outcomes of formal training programs.According to Byham (2001:10) modern assessment centers can playa pivotal role in identifying and maintaining talent within SouthAfrican companies. Assessment centre’s can also play a vital role asperformance management and RPL centers, to assist learners withthe accumulation and articulation of credits earned. Qualityassurance of credits obtained by means of RPL assessment, as well 49
  • 50. as the understanding of project management, is crucial in theimplementation of a CQF. A CQF can also function as a mechanismto conduct effective and normative skills auditing. By describing astrategic plan in required human capital format, it enables thegraphic and numeric presentation of a framework that is expressedwithin NQF levels and related credits. Actual human capital asmeasured in performance terms, can be added to the framework topresent a graphic view of a potential skills gap. This will be doneboth individually as well as collectively.The chapter is also devoted to inform a policy framework wherebyfuture assessments of non-formal programs can be conducted. Theobjective of this chapter is to inform an integrated system wherebyindustry learning can be packaged and compared against jobdescriptions as well as count as credit towards a qualification.The possible influence of such a framework on productivity is also tobe considered in this chapter.CHAPTER 6This chapter considers the conclusive findings of the research andreviews whether the research questions have been answered. Thestudy will be considered successful if the following criteria are met:  The utilization of an organizational strategic plan to determine required human capital for an organization  Comparing industry experience, workplace learning competence and non-formal training programs favorably in content, level and outcomes with each other 50
  • 51.  Development a benchmark system to determine a gap analysis of skills  Quantifying human capital in relation to a Corporate Qualifications Framework.The chapter presents a review of the research objectives in relationto the emerging themes. The limitations of the study is discussedwhilst a list of further research topics are proposed.1.8 THE RESEARCH ASSUMPTIONSThe research will be conducted in the services industry. It willlabour under the following assumptions: o That unit standards and / or credits for training are acceptable in industry o That industry accepts the measuring instruments of the NQF o That a Corporate Qualifications Framework could be a practical application of the NQF o That industry stands to gain from human capital quantification o That occupational profiles and job descriptions can have credit values o Those education institutions will accept the principle of non-formal credit accumulation. 51
  • 52. 1.9 CONCLUSIONAt the end of 1993, approximately 66 000 school leavers achievedmatric exemption and a further 160 000 passed their seniorcertificate in South Africa (Committee on tutorial matters, 1993:5).These numbers are expected to increase significantly as a result ofrising primary and secondary enrollments and performanceimprovements within the South African school system. South AfricanUniversities and Technikons admitted about 105 000 first timestudents in 1994. The achievement in the future of an overall growthin first year admissions and further progress in African studentenrollments, will place considerable strain on the higher educationsystem given the limited resources available. Despite this growth thesystem will not be able to accommodate students who meet theminimum requirements for entry and who wish to enroll atuniversities and universities of technology. This, together with risingexpectations on the part of students for greater access and theavailability of financial aid, creates potential access conflict points.It is therefore the aim of this study to ensure alternative means ofobtaining education other than formal enrollment at education andtraining institutions. The quantification of learning, skill andeducation could lead to the quantification of human capital on abasis equal to the world system of schooling and degrees. Thus, byensuring that non-formal learning could count as credit towards aqualification, the individual has more reason to learn. However, insuch learning, real productive competence is required. Credit isearned towards a qualification whilst the learner can actually 52
  • 53. perform at a higher level. The development of a CQF should enablethe attainment of a business vision in a normative and constructiveway. Such clarity should also enable the development of appropriatelearning cultures and promote wellness at large.The nature of the benchmarks, being degrees, diplomas andcertificates, should be considered in terms of how they aredeveloped. A qualification ought to enable a learner with an ability tooperate successfully in the economic system. Thus, at the outset,qualifications development should be driven from a systemicperspective. Therefore, the process must start with a contextualunderstanding and orientation that drives the creation of an“abundance” mentality. It is no longer enough to simply have skillsin order to do a job. Modern day humans require a new valuewhereby economic activity forms part of life. Happiness at work is nolonger acceptable as just a dream. More and more young people aremaking career choices based on what would provide them withgrowth, development and fulfillment towards self-actualization. It iswithin this realm, that future economic planning needs to from. 53
  • 54. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE SURVEY2.1 INTRODUCTIONThe objectives of this research as outlined in chapter one are:1. To demonstrate how a strategic plan can be unpacked into a setof required competencies that can be aligned to educationalstandards. For this, unit standards and / or other education andtraining qualifications could be utilized, in part or whole, asstandards of required competency in South Africa.2. To demonstrate how non-formal training can be assessed againstformal benchmarks and how non-formal programs can become creditbearing. The study will investigate whether industry experience,workplace learning, competency and non-formal training programscompares favorably in content, level and outcomes, to such nationalbenchmarks reflected in formal education and training programs, inan attempt to assess and quantify human capital within anorganization.3. To demonstrate how a benchmark system can be used for a GAPanalysis in human capital management.4. To demonstrate how a Corporate Qualifications Framework can bedeveloped whereby industry can quantify and manage human capitalfor purposes of performance management. 54
  • 55. The importance of a literature survey should enable the researcherto scope the study in more detail. By considering similar andassociated works of other authors, the risk of engaging in a topicthat has been researched already is reduced. Pertaining to the firstobjective, the researcher will investigate how a strategic plan can beunpacked into a set of required competencies that can be aligned toeducational standards. The subject matter impacts various aspectsrelated to strategic planning, business management, performancemanagement, human resource management and education andtraining.From a business perspective, the impact of a CQF on strategicplanning needs to be considered as the research investigates thepossibility that the relationship between strategic planning and skillsplanning is functioning less than optimally within South Africa.Similarly, the relationship between performance management,strategic management and human resource management is to beexplored. In keeping, the relationship between education, trainingand certification needs to be compared with strategic needs andperformance management requirements. Foucault (1969) definesthe sequences of relations to objects, subjects and announcements,as discourse. A discursive formation is the regularities that producea discourse. In this research, consideration has to be given to thediscourse and discursive formations that form the realities calledlearning. The potential connection between learning and themetaphysical realm is also to be explored. The purpose of theliterature survey is thus to investigate the views relating to different 55
  • 56. aspects referred to above and to develop a discourse on the researchquestion.In order to develop such a discourse, the concepts of strategicplanning, competence, knowledge and actual skill are considered.These concepts create a discursive formation and therefore suggesta discourse.In order to develop the discourse, the literature study willinvestigate the views of various authors. See Annexure G.The development of knowledge seems to feed the educationalinstitution that receives its input from the people (industry). Theproblem symptom is the challenge to define competencerequirements from industry. The symptomatic solution refers thedevelopment of education programs to address industry needs.However, education programs don’t always address real industryneeds, thus the side effect. The fundamental solution would be toexplore whether such education actually satisfies human needs.Education institutions formally conduct research that is utilised indeveloping formal learning programs, which could lead tocertification (Burger, 2010).The system is not, however, very robust or flexible as it does notreally absorb learning in the workplace at a dynamic pace. Thus oneof the wicked problems that need to be investigated within theeducation system is the lack of integration of industry, or workbased learning into formal programs (Engel-Hills, Garraway,Jacobs, Volbrecht, and Winberg, 2011). Innovation itself is probably 56
  • 57. the most dynamic example of learning, but the innovator does notreceive any academic recognition for such inventions (Engel-Hills, etal., 2011).Diagram 2.1 Development of Knowledge(Source: Systems wiki, 2009)Pertaining to the third objective, an in depth analysis is needed toconsider the role of norms. Geertz (1958) writes modern myths,stories that model problem solving strategies and describes how todo anthropology. The author believes that some educators feel thatit is their duty to teach history as verbal and visual culturalexperiences, and thereby fostering character qualities anduniversally shared values in their students. Learning that isadministered in this fashion is mostly repetitive in nature and doesnot encourage creativity. Such educators are "hermeneuticallyinclined", or simply, "modernists." Post-modernist educators on theother hand, are inclined to critique theory (Rip, 2004). Geertzbelieves that such authors dont essentialize; they politicize.Convinced that "truth," "character qualities" and "universally sharedvalues" are just insidiously nice terms for ruling-class tastes, they 57
  • 58. have turned against pedagogy of inculcation, towards one thatencourages autonomy and diversity. Not surprisingly, these twogroups remain at loggerheads (Solomon, 2003).Redfield (2002) discusses progress that comes with evolution. It issuch evolution that brings about new ideas, new thinking and newknowledge. Resultantly, newly required skills and competenciesdevelop almost every day. As we are living in the information age,information is developing at an ever-accelerating rate. Thus, ourthinking about thinking itself, about knowledge and skill, shouldevolve at a similar pace (Redfield, 2002). As content of knowledgechanges, the skills of how to analyse, deduct and deduce newknowledge, is therefore ever increasing in value. It gives credence tothe modern day spiritual notion, “to live in the moment”, as the nextone would be very different (Tolle, 2008). In keeping, looking at thepast to determine the future will become increasingly difficult andshould decrease in use (Redfield 2002). According to Kenny(2006:xiii) “the hallmark of Cartesian dualism was the separationbetween mind and matter”. The future demands the skills of reason,of post “Cartesian” thinking. Although Des Cartes is regarded as thefather of modern philosophy, one of the principles of Cartesianthinking was the separation of mind and matter. The introduction ofquantum physics and the Copenhagen Interpretation (Arntz, Chasseand Vicente, 2005) however, proves the relationship between humanconsciousness and matter, starting on a sub-atomic level. Theimplications of such thinking is important for this research, as thisdemonstrates the evolution from pre-reformation thinking, toreformation, to post-modern thinking about who we are, what weare and what we could be as a people (Law, 2007). This thinking 58
  • 59. suggests that “we” are the creators of our reality (Arntz, et al.,2005). Thus, as creators of our reality, we can determine whatreality should be, decide what it would be and adjust our actionsaccordingly to create such a reality (Tolle, 2008). In such contextthe implications for learning is profound, as it suggests that learningought to drive the principle that people determine their own reality(Byrne, 2006). The learner is therefore centerfold to a picture that ischanging, based on the learner’s intent. This principle is the premiseof all contemporary learning, as it defines not just who we are,but what we are. Learning should therefore start at this level - thedeparture point being the introduction of a new mentality thatcombines human evolution with systems thinking and learning.Carroll and Mui (2009) suggest such approach is a migration fromexistence in the fourth, to that of the fifth dimension. This emergingdimensional shift suggests a higher consciousness for the humanrace and thus inspires a form of learning that resides in the humansoul (Wilson, 1991). Metaphysics is defined as the relationship thatwe have with our higher selves, whilst routed in the material world,hence the desire to discover ourselves (McTaggart, 2001). Plato(1516) describes this consciousness dilemma as human beings livingin a cave, with their legs and necks chained together, so as not tosee anything but shadows. In the analysis, the author is describingthe inability of mankind to engage in thinking, debate and reasoning,as being imprisoned by thoughts that are imposed on them. In theconfines of such intellectual prisons, the human mind develops theability to reason only in the confines of the jail. Hence, all thoughtsand values develop in context only. The effect is that reason is basedon assumptions (as is all reason) of the reality in which it occurs(McTaggart, 1991). The work of Plato positions the philosopher as 59
  • 60. the “thinker” – the human being - that questions, explores, debatesand reasons. Such modern day philosophy is expressed in variousmetaphysical works. Bays and Billet (2009:3) refers to “unconsciousconsumption” as a state of being where the individual is unaware ofwhat he is creating. By developing awareness, the humanconsciousness gets to see how its action creates reality (Osho,2001).The challenge in becoming “aware” brings about understanding ofthe current reality and how it has been formed. Such realityformation has a path of thoughts, leading to the current reality,much the same as a recipe to create a meal. Thus, the currenteducation system is a reality that formed in this fashion. Duringawareness the mind is to realize how past thoughts created,amongst others, fear, joy, sadness, wealth, poverty and aneducation system (Arntz, et al., 2005). In this realization, theconsciousness or “matrix” from which we operate, determinesreality. Dawson and Allenby (2010) explain how humans are linkedforms of energy, operating in the matrix. The authors elaborate howthe human experience can be changed and new realities formed –suggesting that a large enough group of individuals, focusing on anew reality can create such a reality. Accordingly, education normswill also form and change in this fashion.Pratt (1992) refers to a concept called "transculturation". In anelectronic age, it is the process whereby subjects select and inventnew understanding from materials transmitted by mass culture. Itsgoal is to employ one methodology (hermeneutics) to bootstrapanother (heuretics): that is, to divert interpretation into invention 60
  • 61. (Ulmer, 2002). The implications for knowledge and subsequentcompetency creation are profound. This implies that market trendscan be identified and used to invent new products. As Apple Macidentifies consumer trends, the innovation team predicts futureneeds and develops products to match this anticipated need. Thus,the anticipated need is actually used to create the next level ofconsumer needs. Effectively, using this transculturation, Appleinvents the needs of its customers before it actually happens(Bloomsberg Businessweek, 2004).The word “heretics’” originated as a theological term, as the flip sideor repressed other of “hermeneutics”. To interpret scriptures is toread hermeneutically, whilst to employ scriptures as a means ofinvention is to read it heuretically. Hermeneutics was secularizedduring the 11th century. It provided methodologies of reading,legitimated the study of texts and, in effect, created the Renaissancehumanist (Pratt, 1992). Contemporary literary theorists have alteredthis orientation by reversing the direction of traditional scholarship.Instead of taking a position of knowledge they have assumed aposition of ignorance and applied design and thinking strategies toproblems of textual nature. This implies the development ofdeductive reasoning in education as opposed to the model of simplylearning what others wrote (Wilson, 1991). New thinking of whatlearning content should be and how such knowledge should becreated, follows deductive reasoning (Pratt, 1992). Authors such asDerrida, Barthes, Deleuze, Serres and Ulmer have in this sensechanged the formula of learning. In fact they have altered its goalsand thus, hermeneutics has become a means to heuretics (Pratt,1992). 61
  • 62. The benefits of this type of approach in education ensure thatteachers continue to train students in analysis and critique. Derrida(2010) refers to a process called "deconstruction,” an approach toasking the most adventurous and the most risky questions about ourlearning, about our institutions and our way of teaching. Kenny(2008) reflect the view of French born philosopher, Rene Descarteson learning and education as follows: Descartes frequently set hisviews apart from those of his predecessors. Many elements of hisphilosophy have precedents in late Aristotelian philosophy, therevived Stoicism of the 16th century. In his philosophy, Descartesdistinguishes two major points: First, he rejects the analysis ofcorporeal substance into matter and form and secondly, he rejectsany appeal to ends — divine or natural — in explaining naturalphenomena. In his theology he therefore insists on “the absolutefreedom of God’s act of creation” (Kenny 2008:187). Thus,advocating indirectly, that anything is possible. By implication, hisview that corporeal substance does not lead to matter, supports theobservation theory. The observation theory suggests that matter andreality is formed as a result of human awareness – that the world iswhat it is because humans see it as such (Arentz, et al., 2005).Descartes shaped much of his beliefs due to a series of threepowerful dreams visions that he later claimed, profoundly influencedhis life (Kenny, 2008). In the first of these dreams, Descartes foundhimself buffeted and thrown down by a powerful whirlwind whilewalking near a college. In the second, he was awakened by aninexplicable thunder or explosion-like sound in his head, seeingsparks coming from the stove in his room. In the third dream, he 62
  • 63. finds a great dictionary and an anthology of ancient Latin poets onhis bedside table. In the latter book, he reads a verse that beginswith, "What path shall I follow in life?" (Kenny 2008:187). Descartesconcluded from these visions that the pursuit of science would proveto be, for him, the pursuit of true wisdom and a central part of hislifes work. Kenny (2008) discusses the work of Descartes further-according to Descartes God has laid down the laws of nature. This isto include, the art of reason. Levett and Dubner (2006) support thisapproach and suggest that one should assume nothing but questioneverything.Another philosopher, Benedictus Spinoza, who lived between 1632and 1677, said: “by substance I understand what is in itself and isconceived through itself, that is, that whose concept does notrequire the concept of another thing, from which it must be formed”(Law, 2007: 77). Thus, understanding the original, pure thoughtprocess. The impact on education suggests that substance would bethe basis of all knowledge and that all theory and further humanlearning stems from this base.Descartes proceeded to construct a system of knowledge anddiscarded perception as unreliable. Instead he believed thatdeduction alone is a reliable method of knowledge creation. Hefinally established the possibility of acquiring knowledge about theworld based on deduction and perception. In terms of“epistemology” Descartes will be remembered as having introduced“foundationalism” (Skirry, 2008). He is quoted as having said;“reason is the only reliable method of attaining knowledge” (Kenny,2008: page). 63
  • 64. Blackburn (2010:163) states hundreds of years later: “There aremany so-called constants in nature. They are the values that cannotbe derived from theory, and so can only be determined bymeasurement.” Thus, the notion of investigation or observation toform knowledge is further supported. Alexander (2005) suggeststhat one must dare to be open to question and to explore new ideas.Such exploration could also be explained when considering researchmethodology. When engaged in grounded theory research theprocess suggests engaging and interrogating the data to elicittheory.Aristotles writings were the first to create a comprehensive systemof western philosophy, encompassing morality and aesthetics, logicand science, politics and metaphysics (Law, 2007). Aristotles viewson the physical sciences profoundly shaped medieval scholarship,and their influence extended well into the Renaissance, althoughthey were ultimately replaced by Newtonian physics (Ackrill, 2010).His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, whichwas incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic.His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest withthe advent of virtue ethics (Ackrill, 2010).These philosophers are inadvertently examples of some of the firstheuretic thinkers and their views on the creation of knowledgesupported the development and creation of knowledge in a morenatural fashion than is the case today. According to Ulmer (2002)morphology of methods developed, as all approaches on learning 64
  • 65. methodologies share a common set of elements, which can beabbreviated as follows (CATTT): • Contrast-opposing a new method to an old one • Analogy-figuration as a tactic of displacement • Theory-repetition and documentation of newly proposed methods • Task-repetition and documentation of the newly proposed methods • Telling stories and dramatization of the new method.Ulmer observes that every method of learning, from dialectics tosurrealism, must itself be represented in some form or genre.Notwithstanding the value of innovation and learning, asdemonstrated in heuretics and CATT, no certification for suchprocesses exist in the formal education world (Hellberg, 2011).In the diagram below the formation of a picture with the use of apuzzle, attempts to illustrate the phenomenon of morphology.Individual pieces represent one reality (ontology), but collectivelythe pieces of the puzzle present a different reality. 65
  • 66. Diagram 2.2:Morphology(Source: http://listverse.com/2009/02/20/10-hilarious-listverse-comments/)Knowledge creation and knowledge formation in educationalinstitutions are driven by research in industry and academic decision(Veness, 2010). However, innovation, strategic planning and thedevelopment of job descriptions are hardly seen as interactive.Innovation is quantified in a strategic plan only as a requiredcompetence (Heathfield, 2011). With the introduction of theOrganizing Framework for Occupations, it can be deducted that suchtype of thinking should somehow become part of the curriculum oftraining (Robertson, 2011). Furthermore the same free-thinkingshould relate to being innovative and should be part of all humancapital development initiatives, supported by a well-defined jobdescription. Such job description then, should function as aperformance standard, and be useful in obtaining formalqualifications (Moore, 2011). Perhaps there needs to be a systemthat translates a strategic plan into a skills plan. When required skillsplans are evident, it implies that the actions needed for success are 66
  • 67. known to the relevant parties involved in the process of drawing upa skills plan (Heathfield, 2011). Included in the required skills wouldbe the ability to think heuretically, or in effect, the ability to bringinnovation to the workplace. Thus, the business manager wouldknow what to do to be successful. The challenge is then, toimplement the proposed actions. Thus, the quality requirementswould be clear.One of the “quality management” developments of the 20th centurywas the introduction of quality assurance in education, defined asaccreditation. This concept aimed at bringing a sense ofstandardization to education in a region and eventually in the worldat large (Oyaya, 2011). However, based on the varying educationsystems in the world and the constant change in these systems, it isfair to observe that the world and its education systems are stillevolving (Modelski, 1995).Further discussions of how the evolution on knowledge proceeded,are found in Scharmen (2009:81) in what is called the “genesis of anew world”. The author explains how the Berlin Wall’s collapse in1989 gave rise to people feeling that something new was rising fromthe rubble. The rise held three elements according to him: 67
  • 68. * A global economic shift* A network society with a relational shift* A new cultural-spiritual shiftThis phenomenon in itself gave inspiration to many ideas, of whichthe development of new structures and systems where just one. Thisnewfound cultural-spiritual thinking shift was another step inmorphology. Osho (2001) discusses this spirituality as “awareness”.The author explains his concept of awareness as essential for thesurvival of the human race. This awareness refers to becoming moreaware of surroundings and especially, thoughts. Osho (2001)believes that thought awareness would remind people who they areand accordingly free them from enslavement of their thoughtprocesses. Hence the drive to develop the quality of the world’seducation and training systems seems more logical. If Gladwell(2010) is to be considered, this awareness will experience steadygrowth until such time as it reaches a “tipping point” after which themajority of humanity will buy in on the concept. However, a word ofcaution comes from Stenger (2000: 345), “We must guard againstmaking any claim that we possess some special revelationaryequipment that guarantees our insights to be preferred to others”.De Martini (2002) discusses the evolution of humanity on a personallevel. A detailed plan is suggested to manage the evolution of selfvia skills and techniques that can be learnt. The purpose of theexercise is to open the mind to a level that incorporates a morespiritual and much more aware sense of existence. Lowenstein(2005:62) discusses perfect wisdom in a Buddhist sense. The 68
  • 69. Bodhisattva’s vow is to lead all beings to “nirvana,” a state of bliss,where the sense of self is diminished. Braden (2008:83) calls thisthe “terra incognita”, that what science tells people about theirbrains and that which they experience via the brain.2.2 THE CASE FOR ACCREDITATION IN EDUCATION ANDTRAININGThe motivation for the analysis of accreditation within education andtraining resides in the nature and role of accreditation, as theconcept used to determine the role and norm for a skill or educationlevel (Bear, 1991). One of the results of morphed thinking is thedesire for education to be quality assured. Accreditation thereforedeveloped as the result of a complex set of values and norms thatevolved in thinking about education (Toor, 2010). Considering theviews of Plato and later authors on metaphysics, it must beremembered that the reality of accreditation is no more than athinking construct, formed on the basis of previous thoughts abouteducation, standards and perceived quality of learning (Kenny,2008). Thus, accreditation could be viewed as a result of humanthoughts evolving to a point (Ontology). It is assumed to be a validcreation in the context of the “thought prison” that Plato refers to(Kenny, 2008). Thus, thinking follows on thinking and as such,stimulates and creates further thinking along the same lines. Suchthinking creates a pattern, like a set of dots in the matrix wherepeople exist. Weisstein (1998) describes the work of Mandelbrot as aset of mathematical points in a complex plane, the boundary ofwhich forms a fractal. The fractal is an emerging pattern, a form orshape that appears like a new reality, a result of thoughts. The 69
  • 70. Mandelbrot set is a set of complex values of c, for which the orbit of0, under iteration of the complex quadratic polynomial Zn+1 = zn2 +c, remains bounded (Friesen, 2000). The Mandelbrot set is namedafter Benoît Mandelbrot (Weisstein, 1998), who studied andpopularized the concept of evolving fractals. When computed andgraphed on a complex plane, the Mandelbrot set is seen to have anelaborate boundary, which, being a fractal, does not simplify at anygiven magnification. The Mandelbrot set has become popular outsidemathematics both for its aesthetic appeal and for being acomplicated structure arising from a simple definition, and is one ofthe best-known examples of mathematical visualization (Friesen,2000).Accordingly, education can be seen as an evolving fractal. As newinformation becomes available about education, this is added to thealready existing body of knowledge, thus adding to and changing theappearance of the accreditation phenomenon, like adding to theappearance of a fractal.Diagram 2.3: Fractal Wallpapers 70
  • 71. (Source:http://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images?_adv_prop=image&va=fractal&fr=aaplw&tab=organic&tab=organic&b=91)The relevance of the above to accreditation in education is that, withthe different views in education as being the “mathematical set ofpoints in the complex plane”, accreditation forms as a pattern, anew realty or a fractal- a most elegant solution born from what wasat first observed as a set of random views (Friesen, 2000). However,caution has to be levied, as this new reality could also be thefoundations of a Platonian prison of thought. Deductive reasoning, asper the Cartesian approach, suggests the development of knowledgeby means of reason, whilst Plato is one of the earliest thinkers torealize that thought per say is contextual (Silverman, 2008). If theoriginal thought of accreditation is thus in any way flawed, the futuredevelopment of such thought (idea) would emerge like a fractal,forming a reality that is incarnating flawed thinking. The work andintention of Karl Marx (1818) serves as an example of how apremise was developed and later misconstrued duringimplementation. According to Vorhies (1991:11), Marx advocatedthe formation of a new social reality called communism. In thisreality, the oppressed masses would be uplifted, ownership ofresources would become that of the community and individualismwould as a result reduce. Capitalism and wealth commanded byindividuals would fall away. However, the Marxist premise failed toconsider how greed would counteract this (Vorhies, 1991). With theintroduction of communism in Russia, the new leader, Lenin, openlyadvocated violence to promote his ideology (Lennin, 1917). Theresult of communist rule can be seen as a fractal, creating a reality 71
  • 72. of poverty and neglect for most of the Russian nation (Putin, 2006).The original envisaged realty of Marx was one of compassion for all,equality and equity. However, this was used by later communists asa platform for political reform, to manipulate the masses intosupport of an idea that was twisted during implementation, to thebenefit of the few, as was the case before the Russian revolution(Putin, 2006).Popper (1945) criticized both Marx and Plato and introduced a newconcept called “Open Society” in which he suggests freedom for thecritical powers of man. He argued that history holds back thinking,that it acts as a disabler of thought and by implication learning. Healso dismissed the ideas of Plato as foolish and unpractical. Thus,Popper argues in favour of free-thinking as opposed to following therules, values and ideas inherited from generation to generation. Thisliberation in thought can be debated in light of apartheid activist,Steve Biko’s view on freedom (Body-Evans, 2011). Biko believedthat a physical as well as psychological liberation was needed(Wilson, 2011). Thus, implying that the end of apartheid wouldrequire actual freedom such as the right to vote, whilst anintellectual freedom would have to follow, whereby the affects ofindoctrination would have to be changed (SACP, 2011). The worldhas several examples of societies where this principle of freedomemerged. In Russia, the communist party replaced the rule of theTzar with the objective to introduce a state that would do justice tophilosophers such as Plato and proponents such as Marx (Lucero andCollum, 1989). However, the implementation failed and itmaterialized in years to come that communist rule was as cruel andgreedy as that of their predecessors (Putin, 2006). Thus, although 72
  • 73. the government changed, little change took place in the thinking ofthe society at large (Lucero and Collum, 1989).In a more recent example, The Zimbabwean region in Africapractically operates as a modern day totalitarian state. The objectiveof the first black government in Zimbabwe was the creation of ademocracy, where people can be free and vote for a democraticelected government. However, the success of this vision has beenquestioned lately. The oppressor changed, but not the social thinking(Hondora, 2009).The implications of such thinking, for learning, can be huge, as itsuggests that the same patterns of learning could continueirrespective of the social, economic or political changes in society(Pacepa, 2011). Notwithstanding the intent of freedom of thought, ofintellectualism, the shackles of historic ideology could remainentrenched; resulting in thinking that fails to activate true learningand subsequently failure to develop competencies envisaged(Hackett, 1998). It remains to be debated whether accreditation persay, is a shackle or the result of enlightened thinking. However,accreditation is considered in this research, as a quantifiablemeasure of learning.Accreditation has various definitions. Bear (1991) definesaccreditation as a separate quality assurance activity that is used toindicate the level of quality of education. Pharasad and Bhar (2010)gives an overview of the Indian technical education system andshows the value of accreditation as quality improvement and qualityassurance of educational programs. Bear (1991) suggests 73
  • 74. accreditation as a process in which certification of competence,authority or credibility is presented. The practice of accreditationdiffers from country to country. In the United States of America,organizations that issue credentials or certify third parties againstofficial standards are themselves formally accredited or certified byaccreditation bodies referred to as "accredited certification bodies”(United States Department of Education, 2011). The accreditationprocess in education and training suggests that the provider oftuition, content and assessment and moderation, as well ascertification practices, are compliant with pre – determinedbenchmarks. Thus, accredited providers are mandated to assess andcertify learners, and have suitable quality assurance policies andprocedures in place to manage the business of teaching and learning(United States Department of Education, 2011). However,accreditation practice differs greatly in different countries (Bear,1991). In South Africa an educational institution must be accreditedin order to function, whereas in certain other countries such as theUnited States of America, it is not compulsory. Also, in South Africathe function of accreditation is under state control as opposed toAmerica where several non- governmental agencies exist to manageaccreditation matters (Robertson, 2011).Educational accreditation is also a quality assurance process underwhich services and operations of post-secondary educationalinstitutions or programs are evaluated by an external body todetermine if applicable standards are met (Brittingham, 2010).If such standards are met in this context, accredited status isgranted by an agency. In most countries in the world, the function of 74
  • 75. educational accreditation is conducted by a governmentorganization, such as a ministry of education (Willems, 2006). In theUnited States, however, the quality assurance process isindependent of government and performed by private membershipassociations (Bear, 1991).The importance of accreditation in this research lies in the fact thataccreditation provides some degree of quality assurance for theunderlying qualifications and their components (Willems, 2006).Included in this quality assurance is the notion that modernqualifications are developed as a result of related industry needs. Assuch, the development of the organizing framework for occupations(OFO) focuses on the profiling of an occupation, from which aqualification is then developed (Robertson, 2011).The impact of the OFO and accreditation in South Africa is three fold:  Firstly, it provides a standard from which job performance and therefore competency can be measured  Secondly, as a competency measure, it provides the population of job descriptions with effective standards, from which competencies identified, can be measured  Thirdly, occupational standards and qualification standards become the same standards (Robertson, 2011).Accreditation practices define the ultimate standards or benchmarksagainst which a measurement could take place. Only with a knownbenchmark can there be measurements, deviations or gapsidentified and plans devised to manage such gaps (Crossroads, 75
  • 76. 2011). Educational institutions tend to recognize fellow accreditedinstitutions, as this creates a basis for comparison (Bear, 1991).Closely related to accreditation therefore is the issue of how suchinstitutions conduct cross recognition, or reciprocity.2.2.1 THE RELEVANCE OF ACCREDITATION TO STUDENTSAccording to Brittingham (2010) accreditation in the United States isa means to assure and improve higher education quality, assistinginstitutions and programs using a set of standards developed bypeers. An institution or program that has successfully completed anaccreditation review has in place the needed instructional support,expertise, student support and other services, to assist students toachieve their educational goals. Accreditation has assisted to providethe conditions necessary for the USA to develop diverse, flexible androbust and often admired higher education systems (Brittingham,2010).According to the Association of MBAs (2010) the decision to enrollfor an MBA represents a major commitment, both in terms of timeand money, from the student. Therefore, in a crowded and complexmarket, the MBA accreditation provides a reliable list of meticulouslytested programs and ensures that students investments arerewarded with the finest business education available. Theassociation believes that employers and top business recruiters,looking to acquire the best managers and future business leaders,know that graduates of their accredited programs have received thehighest quality management education. Accreditation gives businessschools international credibility and status (Bear, 1991). However, 76
  • 77. the number of MBA qualifications available worldwide is now in thethousands, and only a small percentage of these would achieveaccreditation if they were submitted to rigorous international criteria(Brittingham 2010).The issue of accreditation therefore serves as a comfort to thelearner that the education product he/she is engaged in, is of goodquality. However, students and laymen often make the mistake toassume that being unaccredited is equal to bad quality (Brittingham,2010). Thus, although accreditation proves a school to be of quality,the absence does not prove the opposite, as there are many goodschools that are in fact, not accredited. Furthermore, studentsshould also not assume that being accredited is equal to beingrecognised (Bear, 1991). As there are so many institutions there isno guarantee that one chosen by a student will be recognized byanother, even if they are both accredited. This enters again thedebate of international and even national, reciprocity. In the USA thedifferent states do not all recognize the institutions in other states.There are even situations where accrediting agencies don’t recognizeeach other (Bear, 1991).In this minefield, no student would be blamed for feeling somewhatlost in making a choice of where to study. The student should bestresearch the accreditation and subsequent industry recognition, ofany institutions under consideration. Depending on the particularstudy field, industry recognition could be a stronger factor thanaccreditation. Recognition by other similar institutions should also beconsidered (Brittingham, 2010). 77
  • 78. 2.2.2 THE RELEVANCE OF ACCREDITATION TO BUSINESSAccording to WorldWideLearn (2010) accreditation ensures a basiclevel of quality in the education received from an institution. Theauthor believes it ensures that degrees will be recognized for thetrue “achievements” they are. Thus, accreditation for businessimplies that “achievements” (competency) could potentially bebenchmarked and thus industry performance could be plottedagainst the same, leading to the satisfaction of the third objective,namely that a gap analysis becomes possible (De Coi, Herder,Koesling, Lofi, Olmedilla, Papapetrou and Siberski, 2007).Competence is viewed as effective performance within adomain/context at different levels of proficiency (Cheetam andChivers, 2005). De Coi, et al. (2007) further elaborates thatcompetencies are described as reusable domain knowledge. Theysuggest that a model, representing competencies, describes what acompetence is and how it is composed of sub-competencies. Thesecompetencies are general descriptions. For example, being a goodtaxi driver or an expert Oracle database administrator are conceptswith fixed meaning (domain knowledge), independent of whichperson possesses such competence. This is important to be noticed,because competencies are to be referenced from certifications or jobdescriptions, in order to stimulate their re-use. De Coi, et al. (2007)implies that domain knowledge / competence is to be obtained,amongst others, from qualifications. Thus, if such qualifications areaccredited, the accompanying competencies are recognised formallyas well. Distance-Learning-College-Guide.com (2010) elaborates onthe reasons why qualifications should have accreditation and refer tosome risks of registering for qualifications without accreditation: 78
  • 79.  Without accreditation by a nationally recognized accrediting organization, a school is not eligible to participate in government student assistance programs. This means that, a student would not be eligible for federal grant or loan money in the USA.  Most employers who offer tuition assistance will not reimburse tuition paid to a school that is not accredited.  Transfer of credits from one school to another, will only be possible if the student attended an accredited college or university.According to the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS)(2000) the organization launched an awareness campaign in theUnited Kingdom (UK) in November 2000, targeted at business andGovernment. The aim of the campaign was to raise the profile ofUKAS and the value of accreditation. The campaign, which is partfunded by full details BIS (formerly known as full details DTI), waslaunched by Lord Sainsbury, the former Minister of Science andInnovation in the UK. In 2007/8, the campaign continued to drive uplevels of awareness as a result of continued support from BIS, closerrelationships with partners and external suppliers and greaterinternal resources.UKAS has made significant progress raising the awareness ofaccreditation structures in the UK. This has been achieved throughmany initiatives: from senior level meetings, direct mailing ofpromotional literatures, inter- and cross-departmental workshopsand presentations, as well as through press releases and events.Meetings, workshops and follow-up activities have taken place in 18 79
  • 80. different government departments, which have broadened thenetwork of contacts and positioned accreditation as a solution, toeither supporting or acting as an alternative, to regulation (UKAS,2010).Thus, accreditation itself is not a concept that is known andunderstood by all. As far as the business community is concerned,the real requirement is skills, and accreditation is not necessarilyperceived as a quality measurement of skills. According to Trapnell(2010:68) the accrediting organization Association for Accreditationof Colleges, Schools and Business (AACSB) was founded in 1916 bya group of leading business schools with the goal of “enhancing thequality of management education at a collegiate level”. Since thattime, AACSB has granted business accreditation to 528 institutionsin 30 countries. In addition, AACSB accounting accreditation, anextension of its business accreditation processes, has been grantedto 168 programs in 5 countries (Trapnell, 2010). AACSB began toexpand its accreditation program internationally in 1995 when itgranted accreditation to the first business school outside of NorthAmerica. International growth gained significant momentum in 2000when the organization committed to a global agenda. As of April2006, AACSB international business accreditation has been extendedto 85 business schools outside the USA (Trapnell, 2010). The authorsuggests that, in a very competitive global market, educationinstitutions are constantly seeking recognition and differentiation inorder to effectively compete for top students and faculty. AACSBaccreditation has therefore become an important statement to keyconstituencies of the quality of a business school’s offering. 80
  • 81. From an external viewpoint, earning internationally recognizedaccreditation, informs other schools and external stakeholders (i.e.employers, prospective and current faculty and students) about theeducational quality derived from being held accountable forinternational standards through peer review and self-assessmentprocesses (Bear, 1991). Furthermore, positive benefits result froman association and involvement with an international community ofmanagement educators associated with business schools that haveachieved AACSB accreditation (Trapnell, 2010:68). However, inSouth Africa, the trend is towards local accreditation as opposed tointernational accreditation (Further Education and Training CollegesAct, 2006). International brands in education such as ComitéInternational dEsthétique et de Cosmétologie (CIDESCO, 2010) andthe International Therapy Examination Council (ITEC, 2010), are notfully recognised by South African authorities. This, for example,affects the reciprocity of qualifications in the beauty sectoradversely.For the prospective employer, accreditation can be an indicator ofeducation and training quality. “Accreditation can also serve as aselection criterion to assist a company in identifying high-qualityschools from which to recruit talented managers and leaders”(Trapnell, 2010:68).2.2.3 ACCREDITATION AND BUSINESS NEEDSAs demonstrated in Diagram 2.1, the issue of knowledge recognitionand generation in business, has become distorted over time.Thinking appears to be polarized in two directions. On the one hand 81
  • 82. there appears to be the academic school of thought that believesthat all learning should be developed and controlled by theeducationists. The proponents of this theory seems to view the worldas scholarly driven and means to dictate to the rest of the world howindustry should conduct itself (Conway, 2010). The second school ofthought promotes the idea that industry should determine what istaught, as it is at the forefront to society’s economic needidentification process. Proponents of this theory, or point of view,seem to think that academic knowledge is impractical and mostlyirrelevant (Web-Institute-for-teachers.com, 2000). Various levels ofintensity of these thinking nodes exist, depending on the individualsinvolved.A possible solution could be a moderated approach that includesideas from both sides. As such, Beere (2007) considers the value ofcompetency based learning in a formal education institution. Chopra(2009:73) believes that “an enormous amount of energy becomesavailable when you give up the need to be right. Relationshipsalways suffer when there is a need for a right or a wrong”.Osho (2001) discusses the state of Samadhi, super consciousnessand awareness. In these states the need for right and wrongdisappears and only observation (awareness) remains. Like anempty canvas, this state produces the opportunity to act from apoint of stillness and objectivity.Pink (2009) discusses the concept of extrinsic and intrinsicmotivation of individuals. According to Pink a financial incentive or 82
  • 83. reward can cause a de-motivation, as it takes away the reason for aperson to act from the heart.Thus, if one could connect the thinking of the authors, it appearsthat the energy from a state of objectivity (awareness) can be usedas a natural motivator. This motivator is equally applicable instimulating the need to learn as what it is in stimulating the need toearn. Thus, it can be deducted that intrinsic motivators can be usedto stimulate performance.If industry could therefore use the fact that business learning andperformance can carry qualification credits, individuals would havemore opportunity to act from a self-motivated point. Redfield (1996)wrote a book called “The Tenth Insight” in which a future vision ofhumanity is discussed. The author suggests that the vision needs tobe pursued in order to bring about human evolution. This evolutionis happening in human thought. Hence the change in how we viewknowledge and knowledge creation. In keeping, whatever therelationship between business and education may be, accreditationthinking is also evolving.If ways could be developed to accredited training done in-house, toobtain credits towards the attainment of qualifications, it may enablethe individual to consolidate personal development, academiclearning and corporate performance. At the moment these issues aremostly seen as separate. However, as in the case of reality creation,this view is self-developed and self-imposed by society and can thuschange for the better (Redfield, 1996). 83
  • 84. Demartini (2002:207) believes that “a person’s purpose becomesclear when guided by the soul.” This may clarify an inspiringpurpose, and enable one to act from a point of personal drive. Hicksand Hicks (2009) record a channeling from a spirit called Abraham,in which the question of career choices is discussed. In the debatethe motivation and drive of humans are discussed and reference ismade to how people choose careers. The ability to remain in thesame career for a long time is also questioned. The point of thedebate is again the motivation for growth, for development and ineffect “learning”. However, not only learning as we see itscholastically, but also learning as we see it spiritually. Such learningrefers to learning at a soul level.Redfield (2002:17) describes the awareness that Osho refers to asawakenings. Redfield also believes that human development is linkedto the evolution of the universe itself and also suggests that truelearning comes from direct experience. If this is to be applied in theworkplace it promotes the suggestion to use such experience andlearning towards a formal recognition scenario. The qualificationaward itself should be seen as the conclusion, though, as the realbenefit is that such qualification of formalized learning, presents uswith a legitimate model to recognize the achievements of theindividuals in the workplace. As such, Business Dictionary (2011)defines a qualification as the “Capacity, knowledge, or skill thatmatches or suits an occasion, or makes someone eligible for a duty,office, position, privilege or status. Qualification denotes fitness forpurpose through fulfillment of necessary conditions such asattainment of a certain age, taking of an oath, completion ofrequired schooling or training, or acquisition of a degree or diploma. 84
  • 85. Qualification does not necessarily imply “competence.” In quantumphysics the spiritual principle of “life is what you make of it” isproven by means of the observation principle (Arentz, et al., 2005).In this experiment, the behaviour of matter is proven to bedependent on human consciousness (Hawking, 2008).According to Business Link (2010) training and development are keyingredients for surviving the economic downturn and ensuring that aworkforce has the skills needed for growth and success. An employermay have high quality in-house training programs that could beconsidered for accreditation on a formal Qualifications Framework toearn credits. An organization may also want to be recognised as anawarding organisation. Ball (1989:64) believes that companies oftenhave employees that perform very well and beyond expectations.“Often, these employees will not have the best academiccredentials.” Such individuals would do very well if their work-based learning could count for credits towards qualifications.According to Kingston (2006) the Leitch report was developed to putemployers at the heart of determining skills and qualifications needs.This report makes it easier for employers to have their own trainingaccredited (Kingston, 2006). A number of employers have alreadysuccessfully been involved, including McDonald, Network Rail andFlybe. According to Business Link, these three companies are nowrecognised awarding organizations. Others, including Honda havehad their training accredited through working in partnership withexisting awarding organizations. The Leitch Review of Skills was anindependent review by Lord Sandy Leitch, the Chairman of the 85
  • 86. National Employment Panel, commissioned by the BritishGovernment in 2004, to identify the UK’s optimal skills mix for 2020to maximize economic growth, productivity and social justice and toset out the balance of responsibility for achieving the required skillsprofile and consider the policy framework required to support it. Thereport recommended that the UK should raise achievements at alllevels of skills and recommended that it commit to becoming a worldleader in skills by 2020, as benchmarked against the upper quartileof the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development(OECD) - effectively a doubling of attainment at most skill levels(Werquin, 2010).One of the objectives of businesses training their people, is return oninvestment (ROI) (Meyer and Opperman, 2011). Thus,measurement of such ROI should investigate the following elements: • Did the training deliver what was expected for the business? • What further training and development can be implemented to continue to take the business forward? • Does the training motivate staff? • How is its quality assured?Employer Based Training Accreditation (EBTA) (2011) is aboutfinding ways to make the impact of in-house training more explicit(Coeducate Project, 2011). EBTA works with businesses to establishwhether a university can accredit their internal training. It alsosupports employers who want to further develop training and buildtowards formal national qualifications. Thus the mobility of suchaccredited training is also addressed. The practice of accreditingtraining by educational institutions is highly suspicious if such 86
  • 87. programs do not articulate or carry credit towards a furtherqualification by such institutions. EBTA’s services are supported bygovernment funding as part of its strategy to support businessgrowth and development. The real, academic benefit of EBTA ishowever that external verification of the quality and standard of in-house training and matching in-house training to nationalqualification standards becomes possible. In addition, the processcan assist in developing capacity to improve skills. Effectively, thisapproach thus quantifies or measures non-formal training (EBTA,2011). The development of such normative skills enables us tocompare, remediate, review and re-develop in order to achieve newheights of innovation (Charlton, 2008).2.2.4 VOCATIONAL ACCREDITATIONThe term vocation comes from the word “vocare” meaning “to call”(Business Directory, 2010). It is used to describe an occupation towhich a person is drawn or feeling called for, to fulfill. Thusvocational accreditation refers to measuring the vocation against abenchmark. Thus, supporting the notion that the industry or the jobrequirement should determine the level of required learning asopposed to the schooling system (Beere, 2007). However, themodern application of vocational accreditation does not exclude theacademic notion, but rather embraces the practice thereof (Web-Institute-for-teachers.com, 2000). Especially the inclusion of specificeducational techniques, thinking skills and quality assurancemethodologies are well represented in modern vocationalaccreditation processes (Hong Kong Qualifications Framework, 87
  • 88. 2011). As such various models of vocational accreditation areconstantly developing over the world.According to Bulgarelli (2009) the Council of the European Unionadopted a resolution in November 2002 in Copenhagen for thepromotion of such vocational accreditation. Policy documentsprovided the initial impetus for the Copenhagen process, a strategythat aims to improve the performance, quality and attractiveness ofVocational Education and Training (VET), focusing on thedevelopment of a single framework for the transparency ofqualifications and competences, credit transfer in VET and qualityassurance. Together, these priorities aim at promoting mutual trustin training provision and transparency as well as recognition ofcompetencies and qualifications.The result is thus establishing a basis for increasing mobility acrossthe European Union. These priorities have been successivelyconfirmed by the Maastricht (2004), the Helsinki (2006) and theBordeaux (2008) communiqués as well as by the recently approvedcouncil conclusions on a strategic framework for Europeancooperation in education and training (Bulgareli, 2009).Bulgareli (2009) further explains how quality assurance can play adecisive role in modernizing European VET and improvingperformance and attractiveness and thereby achieving better valuefor money. Accordingly, many European countries need to increaseVET responsiveness to changing labour market demands, increasingthe effectiveness of VET outcomes in improving the match betweeneducation and training demand and supply. The author believes that 88
  • 89. better levels of employability for the workforce, improved access totraining, especially for vulnerable labour market groups, shouldbecome a high priority.Accordingly, a common quality assurance framework (CQAF) wasdeveloped in Europe. Member countries where invited to promotethe CQAF. Thus, vocational education enjoys considerable status inEurope. The question that arises is what the effect of this focus is onactual output, for example Gross Domestic Production (GDP) andalso GDP per capita. Europe, consisting mostly of developedcountries is focused on vocational education, but also enjoys higherstandard of living than that of developing countries (Bulgarelli,2009). By combining work based accreditation and vocationalaccreditation an interesting phenomenon may develop, as workbased accreditation can then become vocational accreditation. Thisenables the accumulation of credits in both the workplace andclassroom, to measure the attainment of qualifications and also, thelevel of performance at which a person operates (Capella University,2011).The emerging role of workplace learning needs to be highlighted inview of the above. Workplace learning takes place at the workplaceand is often introduced as workplace training in order to improveemployee skills. Workplace learning can also happen via coachingand mentoring, observation or by repetition, enabling thedevelopment of an experience base (Kerka, 1998). Knowledge aswell as practice can therefore be developed. In the process, suchorganizations may develop learning organization values. Accordingto the University of Massachusetts (2011) workplace learning is 89
  • 90. offered in various forms, such as supervisory training andmanagement development. The University of Southern Mississippi(2011) offers a Masters Degree in Workplace Learning. Therelevance of workplace learning to this research is that such learningoften takes place with little or no formal recognition. It is entirelypossible for workplace learning to be equal in content and level, tomodules in formal qualifications. However, workplace learningseldom enjoys such recognition.In South Africa there are two ways to address the problem. Firstlythe workplace could apply to become an accredited provider (SAQA,2011). Thus, to establish formal quality assurance and alignment toknown or acceptable standards. The second is to outsource thealignment and quality assurance to an existing provider. This optionrequires the provider to ensure alignment of workplace learning toacceptable standards as well as the introduction of quality assurancerequirements.Such workplace learning could therefore, possibly become creditbearing within a formal qualification. Credits could possibly beaccumulated in the workplace that may be transferred to formalqualifications (Capella University, 2011). The research could possiblyprobe the viability of such practice. A question that should be askedis whether industry would recognize such qualifications? Theadministration of such credits would have to be investigated.Frameworks to align required skills and potential credits would alsohave to be developed. 90
  • 91. 2.3 THE CASE FOR RECIPROCITY IN EDUCATION ANDTRAININGAlthough accreditation could serve as the basis for skills or educationstandards, a review of accreditation without considering reciprocity,is not complete. According to Beach (1906) education reciprocityfollowed after trade reciprocity. The practice of reciprocity refers tothe formal / informal recognition of qualifications betweencountries or systems (Colten, 1981). In effect, the qualifications ofdifferent countries are “mapped” against each other based onelements such as content or curriculum, specific outcomes,assessment criteria and exit level outcomes. Reciprocity in thisresearch is important as it pertains to the system of recognizingdifferent educational programs (Tammaro and Weech, 2008).The University of Kentucky (2010) developed a system to facilitatethe movement of teachers from one state to another. The UniversityOf Kentucky College Of Education collected the teacher certificationrequirements for 50 states within the USA. Accordingly, theUniversity recognized that different states are continually revisingtheir teacher certification/licensure rules and requirements. Thissystem thus facilitates the practice of reciprocity between states.However, reciprocity is more than simply recognizing qualifications,it operates as a system that compares the cross recognition of suchqualifications and is also focused on the “how” of the recognition. Assuch, the United States Department of Education (2010) believes theterm “reciprocity” is used widely across the country, but that thetrue meaning of the term is often overlooked. Reciprocity within theUnited States context seems to be a system whereby a 91
  • 92. recommendation for licensure from a state-approved educationtraining program at an accredited college or university is recognizedin another state, according to the Department of Education in theUnited States. The reciprocity is governed by the InterstateAgreement developed by the National Association of State Directorsof Teacher Education and Certification (NASDTEC) (Plymouth stateUniversity, 2011). However, reciprocity does not guarantee that alicense in one state can be "traded in" for a license in another state(Plymouth state University, 2011). Thus, decisions of reciprocityvary from state to state and are not governed by the InterstateAgreement. According to Mthembu (2001) a South African casestudy pertaining to reciprocity concluded that higher education indeveloping countries would be destroyed if rampantinternationalization of higher education from developed countrieswere not stopped.Mudimbe (1996) explains the discourse on Africa from an Afrocentricperspective. According to Hames-Garcia reciprocity could create anintellectual prison that is operating as a thought factory that mayvery well avoid real philosophy from developing and accordinglyconstrain thought and learning (Hames-García, 2004).Taussig (1993) on the other hand, believes that, to become aware ofthe west in the eyes and handiwork of its others, to wonder at thefascination of their fascination, is to abandon border logistics andenter into the second contact era of the borderland, where us andthem lose their polarity and swim in and out of focus. 92
  • 93. Mthembu and Taussig further identified some difficulties to engage ininternational education. They alert us to pitfalls and paradoxes ofcross-cultural exchange in a post-colonial era, and therefore, thefears of internationalization and reciprocity lies in the perceived riskthat the west would indoctrinate the developing world. The Mthembuapproach is earthed in the notion that the developing world shouldbe allowed its own space to develop and that its students shouldstudy in their own countries only. Litwiller (2009) on the other hand,considers practical applications between cross-cultural educationprograms and their local communities. Against a backdrop of rapidinternationalization in universities and schools nationwide, Litwillerdeveloped a workshop and guidebook to provide the means to startthinking more in-depth about the nature of relationships withcommunity partners.The first two critics, a South African professor of mathematics andan American anthropologist, raise questions for USA educatorsseeking to internationalize education programs. Although the risks ofreciprocity may not seem onerous, it is best advised to considerthese in the development of reciprocity agreements. Successfulreciprocity should include balanced development and symbioticrelationships. Such relationships can be assistive, but should avoidbeing prescriptive (Taussig, 1993). One such a relationship wasdeveloped between South Africa (via the Services Seta) and theEuropean Union, pertaining to the cross recognition of qualificationsin hairdressing. The agreement reached, concluded that SouthAfrican hairdressing qualifications would be recognised in Europe,with the proviso that such migrants would do a module on“entrepreneurship” as part of their continuous professional 93
  • 94. development (CPD) when they work in Europe. At the same time,people qualified in Europe would be recognised in South Africa, butwould need to do “afro Hair” as part of their CPD, when working inSouth Africa (Goosen, 2005). However, not all countries seem tohave the ease of such reciprocity thinking. In some parts of theworld, standards vary hugely from country to country andsometimes even within countries (Bear, 1991).In particular, reciprocity in the USA and Canada are oftenproblematic. According to the Canadian Tourism Human ResourceCouncil (CTHRC)(2010) the Canadian Tourism Sector should havebetter mechanisms for assessing, comparing and recognizing priorlearning to achieve true learner and labour mobility for its non-regulated occupations. The CTHRC states that accurate, fair andreliable mechanisms enable educators and learners to assess,compare and recognize skills and credentials. In keeping, the CTHRCis building on its existing national occupational standardsand industry-certification program by means of research projects.The Council further mentions that these projects compare and maplearning outcomes for a variety of educational institutions as well asindustry associations, both nationally and internationally.The goal is to further the development of protocols, processes andframeworks to support effective mechanisms for recognizing priorlearning (RPL) within tourism occupations. Such RPL activities arenot limited to Canadian origin but can also come from othercountries (SAQA, 2011). This practice enables and facilitates ameaningful reciprocity platform. In South Africa, the reciprocitypractice developed into a system whereby the contents of one 94
  • 95. qualification are mapped to another, by means of comparison of theCurriculum or Unit Standards, Specific Outcomes and AssessmentCriteria (SAQA, 2011). The nature of mapping is determined bywhether the qualification has unit standards or is developed withacademic outcomes only (Tammaro and Weech, 2008). This practiceis not always desirable as the objective of mapping is to achievecross recognition and such detailed mapping may highlight detailsthat differ whilst the overall exit outcomes of the qualificationcreates the same set of competencies. Thus, an individual couldhave obtained a qualification in one country that differs in finitecontent from a similar one in another country (SIT Study Abroad,2011). However, both the qualifications could serve the sameoccupation. In the cosmetology industry, the skills of massage aretaught differently in different countries (Habia, 2010). However, thequalified masseuse is mostly involved in the same occupation. Analternative to finite mapping is thus to compare the outcomescreated, as this may achieve the motivation for cross boarderrecognition, or reciprocity (Quality Schools International, 2008).Competent, certified and qualified individuals provide a skilled labourforce. However, employers need to have a framework to be able toknow how to compare qualifications with one another. Where careerpaths are well articulated, it aids in the recruitment, selection andretention of skilled workers. One such a system is to create anOrganizing Framework for Occupations (OFO). As such, the CanadianNational Occupational Standards into the Tourism TechniquesArticulation Project, aimed at integrating relevant nationaloccupational standards into the curriculum of Cégep de Saint-Félicien, and achieving reciprocity between the Canadian Tourism 95
  • 96. Human Resource Council (CTHRC, 2010) and this Quebec-basedcollege, allowing students to acquire a variety of management andoccupation-specific skills. Upon graduation, it also leads to theautomatic receipt of an emerit certificate for occupationalknowledge. Individuals who receive this emerit certification couldalso receive recognition toward the Tourism Techniques program atCégep de Saint-Félicien. As this sets a central benchmark ofoccupational standards, the same standards could be used inmeasuring the skills and performance of employees.In the event management industry, the Canadian Tourism HumanResource Council is leading the development of an “EventManagement Standard”. Occupational standards are the skills,knowledge and attitudes needed to be considered competent in anoccupation. Standards are created from a detailed occupationalanalysis that results in the identification of criteria-basedperformance and knowledge requirements for that occupation.Accordingly the Event Management Body of Knowledge (EMBOK)model (2010) is a knowledge framework and descriptive summary ofthe scope and processes that are used in the management of events.It is a sequential system reflecting the changing nature of eventmanagement. As this sets the stage for an occupational standard,later processes in industry where actual skills of employees aremeasured against this standard, could be possible. Thus, EMBOKsets the stage for aligning workplace learning to be translated intocredits in a formal qualification. Thus, a Corporate QualificationsFramework could be developed; suggesting work based learning tobe recognised as formal credits. 96
  • 97. In 1998, South Africa established the Sector Education and TrainingAuthorities (SETAs), including the Services SETA and THETA(Tourism and Hospitality Training Authority), amongst others (SkillsDevelopment Act, 1998). South Africa’s National QualificationsFramework (NQF) was established, in part, to facilitate theassessment of the international comparability of standards andqualifications. According to the International Labour Organizationwebsite both Canada and South Africa have recognized credentialsfor the events industry that are based on standards. A comparativeanalysis of these standards could therefore further the developmentof a model for the events community and events industry in bothcountries.To meet future needs, the Canadian Tourism Human ResourceCouncil (CTHRC) (2010) suggested the development of a foreign-credential-recognition (FCR) model. It was suggested that the FCRmodel should be developed and connected with the sector’s existingoccupational standards as well as its professional certification(credential) programs.In 2005, a comparative study of the CTHRC and the CaribbeanProfessional Certification Systems conducted a review of selectedinternational credential-recognition systems. The study consideredthe systems and identified what is common amongst them andrelevant to Canada. Similar work has been conducted on establishingjoint recognition systems between South Africa and the EuropeanUnion in skills that include industries such as Marketing andHairdressing (Goosen: 2005). Where the Canadian study aimed at a 97
  • 98. better understanding of assessment and recognition methodology,the South African- European project aimed at comparing outcomes.In the South African model, the issues not covered in respectivequalifications, where listed as Continuous Professional Developmentissues in the countries where issues where lacking. This enabled theformation of a reciprocity system that created cross boarder andinternational recognition for learners and employees with suchqualifications. The Canadian project also looked at identifyingconcerns associated with establishing an FCR model (CTHRC, 2010).Although much related work has been done in South Africa, theSouth African drive in terms of a formal FCR model still needs to beformalized.According to the University of Kentucky (2010) the rules in the casefor cosmetology licensing reciprocity agreements between the USAand Canada are confusing. While there are certainly some reciprocityagreements, they arent consistent throughout the USA states andCanadian provinces. Within the USA, all 50 states requirecosmetologists to be licensed; however, requirements differ fromone state to another. Most requires one to have a high schooldiploma plus a diploma from a state-licensed cosmetology school orbeauty college. Thereafter the candidate must pass a state licensingexamination. By comparison, in Canada, some provinces dontrequire cosmetologists to have a license, while others have verystrict licensing requirements. To transfer a license from Canada tothe USA, the employee has to consider the rules in each state.Certain states request that you re-take the written or practical exambefore being granted a license, others require additional beauty 98
  • 99. training courses. Some have relaxed reciprocity regulations andrequire only an application, proof of current license and a fee.The same holds true for Canada - each province has differentlicensing requirements and different rules regarding reciprocity.Alberta gives credit for education received elsewhere, but requiresan exam to get a license. Manitoba and Newfoundland, by contrast,review each application individually and then decide whether togrant reciprocity based on that cosmetologists education andexperience.Certain international organizations offer certifications that arerecognized by multiple countries. “Habia”, a government appointedstandards setting body in the United Kingdom, partnered with theNational Cosmetology Association in the USA to form theInternational Cosmetology Licensing Organization in 2006. Australia,New Zealand, Canada, South Africa, and 34 USA states have agreedto recognize certain qualifications granted by Habia (Habia, 2010).Within the USA, the National Accreditation Commission ofCosmetology Arts and Sciences (NACCAS) have worked to establishreciprocity agreements with other countries, including Canada(Habia, 2010).Reuven and Gilad (2010) examine the existence of reciprocity inonline learning networks. The study analyzed the response relationsbetween participants in 75 online learning networks at the OpenUniversity of Israel. Specifically, the study investigated whether theobserved reciprocity of responses can be explained by the randomselection of partners to respond to, or whether a reciprocal selection 99
  • 100. process of partners is at work. The finding was that reciprocalselection processes are at work in online learning networks. Theeffect is thus the same as in traditional education, namely thatreciprocity does not happen unless driven by interested parties.As such, the approach of non- interference in African Universities,would lead to low and possibly no recognition of African basedqualifications by the developed Western world. As the developingworld stands to gain by reciprocity, the drive for, especially SouthAfrica, should be towards more, as opposed to less, reciprocity(Taussig, 1993). The cross border development of occupationalstandards that are at least similar in nature and deliverables,enables cross boarder alignment of occupational profiles and hence,of occupational qualifications (Robertson, 2011). These standardsare then easily used to develop job descriptions that can also applyacross borders. As these standards are becoming uniform, it iseasier to compare such between countries. Especially in scenarioswhere a company operates as a multinational, the same standardscan apply for the same job although operating in different countries.Furthermore, for industries where the service or product is morehomogenous, cross border standards make it easier to compareperformance. Thus, skills comparison becomes easier.One of the ways in which reciprocity can be addressed, is thedevelopment of designations. The Purchasing ManagementAssociation of Canada (PMAC) has signed agreements with theInstitute for Supply Management (ISM) in the USA and theChartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply (CIPS) in the UK toprovide reciprocity between each organization’s globally recognized 100
  • 101. designation (PMAC, 2011). According to the agreement, supply chainmanagement professionals, holding one designation, are eligible toreceive the reciprocal designations, provided they meet specificcriteria. The organization suggests that, possessing a reciprocaldesignation will enhance the international recognition of this skill-set.Designations are industry awards for the recognition of a personwhen functioning at a certain level. Examples of designations includethat of the Charted Accountant. Designations are not qualifications,but often require that a person holds a certain qualification; has adefined level of industry related experience and adhere to a code ofconduct - thus, showing evidence of operating at a certain level(SAQA, 2011). This approach could be very beneficial if incorporatedwithin the reciprocity debate. Designations can be used to crossrecognize individuals and their performance across many platformswhere qualifications may differ. The test is whether the personoperates continuously at the required standard of the occupation(Exponential SA, 2011).2.4 CORPORATE QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORKSOnce the workplace is aligned to formal standards, albeit bybecoming a provider or aligning with one, programs offered at theworkplace could possibly become credit bearing. As such, theseprograms obtain a position on the National QualificationsFramework. However, it may be unlikely that the workplace learningwould constitute an entire qualification. As such, the learning soundertaken, could potentially present a partial qualification that 101
  • 102. addresses the direct needs of the workplace (Hong Kong EducationBureau, 2008). Such collection of training programs could constitutea Corporate Qualifications Framework for the workplace. Learnersand employees could possibly even plan on how these credits on theCorporate Qualifications Framework could be attained. Such creditswill then possibly be earned for career advancement, as training, butalso as credits towards a formal qualification (Capella University,2011).2.4.1 CREDIT ACCUMULATIONWhere a strategic plan can be used to determine the required humancapital in business and industry skills used as credit in suchbenchmarks, it could be possible to use such a system to determinenormative skills gaps. This implies that there will be a need to collectand accumulate credits on a peace meal basis. AberystwythUniversity (2011) discusses a concept called “Credit Accumulationand Transfer Schemes (CATS)”which is used by universities in theUnited Kingdom to monitor, record and reward “passage through amodular degree course and to facilitate movement between coursesand institutions.” It is also possible to equate CATS with the ScottishCredit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF, 2011) and the EuropeanCredit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) (2011).According to Adam (2000) the task of the Leiria InternationalSeminar was to discuss workable alternatives and build consensusabout Credit Accumulation and Transfer Systems. This seminar wasone of the international seminars agreed to in Helsinki. The purposeof this seminar was to discuss credit accumulation and transfer 102
  • 103. systems in the context of the Bologna process and the linkages tolifelong learning. Adam suggests that the experience gained by theEuropean Credit Transfer System (ECTS) provided the framework formuch of the national and international development of creditaccumulation and transfer and the internationalization of highereducation.During the same seminar, the Minister of Education from Portugalstressed the need for more student and teacher mobility to aidEuropean integration. The minister also felt that there needed to bemore harmonization between different national educational policies.A further point mentioned by Adam was that the European educationsystem needs to improve its international competitiveness and theemployability of its citizens. This would also lead to morecompetition between European systems, which would improve andsharpen individual educational provisions. The worldwide acceptanceof European degrees and diplomas requires better information abouttheir content, competencies and academic and professionalobjectives (Adam, 2000).Heath (2007) developed a theory about the “stickiness” of ideas andconcepts. The author investigates the aspects that make a storystick (remembered). Credit accumulation could be one such a factor.If a person knew that company training and experience could countas credit towards a qualification, the “stickiness” of what they do,should increase. Thus, such employees would be more motivated todo well in both the training and the work base performance. 103
  • 104. Adam also mentions that the Bologna Declaration called for the“adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees.”The aim of the seminar was to work towards the creation of aEuropean credit system. A subsequent speaker at the seminar,Volker Gehmlich presented a vision of a global credit accumulationand transfer system that could encompass adult education,vocational and professional training, higher education and lifelonglearning.From the discussions of the European Union, the efforts of theUnited Kingdom in workplace and vocational accreditation, plus theSouth African impetus in the establishment of concepts related toRPL and OFO, it seems that the agenda for credit accumulationintends to favor of credit accumulation from non-formal sources. Thebenefits for such a system could be plenty. However, if the contentsof learning are going to be driven and dominated by the traditionaleducational institutions, a global bureaucratic system may very wellbe the only result. The system would need flexibility in terms of thecontents so as to accommodate credits for innovation. In addition,accredited workplace learning with proper articulation towardsqualifications, may very well be considered (Adam, 2000).2.5 POLITICAL OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATIONMantashe (2010:1) indicated that “education will solve poverty,unemployment and growing inequalities in South Africa.” It shouldenable people to break the chain of poverty and contribute to theeconomy. Similarly The Freedom Charter (1955) stated that basiceducation would be free and compulsory for all children. 104
  • 105. A word of caution for free education however, is always wise. Adistinction must be made between the right for education andobligation that goes along with such a right. The risk is that societymay develop a belief that its education is the responsibility ofgovernment, leading to the pendulum swinging in favor of thescholastic control of our learning (Beere, 2007). This brings theadded risk that governments can manipulate education to suit theirown agendas and as such, undermine the value of democracy.The doors of learning and culture shall be opened, setting outprinciples of free, universal, compulsory and equal education,promising to wipe out illiteracy, and undertaking to remove allcultural, sporting and educational color bars (Mantashe, 2010). Thefirst 12 years of learning must be able to give children the basicskills to enter the labour market. It must never happen that a childis deprived of education because of their familys economic status(Freedom Charter: 10). A compelling argument in favour of (at leastbasic) free education is the fact that uneducated citizens are innobody’s interest, not government, not society and certainly not theuneducated individual. However, the degree of control of thescholastic system, which is ultimately government controlled, is tobe debated. In this instance the right or wrong answer is not thepoint, but debate and engagement is (Sachs, 2005). As long as wecan, as a human race, allow ourselves to be intellectually challengedinto heuretic thinking, our chances of evolving into more advancedbeings, are improved (Heathfield, 2011). 105
  • 106. By allowing governments to decide what we read, believe and whatwe learn, we surrender who we are. We surrender our sole purposeand we lose our motivation to learn, to grow and to act, bothspiritually and corporately (Osho, 2001). Therefore, the success andfailure of our education system itself rests on its ability to be openand to allow itself to be challenged.Thus, for the education system to be successful in the future, it willneed to be more sophisticated than it is today (Squire, 2009). If weare to address the education backlog, the skills gap, poverty andproductivity, in South Africa, the system will need to be more flexibleand adaptive. Van der Linde (2002) discusses the role of goodeducational management in a changing South Africa. Commitmentsto change should include the following: 1. All qualifications should demonstrate a sense of understanding towards industry driven needs 2. Scholastic educational needs will have to be considered, including aspects related to pedagogy and didactics 3. Innovation skills will have to be a priority in developing qualifications and heuretic thinking will have to be evident in qualifications 4. Certain industry-based training and workplace learning will have to carry educational credits and a qualification will have to indicate how credit can be accumulated over time 5. Quality Assurance would have to be relevant, flexible and implementable 6. Qualifications would have to become the benchmark of contextualization and move away from being recognitions for knowledge only. 106
  • 107. The role of government in education should be to bring education tothe masses (SACP, 2011). One of the ways in which education canbe brought to the masses, is the massification of delivery via e-learning. Various e-learning systems are available and many of theworld’s leading universities are using a wide variety of such systems.Wankel and Kinglsley (2009) present a detailed discussion of the useof the system called “Second Life”. In this system, a virtualuniversity can be built in virtual space. The net effect is a virtualuniversity. Anderson (2007) explains how, with the use of theInternet, even small quantities of products such as music can besold, as storage cost are almost nothing on the servers where it iskept. The same applies to online education.2.6 STRATEGIC PLANNING AND SKILLS NEEDSThe connection between strategic planning and skills needs shouldbe that strategy defines required skills (Duggan, 1999). Suchrequired skills should, if heuretic thinking applies, include systemsrequirements like innovation. Some universities have a workplacecomponent in their degree structure. This component allows thestudent to bring a component of workplace activity into the degree,as credits (Ixion, 2010). This requirement goes a long way inaddressing the dynamics of the degree process and can create a linkbetween strategic planning and skills needs (Skiff,2002).Furthermore, the determination of the actual skills level andsubsequent gaps, defines the relationship between skills levels andstrategic planning (Duggan, 1999). 107
  • 108. According to Barber (2010) in the state of Victoria, the Skills forGrowth program is a strategic planning and workforce developmentprogram, run by the Government of Victoria, providing small andmedium businesses in the State of Victoria with free access to skilledbusiness consultants and to employee training opportunities. Thegoal of the program is to help small and medium business ownersachieve greater levels of near-term and long-term success bymapping out their business key goals and priorities and evaluating -and closing - capability gaps in their workforce. Key benefits that theSkills for Growth program is meant to create for participatingbusinesses include: • Superior business performance and productivity • Increased workforce efficiency and effectiveness • Enhanced capacity for innovation • Expanded range of employee capabilities • Reduced overall costsAll of which, of course, lead to the realization of the ultimate benefitfor businesses - improved profits (Barber, 2010). After a businessregisters with the Skills for Growth program and selects a ServiceProvider that best suits its needs, the Service Provider assigns anindependent workforce planning and training specialist who contactsthe business owner and arranges for an on-site visit. Workforceplanning and training specialists are required to have completed aTraining and Assessment (TAA) course as well as an accreditedcourse on Assessing Informal Learning (AIL). 108
  • 109. Barber (2010) lists the following steps as part of the first phase ofthe Skills for Growth program:Phase 1 • Completion of a high-level business analysis that looks at, among other things, the strategic direction of the business • Assessment of the skills and training needs of employees as they relate to the business strategic direction • Development of a Workplace Training and Action Plan that identifies business and employee skills needs and that recommends referrals to relevant training programs and learning opportunities.There are no costs associated with participating in the first phase.Phase 2The second phase of the program unfolds only if the business owneror manager chooses to proceed with the training recommendations(which are accompanied by three quotes).Following, are the steps identified within the second phase of theSkills for Growth program: • Facilitation of staff placement into training with an accredited training organization • Completion of a follow-up review after staff have completed training - or have undergone at least three months of training - and of a Skills for Growth report which must be reviewed and approved by the business (any employees hired by the business after the initial review receive individual training plans). 109
  • 110. Strategic planning and skills needs should have a direct connection(Skiff, 2002). Skills needs ought to be a function of intended,strategic business direction and long term planning. Care has to betaken not to have a short term only approach. As the new agerequirements for knowledge management are emerging, it isbecoming evident that innovation and the ability to re-invent thebusiness constantly, is a dire need (Fujio Cho, 2011). In order to livein the new world, the legacy of this generation should be thecreation of education systems that serves business needs, to takepeople through the 21st century. At the moment the world is plaguedby economic dissatisfaction (European Journal of Political research,2011). In the UK conversations about spending cuts dominate thepolitical debate (Fox News, 2010). In Europe, particularly Greece,riots are a regular occurrence in defiance of economic policy(Klystron, 2011). In Africa, poverty remains a problem in a post-colonial era (Global Issues, 2010).If anything is evident from the world economic situation, it is thatthe education system has failed to produce a society that canengage in meaningful activity to satisfy even its most basic needs(Squire, 2009). A radical, violent change is needed in thinking abouteducation. According to Brown (2005) a skills revolution is requiredbefore any economic revolution will ever be successful.Stevens (1994:230) explains a concept of how people can be subjectto the forces of their “dragons.” One such a dragon, the greeddragon, causes the individual to develop an un-satisfied sense ofwanting. So much so, that all sense of what is already achieved is 110
  • 111. lost and the view of a “half empty glass” remains. For South Africa,given its past, this is particularly profound. One of the legacies ofapartheid is the negative emotional scares that it has left its citizenswith (Jaruzel, 2008). Education could be a powerful instrument inthis equation. However, if it fails to act as a system wheremotivation can be developed, it is doomed. One such a very simpleway is the development of a system such as RPL, creditaccumulation and designations (SAQA, 2011).Training and education in the future would have to be developed insuch a way that the needs of the organisation and its growth areclearly accommodated (Skiff, 2002). In addition, curricula wouldhave to serve the need for personal development and foster skills inthinking, innovation, value systems and self-management.Structurally the qualification would need to consist of differentcomponents, so that the learner has the benefit of building the skillsbase at his/her own pace (McLernon and Hughes, 2004).2.7 BENCHMARKING OF SKILLS AND COMPETENCEHouron (2008:1) states: “Whatever the size or nature of yourorganization, the ideal is to move your business from one of"excellence to significance." Reaching this goal involves anunderstanding that talent is the foundation of business success. Theauthor lists helpful guidelines to maximize the effectiveness ofbenchmarking: • Select an assessment that was designed and validated to be relevant to the relevant industry, and only choose instruments that conform to the Standards for Educational and 111
  • 112. Psychological Testing and the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures. • Benchmark employees on skills, not personality traits. Skills are applied constructs, while personality traits are often abstract. Personality traits are not synonymous with skills or competencies. • Large sample sizes are not necessary to conduct valid benchmarking exercises. • Consult with Industrial and Organizational Psychology professionals when interpreting and applying benchmark data. Always include a professional with strong expertise in the use and interpretation of the assessment used for benchmarking.The value of assessment and benchmarking transcends recruitment.Together, they are investments that provide a strong competitiveedge by driving the most valuable asset - human capital. Therefore,the selection and benchmarking of employees are crucially important(Pisello, 2010). The importance of the development of the rightprofile cannot be overstated. Traditionally the skills needed forbusiness were all identifiable up front. In the future, one of therequired factors will be that management will need the skills to notonly deal with change, but also to cause it, to seek it and toimplement it as such (Skiff, 2002).Zander (2002) believes we live in a world of measurement. Theauthor elaborates further in exploring the connection betweenawareness and measurement. Zander’s argument culminates indeveloping an awareness of the limitless potential of the human racesuggesting once more that perhaps we could re-look what we 112
  • 113. measure. In the South African society, the benchmarking of skillsand competencies can be regulated in terms of a variety of existingstandards (SAQA, 2011). In the FET and HET sectors there arevarious qualifications that can be used as a standard. Anyqualification is, per se, a standard of skill and competency. Thisstandard can, although not always easily, be unpacked and used inmore finite scenario’s, such as job descriptions. The notion to link aqualification to a job or profession is not new (Robertson, 2011). Forexample, a medical doctor has to have a specific degree andpractical experience before being able to function in a medicalposition. In the accounting profession the requirements from variousemployers for the financial manager position, has been a person witha Charted Accountant status. However, having a qualification or acertain skills level, is no guarantee that a person will performconsistently at a required level (Exponential SA, 2011).2.8 SKILLS, PERFORMANCE AND CERTIFICATIONIf a strategic plan can be used to determine the required humancapital, and industry experience is used as credit in an integratedsystem, it implies that there could be a link between skills,performance and eventually, certification (Skiff, 2002). Skill (technein Greek) is used to denote expertise developed in the course oftraining and experience. It includes not only trade and craft skills asacquired by apprenticeship, but high-grade performance in manyfields, such as professional practice, the arts, games and athletics(Gregory, 1987:715). The performer of the task should match thedemands of a task. In order to perform a task, a strategy forimplementation must be developed. 113
  • 114. According to Gregory (1987:715) there are three main parts to askill: • Perception of object or events - perceiving all relevant factors • Choice of response - making a decision • Execution of the choice made - normally requires motor coordination and timingSenge (2010:15) discusses the development of industry and notesthat the world industrialization boasts great success. However, dueto this success, certain economic and social challenges developedover time. It is this very level of achievement that would require thehuman race to develop a radical change in the way the world isviewed. This in itself requires a new skills set. Thus, if our economicthinking about what we achieve has to change, then so does ourthinking about our performance. Not just how well we perform, butat what do we perform? This proposed change would suggest thatwe measure other things as what we did in the past. In keeping, ouraward system and recognition of achievement will need to alter(Senge, 2010). Once this type of thinking evolves, the certification ofthe players would also need to change, hopefully for the better.Drucker (1993) argued that a skill could not be explained in words, itcould only be demonstrated. Thus, the only way to learn a skill inthe past was through apprenticeship and experience. However, withthe introduction of unit standards, skills can now be described,defined and documented in finite detail (Robertson, 2011). 114
  • 115. Furthermore, it can also be assessed, measured and counted. It caneven be mapped against similar skills, on an international basis.Wade and Parent (2002) explore the mix of organizational andtechnical skills demanded of Webmasters, and the degree to whichthose skills influence job performance. The study was composed oftwo parts. First, a job-content analysis of 800 Webmaster positionswas conducted in order to determine the mix of skills demanded ofWebmasters by employers. Secondly, a survey of 232 Webmasterswas undertaken to test the relationships between the skills identifiedin the first phase of the study and job performance. The job-contentanalysis suggested that employers seek technical skills overorganizational skills, and, in contrast, the survey results showed thatWebmasters regard organizational skills as most important inperforming their jobs.The establishment of an empirical link between job skills, workplacelearning and job performance opens the field to further researchrelated to skills required by information systems personnel.Middleton (2010:59) believes that talent is either over estimated orundervalued. Thus, the measurement of skills and performancebecomes even more important.The connection between skills, performance and certification shouldbe a continuous line. Required skills should be defined in relation towhat is needed for business success. These required skills ought tofunction as the performance benchmark for industry as well as forthe contents of qualifications (Skiff, 2002). When compliance to thejob performance is met, it implies the individual is competent. This 115
  • 116. supports the compliance of the standard with educationalrequirements, such as having the appropriate knowledge base.Collectively these elements imply competency that may be certified,for purposes of a qualification (Plymouth State University, 2011).2.9 CONCLUSIONThe integration of the research objectives suggests the use of aframework where business objectives are used as the guidelines todesign competence objectives. Clustered together, this competenceset constitutes a job description, a benchmark from which industryexperience and also learning objectives can be deduced. Thus, tomeasure against this benchmark could enable performancemanagement and the formalizing of learning objectives (Houron,2008). In essence this approach suggests a framework whereeducation, learning and workplace performance are measured all inone (Lategan, 2001).The question remains whether the notion of a CQF can beimplemented in industry. The focus of this research is to probe thepossibility by working with a sample of companies, to ascertain theacceptability of a CQF.The question of the research is fourfold:1. To assess whether an organizational strategic plan can be utilisedto determine the required human capital for an organization.2. To determine whether industry experience, workplace learning,competence and non-formal training programs could be compared 116
  • 117. compares favorably in content, level, and outcomes with eachother.3. To determine whether a benchmark system exist to determine agap analysis of skills.4. To determine if industry can qualify human capital in relation to aCorporate Qualifications framework. Evolution of Debate on knowledge, Analysed origins of skills, education and knowledge knowledge development. Inform competency (heretic view and area to thinking). research. Business Debate how business planning Analyse skills is conducted at the moment Planning required and pertaining to skills needed. suggest research on how required skills could be developed. Required Debate how required human Analyse actual Human capital can be used capital skills, its as benchmark to development and versus as performance manage suggest research on actual actual human capital how to view in human future capital Business Debate on how business Analyse how objectives generates knowledge business originates knowledge can be from market formalised needs 117
  • 118. Diagram 2.4 Literature SurveyIn compiling the literature survey the structure of the surveyaddressed the evolution of thought on knowledge creation andmanagement over time. The process started with the identification ofviews on knowledge and followed on to debate and analyse theorigin of knowledge with a view to inform the area of research. Animportant notion of contextual determination was highlighted todemonstrate that all knowledge development is based on a premise.The consciousness of humans determine matter, thus ultimately altruth is in the eye of the beholder. The issue was illuminated in lightof the Copenhagen observation and the influence of mind overmatter (Arentz, et al., 2005). Business planning is discussed andprobed with a view on how business planning is conducted pertainingto skills needs, exploring how to define required human capital. Thecomparison between required and actual human capital suggeststhat required human capital may be used as a benchmark toperformance manage actual human capital (Skiff, 2002).In the literature survey, an attempt has been made to illustrate anddiscuss the evolution of knowledge itself. The overview starts withthe advent of theology and the Aristotelian approach, whenknowledge to the masses was forbidden and transgressorsprosecuted. With the ages came change such as the contribution ofRene Descartes, who no longer accepted blind faith and introducedthe age of reason. This was the start of “heuretic” thinking (Ulmer,2002). This gave rise to the understanding of knowledge on thebasis of two schools of thought: 118
  • 119.  blind faith and interpretation, where knowledge was simply passed along and accepted, and heuretic thinking that introduced reason, debate, interpretation and even innovation.As a result of the two very opposing forces, a third school ofthought, “morphology” evolved. Ulmer (2002) refers to theintroduction of a common set of elements and suggests,inadvertently, a system where some knowledge is accepted andsome interpreted. However, the effect on the education system ofthe world was more complex. Traditional educators felt that theyknew best and thus wanted to own the right to develop educationprograms accordingly. At the same time industry needs changedmuch faster than what had been incorporated into educationalprograms. Thus, through the ages, it seems that knowledge hadbeen quantified on an indirect, unsatisfactory basis towards industry.Hence, corporate training was introduced to fill the gap that theeducation system could not. The introduction of accreditation foreducation added to norms but also to complexity (Bear, 191). Botheducational and industry schools of thought wanted more input intothe system of development. The morphed results are that modernqualifications should be designed to accommodate educationalprinciples, industry needs and learner flexibility (such as creditaccumulation and workplace credits). Industry, at the same time,should consider a system to manage its total learning. Such totallearning could introduce a system whereby the organizationalobjective are pursued, but would also enable the same pursuit to be 119
  • 120. used as credits for formal learning (McLernon and Hughes, 2004).The question remains whether this can be implemented in industry.The focus of this research is to probe the possibility by working witha sample of companies, to ascertain the acceptability of a CQF.The literature survey concludes with the question, how can businesstraining be formalized, and suggests an industry probe with asample of companies. The approach by business, the internationaldebate and the drive by government in the establishment of SAQAand its subsequent initiatives, are all indicative of the need for anormative system of education and training in South Africa. Theoverall trend that is emerging seems to be for a system whereeducation can be measured and benchmarked in industry (Skiff,2002). However, care has to be taken in the development of suchnorms and benchmarks, as these are themselves, the result ofstructured thinking, based on historical values of what educationshould be. Economically, society desire a level of satisfaction thatrefers to issues such as housing, running water, electricity anddecent work. All of these desires are in fact issues of normativevalues (Williams, 2000). In order to achieve these desires, societyand individuals need a certain level of skill. Society at large does notexperience a satisfaction of its needs (Williams, 2000). However,through education and training, new and better skills can bedeveloped to improve such need satisfaction.The development of a new mentality is eminent, and in fact, arequirement, if we are to transform society. Within the currentqualification structure, in South Africa, non-relevance is 120
  • 121. demonstrated by the skills taught at institutions of teaching. Criticalthinking, system thinking, understanding of self in relation to theworld and not even to mention, spiritual consciousness, are allabsent in the development of the mind of the learner. Therefore inthe absence of a contextual awareness, the individual exists in avacuum of senselessness.CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1 OVERVIEWAccording to North Central Regional Education Library (2011:1)“action research is inquiry or research in the context of focusedefforts to improve the quality of an organization and itsperformance. It is typically designed and conducted by practitionerswho analyze the data to improve their own practice. Action researchcan be done by individuals or by teams of colleagues. The teamapproach is called collaborative inquiry.”Ferrance (2000:2) states; “implicit in the term action research is theidea that teachers will begin a cycle of posing questions, gatheringdata, reflecting and deciding on a course of action. When thesedecisions begin to change the environment, a different set ofcircumstances appears with different problems posed, which requirea new look.” Action research projects are started with a particularproblem to solve. However, the answers may lead to morequestions. 121
  • 122. Diagram 3.1: The Action Research Cycle(Source: O’Brien, 1998)http://www.web.net/~robrien/papers/arfinal.htmlThe proposed methodology to be followed in this research isconsidered to be action research, as the activity will consist of acycle of posing questions, gathering data, reflection and deciding ona course of action. For this reason action research is a reflectiveprocess of progressive problem solving in a team of practice, butlead by a person from the group, with the view to analyse andimprove management issues and problems within an organisation(Lewin, 1946). In this research, a series of questions are posed to aselection of companies, pertaining to their ability to plot requiredskills against their strategic plans. Lewin further described actionresearch as a comparative research methodology including the 122
  • 123. conditions and effects of various forms of social action, utilizing aspiral set of steps, each consisting of planning, action and factfinding about the result of the action. Accordingly, the results of thequestions will be compared to each other. As this comparison ismade, it is anticipated that observations will be made and feedbackfrom companies will give rise to more questions. Torbert (2004)introduced the use of “developmental action inquiry” as a researchmethodology, as reflected tin Diagram 3.2Diagram 3.2: Developmental Action Enquiry(Source: O’Brien, 1998)http://www.web.net/~robrien/papers/arfinal.htmlThis methodology is a way of conducting action research.Accordingly, the potential development of a CQF, could ascribe tothese views in the following ways: a) The research process is reflective in as much as it “reflects” or considers the position of learning, skills and competency from 123
  • 124. various perspectives. These should include the hermeneutics as well as heuretic schools of thought. The methodology should further reflect on the role of future qualifications with job descriptions, including standards and benchmarks related to education.b) The research also investigates the relationships between strategic planning, required human capital and actual human capital and related skills gaps, in a systematic way. Data is to be collected on these relationships and the development of theory is anticipated from such data.c) The potential CQF could possibly serve as an emergent theory. This may suggest a management system that informs business decisions about skills needs in a normative way, thus forming theory emerging from the data. Field research (Cohen, 2011) originated from anthropology and is sometimes also known as either participant research, or “ethnography” (Cohen, 2010). The term “field research” is also used by industry as a generic reference to collecting or creating information outside of a laboratory or typical workplace (Baker, 1988). Accordingly, the process suggested for this research, also involves field research and direct observations. Participant observations, data collection, and survey research are examples of field research activities. Accordingly, the research will focus on a systematic methodology of generating theory from data (Baker, 1988). The research starts with a particular set of data or facts and investigates emerging theory from such data. Thus the research is “grounded” on existing data (Borgatti, 2011). The 124
  • 125. approach of generating theory from data is referred to as a “grounded theory”. According to Borgatti (2011) grounded theory is a theory that is developed from a corpus of data. Thus, grounded theory is not theory deducted from grand theory, as it takes a case rather than variable perspective (Glasser other authors 1967). For purposes of this research, each of the participating companies will constitute a different case. Different cases are made for the unique companies in this research. Each company has a set of variables that interact to produce certain results. The objective is to develop a generic system whereby such a business could manage the balance between required and actual human capital. The question is thus whether a set of (grounded) data could be identified from which a theory could emerge. According to Dick (2011) grounded theory begins with a research situation. In such research the “situation” is reflected in the research question. The research is conducted mainly via questioning, observation, conversation and interviewing. The process is driven by constant comparison and triangulation. Thus, theory emerges. In this research, interrogation of data to develop theory is suggested via the following questioning process: Can a strategic plan be utilised in determining the required human capital for a business? 125
  • 126.  If so, following from such potential results, the question to follow is whether the required human capital can be broken down into meaningful jobs.  The next question is whether such jobs could be aligned to educational standards or competencies?  If the previous questions are affirmative, the researcher will investigate whether specific jobs can be aligned to standards, functioning as a benchmark for both performance management as well as educational credit?  If the answers to all the above questions are positive, the next question could be whether the collective application of the above-mentioned activities provides a system whereby a company has a framework within which to manage its human capital and skills levels.According to Dick (2005) grounded theory is an emergentmethodology. Glaser, Strauss and Corbin are three publishedauthors on grounded theory as discussed by Mills, Bonner andFrancis, (2006). The authors suggest that constructivist groundedtheory is a popular method for research studies primarily in thedisciplines of psychology, education and nursing. They find Straussand Corbin’s texts on grounded theory to possess a discernablethread of constructivism in their approach to inquiry. Charmaz(2001) explains constructivist grounded theory as a process wherethe researcher engages in data collection, analysis of such data andrendering of participants’ experiences into grounded theory. 126
  • 127. Grounded theory can therefore be considered a methodological spiralthat started with Glaser and Strauss’ original text. The variety ofepistemological positions that grounded theorists adopt are locatedat various points on this spiral and are reflective of their underlyingontologies (Mills, Bonner and Francis, 2006).According to Glasser and Strauss (1967) the major strategy used ingrounded theory is the general method of comparative analysis. Theauthors suggest that much of current research is primarily theverification and expansion of existing theory or the development oftheory through logical deduction rather than from the experimentaldata itself. Dick (2005) believes that grounded theory begins with aresearch situation. “Within that situation, your task as researcher isto understand what is happening there and how the players managetheir roles. You will mostly do this through observation,conversation and interview. After each bout of data collection younote down the key issues: this I have labeled "note-taking".Constant comparison is at the heart of the process” (Dick, 2005:2).In this research, the research “situation” is defined in the research“question”. The research is indeed focused on determining “what ishappening “in the context as well as investigating the roles thatparticipants play in the process of exploring the research process.Observation plays a very important role, as it is anticipated that theresearch question will highlight new questions and makeobservations not previously known (O’Brien, 1998).Data collection in this research will use a variant of the note takingpractice. A more structured questioning and interviewing system is 127
  • 128. suggested to collect data. Comparison of findings would beimportant, as the research question is addressing an issue thatpertains to a collective rather than individual finding. Glasser, andStrauss (1967: 5) argue that the “adequacy of a theory cant bedivorced from the process of creating it”. Accordingly in thisresearch, it is anticipated that theory will emerge from data, in thesense that patterns will be observed, creating more questions andpotentially more theory.Dick (2005) continues to explain that the grounded theory processcompares interview (or other data) to interview (or otherdata). Theory is anticipated to emerge directly after each categoryof questioning. The author suggests that, when theory begins toemerge, data to theory comparison should start. As such, it isanticipated that the questions asked (data collection) in thisresearch, will lead to the identification of certain findings (emergingtheory) and observations. The results of this comparison are to bewritten down. This “note taking” is known as coding. Theresearcher’s task is to identify categories (roughly equivalent tothemes or variables) and their properties (sub-categories) (Dick,2005). In this research it is anticipated that such categories willconsist of questions that generate data on the applicability ofqualifications frameworks in the sample of companies that willparticipate.During coding, certain theoretical propositions should occur. Forexample, these should indicate a bias for or against the developmentof qualification frameworks, as the formation of theory. These maybe about links between categories, or about a core category. As the 128
  • 129. categories and properties emerge, the theory emerges. Suchemergence could be equated to the formation of fractals asdiscussed in chapter 2. Another step would be to write notes about it- called “memoing” (WorldiQ, 2011).Once the core category and its linked categories start to saturatethey no longer need to be added to the theory formation. In thisresearch it is expected that theory will emerge from data afterinvestigation of data presented from the participating companies.After the attainment of the theory, it is expected that additional datasources be considered in an attempt to strengthen the theoryemerging at that point in time. In other words, more data does notchange the theory, nor does it add to the theory, but rather confirmsthe same theory.At this stage the research should move to sorting. The researchershould group memos, like with like, and sequence them in whateverorder will make the theory clear. As this study will be using pre-defined categories, it is expected that theory will emerge from thetotal data presented as opposed to data gathered from singlecompanies in the study. The literature is accessed as it becomesrelevant. It is not given special treatment. Glaser and Strauss(1967) makes the point that most research, including qualitativeresearch, is hypothesis testing. However, in this instance there is nohypothesis, but a research question.According to Dick (2005) a grounded theory study works through thefollowing mostly-overlapping phases. In short, data collection, note- 129
  • 130. taking, coding and memoing occur simultaneously from thebeginning. Sorting occurs when all categories are saturated. 
Diagram 3.3 Overlapping Phases of Research(Source: Dick,2005),http;//www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/grounded.htmlWriting occurs after sorting. Dick (2005) further suggests that theresearcher can be flexible, thus does not need to follow the elementsof grounded theory exactly. In this study deviations will be made asmentioned, pertaining to memoing. The theory is emergent, thusthe methods can be emergent too (Glaser, 1998).What most differentiates grounded theory from much other researchmethodologies is that it is explicitly emergent and thusconstructivist (Mills, et al., 2006). It does not test a hypothesis. It 130
  • 131. sets out to find what theory accounts for the research situation as itis. In this respect it is action research: the aim is to understandthe research situation (Dick, 2005).The objective is to discover the theory implicit in the data (Glasser,1998). This distinction between "emergence and forcing", as Glasersuggests, is fundamental to understanding the methodology. Dick(2005) also believes that grounded theory has its own sources ofrigor. Thus, it is responsive to the situation in which the research isdone. As such, there is a continuing search for evidence thatdisconfirms the emerging theory. In this research, this notion willnot be pursued, as the disconfirmation will happen naturally wherenegative answers to questions are discovered. It is driven by thedata in such a way that the final shape of the theory is likely toprovide a good fit to the situation. Glaser (1998) suggests twocriteria for judging the adequacy of the emerging theory; namelythat it fits the situation and that it works. Thus, the intention is thatit assists in the efficiency of business.Observation can deliver a great deal of information towards theoryformation. Observations can be made during interviews andquestionnaires – leading to development of theory. Although anydata collection method can be used, this research is gatheringinformation via questionnaires and observations made byparticipants in such questionnaires. Focus groups can also be usedin other qualitative research and are suited to grounded theory. Assuch, the possibility of focus groups may be explored in thisresearch. However, as theory emerges from data, the need for suchfocus groups (or not) will also emerge. Informal conversation, group 131
  • 132. feedback analysis, or any other individual or group activity, whichyields data, is considered the same (Baker, 1988). The possibility isthus open ended.Glaser (1998) recommends against recording or taking notes duringan interview of another data collection session. No such recording isanticipated for this research. Key-word notes may be taken duringthe interviews. However, it will be based on need and observationand not predetermined. Such notes will be converted to themesafterwards. Memoing will also take place as and when needed. Theflexible approach is justified in terms of the pre-determinedcategories and questions. The benefits of that will be the managingof the emerging theory. Coding will also be easier as it will enable tocompare like with like.In this research, the questionnaire probes a process to elicit a seriesof questions such as:  What is going on here?  What is the situation?  How is the situation being managed?  Therefore, what categories are suggested?In grounded theory a category is a theme that extracts sense ofwhat an informant has said. It is interpreted in the light of thesituation studied and the emerging theory. After a time one categorywill be found to emerge with high frequency of mention, and willappear to be connected to many of the other categories, which areemerging. This is considered the core category (Borgatti, 132
  • 133. 2011). Normally it is hazardous to choose a core category too earlyin the data collection. However, when it is clear that one category ismentioned with high frequency and is well connected to othercategories, it is safe to adopt this as the core category (Borgatti,2011). This research is anticipated to identify such categories in thequestionnaire, as the categories are identified via the researchquestions. When a core category has been identified, the researchercan cease coding of any sentences, which do not relate to it. Inmost instances coding rapidly becomes more efficient as the studyprogresses. At some point the researcher will code for the corecategory, other connected categories and properties of both. Anyidentified connections between categories are recorded in memos(Borgatti, 2011).When collecting and interpreting data about a particular category, apoint of diminishing returns will eventually be reached. Eventuallyinterviews or questions add nothing to what is already known abouta category. It is anticipated that this principle will apply in thisresearch as the questioning and investigation is of similar naturebetween the possible participating companies (Dick, 2005).In using grounded theory methodology it is assumed that the theoryis concealed in data to be discovered. Coding makes some of itscomponents visible. Memoing adds the relationships, which link thecategories to each other. The next task is to decide how to structurethe report to communicate the theory, thus called sorting. Thisprovides the basis for the anticipated theory (Milles, et al., 2006). 133
  • 134. In this study, the research situation is defined upfront and as suchindicated the literature that may have an impact on the research.Accordingly, the literature study addressed issues surrounding theresearch and the scenario in which the theory could emerge. It couldbe suggested that literature was treated as data upfront. However, itis observed that literature surveys in grounded theory basedresearch could in fact follow research activity, as opposed totraditional research where literature is surveyed first.Constant comparison remains a core process of grounded theory(Dick, 2005). A key issue is how you treat apparent disagreementbetween emerging theory and the literature. According to Glasser,and Strauss (1967) most research today is designed to verifyexisting theories and not to generate new ones. Researchers extractknowledge from existing "grand theories" rather than explore newareas not covered by existing theories. In this research lessemphasis is placed on extracting knowledge from existing theory andmore emphasis on extracting theory from data. Glasser, and Strauss(1967) suggests that the existing research culture emphasizes andreveres good scientific, quantitative verification studies anddownplays more qualitative studies whose objective is theorygeneration. Accordingly, most theory is apparently generatedthrough logical deduction from past studies and knowledge and notfrom the data itself."In discovering theory, one generates conceptual categories or theirproperties from evidence, then the evidence from which the categoryemerged is used to illustrate the concept" (Glasser, and Strauss1967:23). 134
  • 135. Grounded theory can appear in various forms. "Grounded theory canbe presented either as a well-codified set of propositions or in arunning theoretical discussion, using conceptual categories and theirproperties" (Glasser, and Strauss 1967:31). This research uses thequestion and discussion format, as it is often easier to interpret anddeduct theory.It is anticipated that the categories will begin to form patterns andinterrelations which will ultimately form the core of the emergingtheory. Building grounded theory requires an interactive process ofdata collection, note taking, coding, analysis and planning what tostudy next. The researcher needs to be theoretically sensitive ashe/she is collecting and coding data to sense where the data istaking the research process and what to do next.The saturation point is reached when the additional information nolonger lead to additional theory formation. Saturation can also occurin different categories, thus making it possible for the research tomove on to other categories. This practice allows for the systematicidentification of the existence of theory.Ontology is a systematic account of such existence (Sowa, 2005).Thus, the discovery of answers to the above research questions,may suggest a systematic discovery of the existence of an idea orconcept related to a corporate qualifications framework. Sowa(2005) describes the subject of ontology as the categories of thingsthat exist or may exist in some domain. The product of such a studyis called ontology. Ontology is thus the types of things that areassumed to exist in a domain of interest. As such, the ontology of 135
  • 136. the researcher is the environment of learning, the recognition ofsuch learning, the norms pertaining to such learning and thesystems of quantifying such learning. Grounded theory as thesystematic extraction of data to emerge new theory, thuscontributes to ontology continuously.Walonick (1992) states that a system is characterized by theinteractions of its components and the non-linearity of thoseinteractions. Accordingly, the researcher anticipates that thisresearch will culminate in a new ontology. The research is thereforeaimed at creating knowledge in a systematic way that can later bedocumented. Thus, the epistemology, or philosophical theory ofknowledge, which considers how we know what we know, isaddressed.According to Colorado State University (2010) the world’s mostimportant research is not found in libraries, but in the field.Information regarding the relevance of human learning andquantification of learning will be collected by developing aquestionnaire to identify the link between required in the workplaceand the strategic plan (Ontology). The purpose of the proposedquestionnaire is to gather data on how (epistemology) companiesactually conduct their skills planning in relation to their strategicobjectives.The objectives of the research is to demonstrate how a strategic plancan be unpacked into a set of required competencies that can bealigned to educational standards, to demonstrate how non-formaltraining can be assessed against formal benchmarks and how non- 136
  • 137. formal programs can become credit bearing, and to demonstratehow a Corporate Qualifications Framework can be developedwhereby to quantify and manage human capital for purposes ofperformance management.Such a framework should also enable companies to be robust,flexible and innovative, in qualifying their human capital. Currentlycorporates within South Africa are often utilising Training NeedsAnalysis (TNA) to quantify their human capital. Such ontology is,however, focused on creating training based on what the individualneeds, versus what the business needs.In this study, a team of 2 field assistants will be trained and briefedon the process of collecting data from the identified population. Thefield assistants will be recruited on the basis of the following criteria:  A graduate qualification in business  Evidence of skills in human capital management  Evidence of effective communication skills  The ability to work with people  A high level of analytical skills  The ability to conduct field research  Evidence of effective time management skillsThe proposed research will follow the grounded theory approach.Once all the data has been gathered (data collection and notetaking) from the different companies, the researcher will analyse thesets of data (coding) as related to each of the companies(Memoing). This analysis is to take place in the form of extracting 137
  • 138. information from the participating companies that nominated andsponsored individuals to attend and complete training in skillsdevelopment (Categorising). All of these individuals will submit aportfolio of evidence in which the application of a CQF could beanalysed. During the engagement process the researcher will needto ascertain the existence of a company strategy and businessrelated planning processes for each company (Ontology).Once the strategic plan is analysed the researcher will need toanalyse how each company “unpacked“such a plan into requiredhuman capital (Epistemology). The required human capital will thenbe used to develop job descriptions by allocating tasks to such jobdescriptions. Once a job description is compiled the researcher willneed to gather evidence from the companies regarding how theoccupants of such jobs, if any, were performing within these jobs(Constant comparison).It is suggested that the performance management systems utilisedby the companies have to meet the following criteria:  Measuring competence against agreed standard(s) –constant comparison  Utilizing a normative system to equate competence in relation to standard(s) – constant comparison  Presenting an analysis of competence demonstrating potential performance or skills gaps (Grounded theory and ontology emerges)  Suggesting ways of identifying and closing a skills gap (Sorting, saturating and reporting) 138
  • 139. Evidence is to be displayed of how required skills are aligned to astrategic plan (Epistemology). At the same time the relatededucation requirements, also need to be identified.A CQF could in view of the above, potentially function as a system tomanage the levels of human capital in an organisation and to alignthe business objectives of a strategic plan to specific jobdescriptions, should the emerging theory confirm the researchquestions. The job descriptions should be benchmarked againstknown and agreed standards, thus creating a standard against whichjob performance, competence and qualifications are managed(Robertson, 2011). This process unpacks the road map of groundedtheory in this research. Constant comparison, memoing, categorizingand sorting is anticipated in developing ontology about thequantification of human capital.3.2 DATA GATERING AND ANALYSIS3.2.1 DATA GATHERINGPandit (1996) explains how the grounded theory approach advocatesthe use of multiple data sources to stimulate the emergence oftheory. Pandit further quotes Glaser and Strauss (1967: 65): “ Intheoretical sampling, no one kind of data on a category nortechnique for data collection is necessarily appropriate. Differentkinds of data give the analyst different views or vantage points fromwhich to understand a category and to develop its properties”. The 139
  • 140. different views are referred to as slices of data. Accordingly, theauthors argue that, although a researcher may choose to use onlytechnique of data collection, theoretical sampling for saturation of acategory allows for a broader investigation, in which there are nolimits to the techniques of data collection, the way they are used, orthe types of data acquired.Pandit continues to stat that the use of multiple data sourcesenhances construct validity and reliability. The latter is furtherenhanced through the preparation of a case study database, which isa formal assembly of evidence distinct from the case study report(Pandit, 1996). In this research, each company could be viewed assuch a case study. Every company is indeed distinct from itspotential case study report. Pandit is further supported in this notionby Yin (1989). The author states that every case study projectshould strive to develop a formal, retrievable database, so that inprinciple, other investigators can review the evidence directly andnot be limited to the written reports. In this research the reports percompany will consist of the populated questionnaires. Such reportsare anticipated to also serve as detailed information per companyand could be used for other grounded research if so required.Pandit suggests the development of a rigorous data collectionprotocol by employing multiple data collection methods. Qualitativeand quantitative data collection can be used in systematicallyestablishing a case study database. It is anticipated that(questionnaires), documentary sources will be treated like sets offield notes. Analysis and category generation will be developed from 140
  • 141. questionnaires. This in turn will lead to the emergence of a theoretical framework. 3.2.2 DATA ORDERING PHASE “The arraying of events into a chronology permits the investigator to determine causal events over time, because the basic sequence of a cause and its effect cannot be temporally inverted. However, unlike the more general time-series approaches, the chronology is likely to cover many different types of variables and not be limited to a single independent or dependent variable” (Yin, 1989:119). It is anticipated that the data in this research will follow a chronology. Consider the questioning process mentioned above. This suggested chronology is anticipated to create a process of analysis to saturation, leading to sorting and reporting on the different categories that should emerge from the questionnaires.Element DescriptionPhenomenon The occurrence of learning in all walks of life. The fragmented, unrecognized nature of learning. Workplace learning. Accreditation and reciprocity.Causal The relationship of strategic planning to skills required. The relationshipRelationships of such skills to formal education. The relationship of skills to workplace performance. The relationship of workplace learning and performance to accreditation. The relationship that all elements have to each other in total, culminating into a possible framework.Context The legal framework in which learning, education, training and 141
  • 142. competency development operates. The needs of industry. The rights and needs of individuals. The role of quantifying all learning. The possibility of credit accumulation and accredited work based learning.Intervening What hampers the conditions? What can be done to connect categories?conditionsAction The action that the research is performing to extract theory from data.Strategies The use of the questionnaires to determine categories, coding and eventually theory.Consequences The anticipated framework, the emergent theory. The additional observations pertaining to learning. Table 3.1 The Framework of Relationships Borgatti (2011) suggests a system called Axial Coding. In this process, the author relates categories to each other via a process of inductive and deductive thinking. In this research, the axial coding is anticipated to serve accordingly. The categories considered via the Questioning process not only enables a chronology, but also enables identification of the relationship that categories have with each other. Thus, grounded theory considers causal relationships and fit things into a basic framework of relationships. In this research the frame consists of the following elements: Table 3.1: The Framework of Relationships 3.2.3 DATA ANALYSIS 142
  • 143. Data analysis starts with the research question that is to beanswered by analyzing the data generated in the study. The origin ofthe data is therefore important, as it addresses the opinions andpractice of the selected companies as respondents under review inthe study (Dick, 2005).In the course of organizing the data in this study, certain trends areanticipated to emerge that can be highlighted in order to address theresearch question (Borgatti, 2011). These include whether thecompanies have strategic plans and whether jobs in such companiesare aligned with the strategic plans. Skills gaps are further analysedin relation to the same jobs and strategic plans. Data analysis is theactivity in which the raw data so obtained is organized so thatuseful information can be deduced from it (Pandit, 1996). The rawdata in this study takes the form of a questionnaire, interviewresponses and workshop observations. In its raw form, theinformation can only be useful on a comparative basis. In the dataanalysis process, the raw data is ordered in a way that will be useful(Borgatti, 2011). Survey results are to be tallied, to evidence thenumber of responses (Wisegeek, 2010). In answering the researchquestion, more observation could be stimulated by the data analysisitself, possibly leading to additional deductions to what was asked inthe questionnaire. This will be followed by organizing data in a waythat supports the logical flow towards the answer. Spreadsheets,graphs and charts can be used to consider data from a number ofdifferent perspectives in order to categorize and define the differentvariables of the study. Data analysis is the process used to evaluatethe raw data and extract information from it. Data will be obtainedfrom a number of different organisations. This data will then be used 143
  • 144. to develop an evaluation that the researcher can use to makeinformed decisions. The data table will become a visual instrumentcomprised of named columns and rows that is used to arrangeinformation. The data table will be used to organize disparate data,as well as to permit data to be easily manipulated and analyzed. Causal Conditions Phenomenon Context Intervening Conditions Action / Interaction Strategies ConsequencesDiagram 3.4: The Paradigm ModelSource: Pandit (1996). http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR2-4/pandit.html#yin 144
  • 145. In this research data will be tabulated in a spreadsheet format,known as data tables. Data tables generally present numerical datainside of a grid format. However, they can also be used to presenttext, Internet hyperlinks, or even images. Data tables are beneficialas information retrieval devices. Since data tables are created withthe aid of computer technology, they often produce results that aremore accurate than those produced via manual calculation (Dick,2005).  What are the Data Analysis Methods?According to Gode, 2010) According to Gode the term data analysismethods commonly refers to qualitative data analysis methods.Gode further defines 15 types of data analysis methods:1. Typology: Its basically a classification system or methodology,taken from patterns, themes or other kinds of groups of data. Thistype of method implements the thought that, ideally, categoriesshould be mutually exclusive and exhaustive, if possible.2. Taxonomy: This method is complex classification containingmultiple levels of conceptions or abstractions. Higher levels includelower levels forming superordinate and subordinate categories.3. Constant Comparison/Grounded Theory: This method wasdeveloped in the 60s and has the following steps: • Look at the document to be analyzed, such as a field note. 145
  • 146. • Identify parameters to categorize events and behavior, which will be named and coded on document. • Code comparison will help find consistencies and deviations. This is done until categories saturate and no new codes related to it are formed. • Finally, certain categories become centrally focused categories more commonly known as core categories. These cores categories are made subjects of case study.4. Analytic Induction: Here, an event is studied and a hypotheticalstatement is developed of whatever happened. Other similar eventsare studied and check if they fit the hypothesis. If they dont, theresa need to revise the hypothesis. Eventually hypotheses is developedthat supports all the observed cases.5. Logical Analysis/Matrix Analysis: It is basically an outline ofgeneralized causation, logical reasoning process, etc. It mostlyincludes use of flow charts, diagrams, etc. to graphically representthese, as well as written descriptions.6. Quasi-statistics: More often than not, enumeration is used inthis method to provide manifest for categories formed or todetermine if observations are untrue.7. Event Analysis/Micro-analysis: In this method, importance ison finding an accurate beginnings and endings of events bydetermining specific boundaries or points that mark boundaries orevents. 146
  • 147. 8. Metaphorical Analysis: Here, its required to go on with variousmetaphors while checking how well they correspond with what isbeing observed. Participant may be asked for metaphors, which theyshould interpret.9. Domain Analysis: This type of analysis is mostly used todescribe social and cultural situations, and patterns within it. Startby emphasizing what is social situation to participants while they caninterrelate it with cultural meanings.10. Hermeneutical Analysis: The word hermeneutical literallymeans not going for objective meaning of text, but interpreting thetext for the people involved in the situation. This is done by neveroveremphasizing self in an analysis, instead reiterating the peoplesstory. Meaning of any content resides in author intent, context, andthe reader - finding themes and relating these three is involved inthis method.11. Discourse analysis: This method usually involves video tapingof events so that they can be played over and over again for deeperanalysis.12. Semiotics: Here, we determine how signs and symbols arerelated to their meanings while they are being constructed. Theanalysis needs to assume that the meaning is not inherent and itcomes from other things related to the symbol. 147
  • 148. 13. Content Analysis: This method is never used with video and itis only qualitative in development of categories. Standard rules ofcategorization in content analysis include: • Identifying a chunk of data to be analyzed at a time (whether it is a line, a sentence, a phrase, and a paragraph. • Categories must be inclusive and mutually exclusive. • Should have precisely defined properties. • All data fits some category i.e. exhaustive categorization.14. Phenomenology/Heuristic Analysis: There is emphasis onindividual explanation to people. This method emphasizes the effectsof research and the researchers personal experience. The term"phenomenology" is used to describe a researchers experience.15. Narrative Analysis: Also known as Discourse analysis, thismethod gives more importance to interaction. How the narratorchooses to tell frame wise that is how he/she will be perceived.Always compare ideas while avoiding revealing negatives about self.This analysis can involve study of literature or journals or folkloreIn this study various components of the above methods will beconsidered. The combination of data analysis methods will allow forflexibility and interpretation. Meaningful deductions will therefore bemade from data.The findings of the research will be documented in a way thatenables comparative results of companies to be compared with eachother. The following items will be included as part of the document: 148
  • 149. 1. Name of Company2. Full Name of participant3. Contact details4. Was a Strategic Plan completed?5. Company consent to implement a CQF6. Functional objectives7. Job descriptions8. Educational standards assigned to job descriptions9. Total number of jobs required10. Performance management plan11. Staff competency report12. Skills gaps13. Project plan for closure of skills gap3.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THE RESEARCH QUESTIONAIREThe questionnaire will be developed with the following researchobjectives in mind: a) Review of the reflective process, from analyzing the strategic plan, to developing specific job profiles. b) Aligning human capital planning with Skills Development Facilitator unit standards. c) Collecting relevant information required developing a corporate qualifications framework. d) Informing the research question and enabling the creation of a Corporate Qualifications framework. 149
  • 150. The research is considered to be participatory, as management ofcompanies would have the opportunity to make inputs into thequestionnaire. Such input would be in the form of opinions about theusability of the proposed system. Such comments would be analysedand discussed to demonstrate the use of the framework. From theresponses extracts and comments will be analysed, in groundedtheory fashion and utilized to interpret suggestions relevant tofindings of the implementation of a CQF as emergent theory.  PARTICPANTSCompany management – Owner, Human Resource Manager, GeneralManager or Skills Development Facilitator. The role of theseindividuals consists of, amongst others, planning and managing skillsdevelopment initiatives and as such, the skills gap (Sources of data).Research assistant– Trained individual to assist in gathering data.The role of research assistant is to collect, interpret and present datain order for the researcher to draw conclusions.The selection of companies participating in this study will be basedon specific factors including the following: a) Companies will need to be part of the Service Sector and a levy-paying member of the Service Seta. b) Companies will have to have had participated in previous Service Seta programs, especially Quality Management Systems training (QMS) and Skills Development training (SDF) during the last 36 months. This requirement is included to ensure that participating companies do not withdraw during the process due to a lack of motivation, or capacity. 150
  • 151. Furthermore, the development of an approved QMS implies that an organisation already has a strategic plan in place supported by relevant human resource. The CQF is aimed at improvement and not invention. c) Companies will have to express at least an informal desire to participate in “Continuous Professional Development“ and must have identified the development and implementation of a CQF as desirable for their organizations. SDF training should also have been completed. From a total of 400 potential qualifying companies, 169 qualifying companies were identified.3.4 THE DEVELOPMENT OF KNOWLEDGE ANDUNDERSTANDINGBellinger (2004) states that wisdom arises when one understandsthe foundational principles responsible for the patterns representinginformation. He continues by stating that wisdom, even more sothan knowledge, tends to create its own context. Knowledgedevelopment will be stimulated by the development of a system thataddresses the management of corporate and personal skills in anormative way. It could also enable thinking and understanding ofhow work based accreditation can operate in South Africa, whilstthe international objectives of credit accumulation and transferare scrutinized in more detail.3.5 CONCLUSION 151
  • 152. Considering the research question, action research and inparticularly grounded theory is a suitable research methodology forthis study. The research intends to investigate and analyse data witha view to deduct theory from such data. Grounded theory operateson the basis of interrogating data in a process that stimulates theextraction of data from it. In this study, the purpose is to developtheory that enables the quantification of human capital in industry.With the use of a grounded theory approach, a researchphenomenon is identified, being human capital.During the research process concepts, categories and themes, asemerging from the literature review and focus group discussions, willbe identified by the researcher in an attempt to formalize moredetailed questions to be incorporated into the proposedquestionnaire. This will allow for further triangulation of datagathered during the study. The data gathered from the questionnairewill then also be coded, categorized and analyzed. 152
  • 153. CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH REPORT4.1 BACKGROUNDThe research findings are presented and discussed in this Chapteragainst the background of information gathered from theresearcher’s professional work experience, the literature review andindustry as related to workplace learning. This chapter informs thefoundation for developing a system whereby a CQF can beimplemented by, amongst other, utilizing the strategic plan of acompany to co-determine the required human capital for anorganisation and align such required human capital to educationalstandards. To notion of using non-formal training as credit bearing informal training is discussed as part of benchmark system to be usedfor GAP analysis. An integrated, “Corporate QualificationsFramework” is presented whereby industry can quantify and managehuman capital for purposes of performance management as well ascredit accumulation in formal programs.In the process, the limitations within human capital managementstructures, as well as the limitations in appreciating the linkagesbetween industry experience, workplace learning and past learningexperiences, result in people not being recognised appropriately, inperforming their job roles. 153
  • 154. The researcher applied grounded theory principles outlined in thepreceding chapter. The purpose of this Chapter is to present thediscoveries of the researcher’s personal experience, the literaturereview and the research questionnaire.According to SAQA (2011) RPL suggests the measurement of actualhuman capital using past performance, informal and non-formallearning. In quantifying the required human capital for anorganisation and measuring the actual human capital against it,training needs of employers and employees (skills GAPS) can beidentified. Sources and thinking around credit accumulation, credittransfer and articulation could be utilised in defining the “required”human capital as related to the dimensions of a CorporateQualifications Framework (CQF). The potential gap between formal,informal and non-formal training is also highlighted within a“Corporate Qualifications Framework”.The implications of an Organising Framework on Occupations (OFO)on human capital management will also be considered as part of thisresearch report.4.2 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH REPORTAccording to Colorado State University (2010) the research report onfindings of the field research should function as a narrative. Thepositioning of the research and the method of presentation will havean influence on the interpretation by the readers. Accordingly,Colorado State University proposes that qualitative researchersinclude the following questions when writing their findings: 154
  • 155.  How much information needs to be included in the text about theories that may have guided the research, disciplinary biases and personal hunches How much background information is needed to interpret findings How to present the findings of the report accurately and fairly in a reasonable lengthRudner and Schafer (1999) and Longman (2010) discuss sectionsthat are required within a research report. The research findings ofthis study will therefore be arranged along the following aspects: A concise title that describes the findings clearly. The intention is to avoid jargon and to support findings with an aim to clarify the objectives Description of method. This report is compiled by using actual data from companies that attended training on the implementation of a CQF. Their ability to implement a CQF is analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively Results are discussed in the form of a report that informs the research objectives.Apart from the literature review and the acknowledgment of theresearcher’s experience in human capital management, theparticipating companies played an important role in informingcurrent practices in human capital management. The companiesconsisted of organisations that recruited, briefed and dispatchedindividual representatives to be trained as Skills DevelopmentFacilitators (SDFs) on the implementation of a CQF. The candidatescompleted portfolios of evidence in which they had to demonstrate 155
  • 156. the analysis of a strategic plan, the allocation of business activitiesto tasks and job descriptions, as well as alignment to educationalstandards. In addition, candidates had to participate in acompetency measurement of staff against specific standards, todemonstrate a skills gap, measured in terms of educationalstandards.The researcher’s professional experience is documented in AnnexureB. Concepts and categories identified as part of the research processand linked to personal experience, are also documented in AnnexureB.The investigation within the participating companies started with ananalysis of the job roles needed within their organisation and howthese were aligned to the existing organisational strategy andbusiness objectives. This was followed by an investigation intocurrent competencies of staff as related to specific jobs and howsuch competence aligned to the proposed job roles for theircompany. The following broad aspects had to be considered by theparticipants:1. How the required job roles are linked to the business objectives2. What would management need to know about skills development3. What would the SDF have to know about required human capital4. How would actual human capital be recorded and measured5. What role does career planning and development play within the organisation. 156
  • 157. 4.3 THE RESEARCH STAGESStage 1 involved documenting and analyzing a record of theresearcher’s personal experience and exploring concepts andcategories from the documented experiences (for more details seeAnnexure B).Stage 2 involved the analysis of the literature survey. Concepts andcategories developed from the literature survey can be found inAnnexure C.Stage 3 involved the finalization and dissemination of the researchquestionnaire that was completed by 169 SDFs. The SDFsrepresented different industries from the service industry includingindustry expert practitioners and training providers (for more detailssee Annexure E).As a result of the data gathered in stages 1 and 2, a researchquestionnaire was designed in an attempt to gather moreinformation from participating stakeholders. The questionnaire wasthen disseminated to the 169 SDFs, for completion as a portfolio, totest the implementability of a system to manage human capital. Theresearch questionnaire’s intent was to gain insight into theperceptions and experiences of organisations with regard to humancapital management and to assess the validity of developingcategories as identified during stage 1 and 2.Stage 4 involved the interpretation and analysis of data gatheredfrom the researcher’s personal experience (Stage 1), the literature 157
  • 158. survey (Stage 2) and data gathered from the 169 participatingcompanies (Stage 3). During this stage the researcher becameinvolved in an iterative process of reflection and triangulation,identifying relevant concepts, categories and emerging themes.The research study sought to explore lucidity in provisos ofepistemology, ontology and methodology in current models andframeworks to measure both required and actual human capitalwithin an organisation.Chapter 4 aims to present the findings of the research and to discussthe findings in relation to the development of an integratedframework for human capital management. The themes thatemerged during the research process will be discussed in Chapter 5.4.4 RESEARCH FINDINGSFor purpose of the research report the personal experience of theresearcher, the findings from the literature review and the resultsfrom the research questionnaire are reported separately. This isdone in respect to the complexity of information resulting from theresearch process. The integration of data gathered from these threestages will be consolidated when reporting on the emerging themesin Chapter 5. 158
  • 159. 4.5 THE RESEARCHER’S PERSONAL EXPERIENCE4.5.1 CONCEPTS IDENTIFIED FROM THE RESEARCHER’SPERSONAL EXPERIENCEThe personal experience of the researcher confirmed specificconcepts related to the objectives of the study (Chapter 1): To demonstrate how a strategic plan can be unpacked into a set of required competencies that can be aligned to educational standards. To demonstrate how non-formal training can be assessed against formal benchmarks and how non-formal programs can become credit bearing. To demonstrate how a benchmark system can inform a GAP analysis of human capital. To demonstrate how a Corporate Qualifications Framework can be developed whereby industry can quantify and manage human capital for purposes of performance management.A total of 57 concepts were identified by the researcher in reflectingupon his experience in the field of human capital management.These concepts are captured in Table 4.1.Nr. ConceptsDJ* 1 Limited organisations structuresDJ 2 No performance management systemsDJ 3 No meaningful job descriptionsDJ 4 No link between job role and organisation roles. 159
  • 160. TWR**1 Limited job descriptionsTWR 2 Performance management loosely defined.TWR 3 Qualifications offered had limited relationship with industry.TWR 4 Low consultation with industry about content of qualifications.TWR 5 No management view on integrationTLC ****1 Client base limited ability to manage human capitalTLC 2 Training per say is not enough, people also want have a fit for what they do.TLC 3 My learning not integratedTLC 4 Company learning too classroom basedTLC 5 Jobs did not address purpose.TLC 6 Not happy in my jobGR**** 1 My colleagues lack purpose in what they do.GR 2 Not happy in my work.GR 3 People work only because of money objectives.I*****1 Training of Skills Development Facilitators (SDF).I2 SDF ‘s had very limited understanding of human capital management.I3 No evidence of any system to link roles of individuals to organisational role.I4 No link to higher purpose.I5 Need for systems notedI6 Training needs notedI7 Limited productivityI8 Limited success in trainingI9 Limited capacityRI****** 1 Training learners on various learnerships. 160
  • 161. RI 2 Learners not happy.RI 3 Learners not motivated.RI 4 Learners no purposeRI 5 No financial assistance for learners to establishRI 6 No integration with learningRI 7 No real purpose to be entrepreneurialRI 8 Focus is on getting a stipendRI 9 Still prefer degreeRI 10 (ECDC). No job descriptions linked to organisational roles.RI 11 No purposeRI 12 Jobs did not address any human aspects.RI 13 Learning via especially unit standards, became very technicalRI 14 Learning very task orientated as opposed to human oriented.RI 15 Learning not integrated for learning.RI 16 Learner misses big picture.OFO*******1 Limited impact for industryOFO 2 : No real system for companiesOFO 3 Needs further detailOFO 4 Only macro planOFO 5 Very technical in orientationOFO 6 Quiet on human frontG********1 Limited career guidanceG2 Matric standard on the declineG3 Learners lack purposeG4 Low reading speed 161
  • 162. G5 Low comprehensionG6 Inability to integrateG7 Learner lack disciplineG8 Low attention span*DJ – Department of Justice**TWR – Technikon Witwatersrand***TLC – The Learning Corporation****GR – Gold Rose Investments*****I- Infomage******RI- Rims*******OFO – Organising Framework for Occupations********G – GeneralTable 4.1: Personal Experience ConceptsA detailed description of responses related to the identified conceptsare captured in Annexure B.4.5.2 CATEGORIES IDENTIFIED FROM CONCEPTS RELATED TOTHE RESEARCHER’S PERSONAL EXPERIENCEThe researcher has clustered the 57 concepts into 6 categories asindicated in Table 4.2.Nr. CategoryCategory 1: Ill-defined human capital context.Category 2: Lack of detail regarding job roles and organisational roles. 162
  • 163. Category 3: No integrated framework of workplace learning and formal learning.Category 4: Limited connection with higher purpose.Category 5: Organising Framework for Occupations (OFO) needs further detail.Category 6: Education needs new approach.Table 4.2 Categories Developed from Personal ExperienceThe researcher classified his personal experience into differentphases, as related to time, employment and consulting. In viewthereof, the 57 concepts were clustered along these parameters, intothe above 6 categories (For more details see Annexure B).Category 1, 2 and 3 informs research objective 1 and underlines theproblems of strategic planning and its limited application in skillsplanning. The lack of clear job descriptions and a lack of anintegrated human capital framework has also been indicated aslimiting factors in aligning strategic planning with human capitalmanagement within organisations.Category 4 indicates the need to develop an increased contextualawareness of higher purpose. This informs one of the researchobjectives related to “how” Corporate Qualifications Frameworks” areto be developed. The concept implies that caution should beexercised not to develop frameworks without considering theimportance of contextual awareness. 163
  • 164. Category 5 suggests the need for refinement of an OrganisingFramework for Occupations (OFO), thus relating to the objectivepertaining to performance management.Lastly, Category 6 indicates the need for education reform. Thiscategory informs all 4 of the research objectives.4.5.3 CONCLUSIONThe aim of the research is to develop and establish a framework forthe assessment of non-formal training and the quantification ofhuman capital. In view of the above it seems that the assessment ofnon-formal training is ad-hoc, is not aligned across sectors andindustries, is not appropriately defined, does not appropriately takeinto account contextual factors and does not allow for an inclusiveand transparent engagement of relevant stakeholders. The endresult does therefore not allow for the quantification of humancapital and therefore limits the management thereof.4.6 THE LITERATURE SURVEYThe literature review provided important insight regarding the aimand objectives of the study (Chapter 1). Of specific interest isaspects related to the following objective: To demonstrate how non-formal training can be assessed against formal benchmarks and how non-formal programs can become credit bearing. 164
  • 165. In the following sections the researcher will provide details regardingthe concepts and categories identified during the literature review.4.6.1 CONCEPTS THAT DEVELOPED FROM THE LITERATURESURVEYThe literature survey confirmed 128 concepts as captured in Table4.3 (for more detail regarding information gathered during theliterature review see Annexure C).Nr. ConceptsL1 Unlimited Human needsL2 Need for self actualizationL3 Higher purposeL4 Absence of clarityL5 Soul GuidanceL6 Meta Physical approachL7 Human motivatorsL8 Role of money versus other motivatorsL9 EvolutionL10 Norms, measuresL11 Acknowledgement of learningL12 Social statusL13 Education seen as element in evolutionL14 Evolving fractalL15 OntologyL16 Education plays role in need satisfactionL17 Accreditation implies quality 165
  • 166. L18 Accreditation implies benchmarksL19 Reciprocity implies international recognitionL20 MobilityL21 Concerns of globalizationL22 Thought evolutionL23 Metastic thinkingL24 Protocols, frameworksL25 Opportunity to massif education and learningL26 Designations, CPDL27 Thought evolutionL28 Future view, visionL29 Basis for businessL30 Plan according to desired outcomeL31 Act in accordance with planL32 Measure implementation of planL33 Identify GAPsL34 Act on GAPsL35 Take corrective actionL36 IntegrationL37 Personal planningL38 Not equivalentL39 Limited understandingL40 Competency requires know and doL41 Education requires knowingL42 Workplace educationL43 Integration neededL44 Very limited applicationL45 No alignment system 166
  • 167. L46 World trendL47 Integration needL48 ProductivityL49 MotivationL50 No formal systemL51 Resistance from formal educationL52 Various systems for measuring performanceL53 Limited system to equate performance to formal learningL54 Need system to benchmarkL55 Skills equals incomeL56 Income leads to development and motivationL57 Motivation inspires performanceL58 Certification confirms skills and performanceL59 ReciprocityL60 MobilityL61 Strategic FrameworkL62 Role of workplace in learningL63 Workplace accredited learningL64 Workplace is place of learningL65 RecognitionL66 MotivationL67 EvolutionL68 PurposeL69 Credit bearing programsL70 Career advancementL71 QualificationsL72 Offered at the workplaceL73 Formal qualifications 167
  • 168. L74 Industry needL75 Corporate level needL76 Required human capitalL77 Accumulate creditsL78 Various frameworksL79 IntegrationL80 Worldwide recognitionL81 ReciprocityL82 CompetitivenessL83 RPLL84 OFOL85 Freedom CharterL86 Awareness about education roleL87 Soul PurposeL88 PovertyL89 ProductivityL90 QualityL91 Curriculum align with human needsL92 Government roleL93 Private providersL94 Online learning roleL95 Heuretic ThinkingL96 Link skills need to strategic planningL97 ProfitabilityL98 ProductivityL99 Workplace action plansL100 Economic dissatisfactionL101 Education components 168
  • 169. L102 Credit accumulationL103 Improve productivityL104 SelectionL105 SkillsL106 Assessment / NormsL107 MeasurementL109 Standards of skillsL110 PerformanceL111 Education levelL112 DesignationL113 IntegrationL114 Link education and in-formal learningL115 ObjectivesL116 RecognitionL117 RewardsL118 Empirical LinkL119 CompetencyL120 Evolution of knowledgeL121 Business planningL122 Required human capitalL123 Actual human capitalL124 Skills GAPL125 Business objectivesL126 Market needsL127 New systemsL128 Need for systemsTable 4.3 Literature Survey Concepts 169
  • 170. Nr. CategoryCategory 1 Trend to use planning a basis for action.Category 2 Lack of detail regarding job roles and organisational roles.Category 3 No integrated framework of workplace learning and formal A detailed description of responses related to the identified concepts are captured Annexure C. 170
  • 171. learning.Category 4 Limited contextual awareness and understanding of purpose.Category 5 Certification has a psychological effect.Category 6 Evolving construct needed for an alternative education system. Table 4.4 Categories developed from Literature Survey The researcher clustered the literature review data into specific domains in an attempt to identify emerging categories. The domains included the following:  The importance of contextual awareness  The role of education  The relevance of Accreditation  The role of Reciprocity  The importance of strategic thinking  The role of competence  The role of benchmarking  The importance of performance management  The relevance of certification  The role of vocational accreditation  The impact of credit accumulation  The appreciation of political objectives In view of the above 128 concepts, 6 categories were identified (for more details see Annexure C). 171
  • 172. Category 1 informs research objective 1 and underlines the role ofexecutive management to engage strategically in defining requiredcompetence and aligning educational standards with businessobjectives. In line with the above, category 2, referring to the lack ofclearly defined job roles, underlines the relevance of a CorporateQualifications Framework in quantifying and managing human capitalfor purposes of performance management. Similarly, category 3,referring to limitations on integrated frameworks for workplacelearning, confirms the relevance of a Corporate QualificationsFramework.Categories 4 and 5 seem not to relate directly to any of thepredefined objectives of the research. However, taking into accountthe aim of the study, as referring amongst other, to thequantification of human capital, one needs to consider the potentialimpact of contextual awareness, purpose and psychological effect onemployees if such quantification of human capital does notmaterialize.Category 6 refers to the relevance of alternative education systems,which forms one of the cornerstones of the aim of the study indeveloping and establishing a framework for the assessment of non-formal training.4.6.3 CONCLUSIONThe aim of the research is to develop and establish a framework forthe assessment of non-formal training and the quantification ofhuman capital. 172
  • 173. In view of the above it seems that there may be systemic limitationswithin the human capital development context. Upon furtherinvestigation one needs to unpack such interpretation by questioningassumptions related to strategic planning, conceptual understandingof education and training, and how these aspects may relate tohuman capital management. The appreciation of social andpsychological dynamics will also need to be clarified in more detailwhen discussing the emerging themes in Chapter 5.4.7 THE RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIREThe research questionnaire evolved as a result from concepts andcategories identified as part of stages 1 and 2 of the research. Thequestionnaire consisted of 12 questions and was completed by 169respondents from the services sector within South Africa.4.7.1 CONCEPTS THAT DEVELOPED FROM THE RESEARCHQUESTIONAIREThe Evaluation of the 169 reports confirmed 10 concepts as reflectedin Table 4.5 (for more details see Annexure D). 173
  • 174. Nr. ConceptsRQ 1 Lack of objectives set per business functionRQ 2 Lack of Job descriptions that are developed in relation to strategic plan and business functionRQ 3 Lack of GAP analysis that include skills that can be measuredRQ 4 Lack of skills GAP’s that can be managed in normative waysRQ 5 Lack Human Capital that could be managed per personRQ 6 Lack of reporting mechanisms for individual progressRQ 7 Lack of reporting mechanisms for company progressRQ 8 Lack of integrated systems to measure progress of employees and employersRQ 9 Lack of recognition of the need for integration of the metaphysical need with business needsRQ 10 Lack system that facilitates mobility, workplace learning, articulation, accreditation and reciprocity Table 4.5 Research Questionnaire Concepts 4.7.2 CATEGORIES IDENTIFIED FROM THE CONCEPTS RELATED TO THE QUESTIONNAIRE A logical clustering of the concepts confirmed 7 categories after the evaluation of the 169 reports as indicated in Table 4.6 (for further detail see Annexure A and F). Nr. Category 174
  • 175. Category 1: Integrated strategic planningCategory 2: Integrated Human Capital management systemCategory 3: ProductivityCategory 4 Corporate Qualifications FrameworkCategory 5 Integrated systems reporting per personCategory 6 Performance managementCategory 7 Higher level of contextual awarenessTable 4.6 Categories developed from the research questionnaireThe research questionnaire (Annexure A) was constructed to elicitcomprehensive responses from participants in relation to themanagement of human capital. The questions were semi-structuredand therefore allowed for interpretation and information sharing.Participants clearly demonstrated very specific group think onseminal topics such as “the need for an integrated system of humancapital management, benchmarking and credit accumulation” and“the need for a framework to address the issues of purpose,awareness and conceptual understanding at the workplace.”Categories 1 and 2 inform the objectives of strategic planning indeveloping required human capital and the development of aCorporate Qualifications Framework, as stated in objectives 1 and 4.Categories 3, 4 and 6 inform the objective of developing a CorporateQualifications framework to quantify and management human capitalfor purposes of performance management. 175
  • 176. Category 5 relates to objectives 3 and 4, focusing on the importanceof benchmarking performance against clearly defined job roles.Lastly, category 7 does not directly relate to a specific researchobjective. However, it does raise the question of “how” a CorporateQualifications Framework could impact on employees’ performanceand either motivate or demotivate performance.Diagram 4.1 aims to demonstrate the process of extracting conceptsfrom personal experience, the literature survey and the researchquestionnaire, clustering such into categories and allowing for theoryto emerge from such categories. Concepts developed from Personal Experience, Literature Survey and Research Questionnaires Categories developed from Personal Experience, Literature Survey and Research Questionnaires Concepts Theory emerges from Personal Experience, Literature Survey and Research Questionnaires CategoriesDiagram 4.1 From Concepts to Themes 176
  • 177. 4.7.3 CONCLUSIONTaking into account the aim of the research, the concepts andcategories, as identified from the research questionnaire, confirm thelack of integration between strategic intent and business operationsas related to human capital management. This is reflected by thefollowing comments made by participants: “ We need more training in strategic management” “Top management does strategic management but does not engage lower management in the process” “Top management does not monitor implementation and does not mentor lower management in applying strategic principles.”It also seems that a link could be drawn between performancemanagement, productivity and reporting on human capitalmanagement. Taken into account that it has also been mentionedthat job roles are not well defined by organisations (Goosen, 2009),one could argue that the proposed link may become problematic inmodern day organisations.Although respondents mentioned the need for further technicaltraining in an attempt to advance performance management, theyfailed to identify the need to develop a learning strategy,incorporating the advancement of contextual awareness. Such 177
  • 178. contextual awareness could play an important role in the happinessand subsequent motivation and productivity of employees.The possible link between a CQF, job performance and formallearning credits, could also assist in facilitating contextual awarenessin as much as employees maybe more inclined to learn proactively iflinkages are made to what is important and meaningful for theindividual. At the same time, the employee may also be moreinclined to higher performance if such performance could lead tocredits on formal learning programs.4.8 CONCLUSIONThe non-formal and ad-hoc nature of human capital managementwithin modern day organisations seems to reflect a systemicdilemma for human capital management specialists. These mayinclude, amongst others, educational specialists, human resourcepractitioners and functional management specialists.Underpinning this seemingly systemic dilemma is the need for anintegrated human capital management system to facilitate theeffective utilisation of limited human resources within an emergingsocio economic environment. As indicated by the feedback from the169 respondents, performance and subsequently productivity islargely hampered because of limitations within the existing humancapital management system.In addition to the ad-hoc nature of human capital management, ill-defined job roles and limited contextual understanding indicates afurther dilemma for the economy at large. Business organisations 178
  • 179. that struggle with the identification of clear job roles subsequentlyalso struggle to align job roles with strategic intent and thereforefails at providing contextual understanding of such job roles toemployees. At the same time, employees experience confusion in jobroles, leading in turn to loss of contextual understanding as well aspotential loss in productivity.As human capital management seems to be inappropriately defined,the development of systems that should utilize workplace learning asan opportunity to award formal credits in education, are hampered.Therefore resulting in a situation were the workplace cannot functionas a place of learning, placing additional strain on the existing formaleducation sector in providing learning and education solutions.However, the formal education system does not have the capacity toengage workplace learning for purposes of awarding credits in formallearning programs. The resultant social and psychological effects arethat learners in the workplace remain under-recognised for boththeir performance and learning efforts.Taking into account the 3 stages during which the research wasconducted, the involvement of 169 respondents (167 companies),the identification of 197 concepts and the emergence of 19categories, the researcher wishes to conclude by presenting thefollowing emerging themes (a more detailed description regardingeach of these will be discussed in Chapter 5): the role of strategic management in the development of an integrated human capital management system. 179
  • 180.  the role of skills development as productivity driver. the role of non-formal learning in a formal learning environment. the role of awareness and contextual understanding.The evaluation of the researcher’s personal experience and theliterature study suggests the development of a system that includesa long term approach to human capital development andmanagement and in particular, the cultivation of a higher level ofconsciousness. The evaluation of 169 responses confirmed the needfor an integrated framework that considers the need to address theabove. 180
  • 181. CHAPTER 5 - ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION5.1 INTRODUCTIONChapter 5 proposes an alternative framework for human capitalmanagement and contextual awareness.Due to the multitude of concepts and categories articulated in theresearch report, the researcher is of the opinion that a furthernarrowing of categories are required to support the research processand validate the research findings.The proposed framework contemplates both “required“ and “actual”human capital as it relates to the strategic business requirements ofa company.5.2 THEMES THAT EMERGED FROM THE STUDYThe iterative nature of the research allowed the researcher toidentify the following emerging themes from the research:5.2.1 THEME 1: THE ROLE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT INTHE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED HUMAN CAPITALMANAGEMENT SYSTEMIn the experience of the researcher, as master practitioner onHuman Resource Management, industry has a very limitedunderstanding of the link between strategy and job descriptions. 181
  • 182. The ability of organisations to integrate job descriptions withperformance standards and to align such with education standards isalso limited.From the identified concepts and categories, the researcher’spersonal experience indicates that the integration of strategic driverswithin the human capital management appears to be limited.Although strategic management takes place at top managementlevel, the same cannot be said for human capital management atlower levels. The research indicates that the ability to link strategyto skills requirements and purpose of work is limited in bothcognition and application within South African companies. Strategicplanning is seldom normative, thus making measurement achallenge. In addition strategic planning is also often complex andsomewhat esoteric and tends to follow the latest “buzzwords” andacademic rhetoric, whilst struggling to find application at anoperational level.The problem for effective human capital management seems torelate amongst other, to a lack of implementation and lack of well-defined action plans, that is also not being monitored effectively.Strategic planning should engage all stakeholders and shouldincorporate a methodology to monitor the implementation ofstrategic intent. The strategic planning in human capitalmanagement ought to identify required human capital and devisesystems to ensure the provision and maintenance of such resources.However, limited guidance for actual industry application isavailable. 182
  • 183. Care has to be taken not to develop a system that operates in amechanistic tendency only. The role of human evolution andcontextual awareness needs to be connected to an integratedframework and managed as part of the implementation strategy of aCQF.Findings from the researcher’s personal experience, literature surveyand research questionnaire, indicate that an organisational strategicplan could be used to determine required human capital within anorganisation. Evidence of this analysis is found in the portfolios ofevidence submitted by the representing organisational candidates(see Annexure A and E).The human capital requirements within each of the participatingcompanies were analysed and unpacked into tasks and activities thatwere later clustered into job descriptions. These activities, written asKey Performance Indicators, were then aligned to specificeducational standards. The “lack of job descriptions developed fromstrategic planning, effective GAP analysis and human capitalmanagement per person” emerged as key components underpinningtheme 1.In an attempt to contribute towards formalizing a framework for theassessment of non-formal training, participating companies wererequired to review their existing job descriptions. Once these werereviewed, these job descriptions functioned as the benchmarkagainst which individual employees could be assessed. Companieshad to provide evidence that a performance measurement of staff 183
  • 184. have been conducted against a specific set of standards. In doing socompanies could identify their potential skills GAP as measured interms of educational standards. In addition participants had toprepare a project plan, to demonstrate their competence inmanaging the closure of such skills GAPs. During this process thelack of implementation of strategic planning became eminent.Based on the results from the 169 respondents (see Annexure A andE), the vision and mission statements of each of these businesseswere utilised to define a set of business objectives specific to eachparticipating company. These were then aligned to specific jobdescriptions required to enhance the performance of each companyand ultimately related to existing education and training unitstandards. This activity highlighted the “lack of reportingmechanisms for the company and employees”.Companies rated the newly defined job roles in terms of bothrequired activity and actual activity in an attempt to define apotential competence gap. In the event of a competence gap thenewly defined job roles served as a benchmark for performancedevelopment, indicating the need for an integrated human capitalmanagement system. However, this process also illuminated theabsence of “contextual awareness” in human capital.5.2.2 THEME 2: THE ROLE OF SKILLS AS A PRODUCTIVY DRIVERThe researcher’s personal experience indicated concepts andcategories that suggest, “ Job roles are not well defined”. Given the 184
  • 185. “limited connection with higher purpose”, a motivation level ofemployees seems to be low.The result of low skills levels in South Africa, lead to additional timeneeded to perform tasks that other individuals in foreign countriesdo in less time. The level of actual skills in industries across theeconomic spectrum is in constant need of improvement (Beere,2007). The result is a reduced output or “productivity”.Furthermore the introduction of the OFO in South Africa suggeststhat job profiles would be developed from which job descriptions andperformance management systems will emanate. However, the OFOwill need considerable expansion and much “more detail” to fulfillthis function within the South African context. Job roles would needclear and measurable definition in order to enable employees to trulyunderstand the importance of the task at hand. Employees wouldalso need to have a reason for occupying such a job. The job wouldneed to provide the individual with a “purpose” in order to ensureoptimal and productive employees.Similarly the literature survey indicated concepts and categories thathighlight the limited ability of the workplace to provide a sense ofhigher purpose to the individual. In addition the limitations of arelationship between productivity and education in history, seemsevident from the survey. However, the survey does indicate thatindustry has “a trend to use planning as a basis for action”.However, implementation and monitoring remain as limiting factors.The result culminates in limited guidance, “limited performancemanagement” and low productivity. The need for an “integrated 185
  • 186. system” to manage human capital suggests a system that clarifiesjob roles and monitors performance against such job roles on a basisthat addresses human purpose and productivity.From the research questionnaire the issues of “limited productivity,low levels of awareness, lack of integration and performancemanagement” are highlighted.The research aim “to develop and establish a framework for theassessment of non-formal training and the quantification of humancapital” is partially addressed in this theme.5.2.3 THEME 3: THE ROLE OF NON-FORMAL LEARNING IN AFORMAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENTIn the experience of the researcher very limited application of non-formal learning, as credits for formal learning, actually exists withinSouth Africa. Where such models are in fact developed, theapplication is limited to in-house needs and don’t articulate to fullqualifications (Bear, 1991).Current human capital management processes within South Africaseem to lack both “definition and integration”, thus leading tohampering the notion of a system that could recognise non-formallearning in a formal context. The development of a human capitalmanagement system that functions optimally should include “non-formal and informal learning as credits in a formal learning context”.In addition a “new approach for the education system” should ensurethat such learning is accredited and also articulates to further, 186
  • 187. formal qualifications. Learning should also have a large degree ofmobility and reciprocity on at least a national level.The “new education approach” should also incorporate a solution tothe “limited connection with higher purpose”. Education programswould need to find ways to adapt curriculums to stimulate“contextual awareness” amongst learners and employees.The literature survey supports the introduction of an “evolvingconstruct of a new education system”. By implication the verythought construct of the education system needs redesign toincorporate the requirements of amongst others, “credit bearingworkplace learning.” The essence of such a system would require aflexible system to document learning. “Planning would need to bethe basis for action”.Based on the results from the 169 participants in the researchproject, participants indicated that they are willing to align jobdescriptions to business objectives and to educational standards.Actual competencies were identified and action steps designed forthe GAP closure are indeed followed.A “Corporate Qualifications Framework” can be developed wherebyindustry can quantify and manage human capital as above, forpurpose of performance management, staff learning and objectivesattainment. The objective behind the development of the“Corporative Qualification Framework” is to create a simplisticsystem whereby the providers of learning; employers and employees 187
  • 188. can quantify what they know and what they do. Thus, to measurecompetency for work as well as qualification purposes.The research questionnaire indicated that required human capital forall 169 participants in the list could be determined by using thestrategic plan of the organisations. By comparing the actual humancapital to the required human capital using an educational standardas a measurement tool, a skills GAP is identified. Businessobjectives, job descriptions, performance appraisals and GAPanalysis were developed by participants on their respectiveorganisations to create a “CQF”. Thus, an integrated human capitaland performance management system becomes possible.All the respondents in the research had to develop a set of requiredtasks from their organisation’s proposed business plan. Companiessuch as White Zulu, SA Post Office and Direct Axis developed a set ofrequired competencies from the tasks as related to the businessplan. Individual employees were then measured against thesecompetencies. However, the feedback indicated that they did nothave adequate skills to execute the jobs required to effectivelyimplement the proposed business plans within their organisations.After discovering the skills GAP from each company, training wasrecommended based on accredited education standards within theformal education and training landscape within South Africa. Eachcompany had a management review process that included a report,capturing information relating to the following: Participating employees Modules completed (including training content) 188
  • 189.  Service provider Employee results.Effectively, the introduction of a system to give formal credit to non-formal learning, should create a more positive workplace scenario,as well as reduced stress on the formal sector in terms of access andcapacity.5.2.4 THEME 4: THE ROLE OF AWARNESS AND CONTEXTUALUNDERSTANDINGThe research suggests that modern day training should aim atproviding skills to individuals on a “contextual basis”. Learners oftenobtain the ability to perform tasks very well, without trulyunderstanding the importance or the real need for such tasks. Thisresults in the person performing a task without understanding thecontextual relevance of such activity and how it relates to both thebusiness objectives and the strategic plan. The resultant effect couldbe a drop in motivation levels, which in turn may lead to limitedinterest in achieving company objectives and therefore potentially,resulting in a reduction in productivity.The “non-contextual” dilemma as discussed above could be relatedto the “limited awareness” challenge as indicated by participants.Limited awareness suggests that, amongst other, employees lackself-understanding of “purpose”. The net effect of “limitedawareness” or “contextual understanding” can therefore be that anindividual does not see the task as important and does not feelappreciated and is subsequently not inspired to perform in his or her 189
  • 190. job role. Where an individual could find purpose in what they do,performing such tasks becomes a joy and is no longer seen as just ajob. The pursuit of “purpose” per says ought to be a component inthe design of all human development activity.The “evolving education approach” could assist in developing asystem that recognises the importance of the consciousness level ofthe individual in what they do. Sustainable, responsible educationand mindfulness about the job role could enhance motivation andthus “performance”.The literature survey further suggests that “awareness” or“consciousness” becomes part of the learning agenda. Thisawareness could facilitate the development of purpose for theemployee. With purpose comes the reason for being in a certain jobrole.The study shows that key performance areas should therefore notjust focus on the task at hand. If job descriptions are developed tomeasure contextual awareness and consciousness, “alignment toeducational standards” should be considered. The issue of“awareness” can be addressed to support the critical cross-fieldoutcomes as well as underpin any potential fundamental unitstandards. For this reason it becomes important to develop a set ofguidelines in developing educationally aligned job descriptions.One major challenge confronting business is how to harness humanpotential for the benefit of long-term wealth for all stakeholders. Ithas been said, if employees were to follow the precise letter of job 190
  • 191. descriptions and organisational protocol, things would soon grind toa halt (Maggelan Research: 2010). In other words, getting the “job”done involves a lot more than just the tasks associated with the jobdescription. A lot of organisational success depends on “how” ratherthan “what needs to be done”. Human relations and the feeling ofcitizenship, or belonging, is very important (Maggelan Research:2010).Maggelan Research (2010) states that, a lot of energy goes intotreating underperforming employees, while neglecting the health ofthe organization as a whole. Companies seem to do a good job oftreating an underperforming individual and then send him or herback to a “sick workplace”, a place with low morale, negativesupervision and poor safety. Instead of treating just the “trees,”integrated organizational wellness looks at treating the” entireforest.”The introduction of a “CQF” could in itself contribute toorganisational wellness and promote organisational citizenship in thesense that an employee can measure and plan their own“educational development pathway”. This ought to have a positiveeffect on motivation and subsequently “performance” andorganisational deliverables.Writing Help Central (2010) defines corporate objectives asstatements of intent that provide the basic direction for the activitiesof an organization in pursuit of its mission. To think of objectives asstatements of intent and goals as quantifiable targets, enables 191
  • 192. management to understand the overall business “purpose” andrequired tasks more clearly.Only if employees understand a vision, can they share in it andsupport it. Once the individual understands and supports theorganisational vision, he or she can incorporate the vision to becomehis or her “own” - in other words, the objectives of the organisationbecome the objectives of the individual. This could enable theorganisation and employee to function in synergy, thus adding to“contextual awareness”.5.3 THE CURRENT SITUATION IN SOUTH AFRICASouth Africa is faced with an enormous challenge with bridging thegap between the lack of skills among lower-level workers and theneed to be highly productive, particularly at the lower levels ofemployment. Keeping this situation in mind it is clear that there is astrong relationship between education, development and trainingand that elements of all three are involved whenever an action isundertaken to improve an employees performance in the enterprise.The distinction between the three rests upon whether theundertaking is for general betterment, for improvement in a specificjob or for better performance in the enterprise in future.Assessing training needs in South Africa are more complex thansimply identifying the required task to fulfill and objective. Due tothe past imbalances and inherent lack of fundamental education, alarge part of the population suffers from a limiting self-belief. Thisself-belief imprisons their thinking to a level of low performance and 192
  • 193. subsequently, limited earning potential. The result is that educationand training has to address more than just skills transfer, but alsohas to address the issues of physiological nature.5.4 CONCLUSIONIn this study, it is evidenced that job roles, performancemanagement and training initiatives were often developed andconducted without considering the “interrelationship” amongst eachother. Human capital management systems also seem to operate ona fragmented basis within South African companies and“performance management” and “skills needs” are often seen asdifferent from one another.During the research, concepts and categories were identified fromdata gathered from personal experience, a literature survey and aresearch questionnaire. These concepts and categories seem tooverlap to some extent. In particular “contextual awareness” and“higher consciousness” seem to emerge as an overarching theme,resulting from concepts and categories underpinning: the role of strategic management in the development of an integrated human capital management system the role of skills development as productivity driver the role of non-formal learning in a formal learning environment. 193
  • 194. At the same time the outcome of this study suggest thatorganisations consider the design and implementation of anintegrated human capital management framework whereby alllearning, training and development will be “quantified” in terms offormal learning requirements and standards.In conclusion the following framework is proposed by the researcherto inform a review of human capital management practices withSouth African organisations: Theme: 1 The role of Concepts strategic managmentin the development of an integrated human capital management system Categories Concepts Theme: 2: The Theme: 4: The role Categories role of skills of awareness and development as productivity contextual driver understanding Categories Concepts Theme: 3: The role of non-formal learning in a formal learning environmentDiagram 5.1: Current State 194
  • 195. Theme: 1 Theme: 4 Theme: 2 Theme: 3Diagram 5.2 Future StateThe proposed framework for human capital management (diagram5.2) illustrates the importance of the coexistence of ideas andactivities as related to strategic planning, productivity and non-formal learning, within the modern day workplace. This framework isproposed with specific reference to those organisations operatingwithin an emerging economy where the sense of self and thecontribution of the individual are often framed within a socialcontext. 195
  • 196. CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION6.1 INTRODUCTIONProductivity is one of the most important concerns of the SouthAfrican economy. Therefore government should ensure that privateenterprises are equipped with the required skills as well as thenecessary fiscal to drive economic transformation.The largest trade union federation in South Africa, COSATU, andgovernment are in a tripartite relationship with the SACP. Thecurrent Minister of Higher Education and Training and the newlyappointed officials into the ministry of education are also officebearers or long-standing members of the SACP and the ANC.Educational policy is therefore driven within this thought construct.(Meyer, 2012).The transformation needed in the education sector should addressthe development of cognitive functionality, prior to engaging in thetraining of job related skills. Critical elements in learning, such ascomputer skills, functional numeracy and literacy, are a basic pre-requisite for development, and a fundamental requirement forworkplace learning.This chapter considers the conclusive findings of the research anddebates the merit of the research. During the research study, thefollowing aspects were addressed: 196
  • 197. 1. The role of an organizational strategic plan in determining therequired human capital for an organisation.2. The relevance of industry experience, competence and non-formaltraining as compared to formal education and training standards.3. The potential use of non-formal learning as credits in formallearning programs.4. The relevance of an integrated human capital managementframework and potential Corporate Qualifications Framework forSouth African organisations.5. The development of contextual awareness in understandinglearner development.6. The role of skills and productivity in human capital management.7. The identification of skills GAPs and the management thereof tothe benefit of the organization.6.2 REVIEW OF CHAPTER OBJECTIVESDuring the research it transpired that strategic planning is notfunctioning optimally. The research objective to “demonstrate how astrategic plan can be unpacked into a set of required competenciesthat can be aligned to educational standards” appears to have beensatisfied from the feedback of the research questionnaires. Similarly,the personal experience of the researcher supports the notion. Fromthe development of concepts and categories, “the role of strategicmanagement in the development of an integrated human capitalmanagement system” emerged as an important theme. This themesuggests that the above objective of the research has beenaddressed adequately. 197
  • 198. However, it needs to be mentioned that companies that participatedin the research were all selected from the Service Sector Educationand Training Authority domain. The role of strategic planning in thedevelopment of an integrated human capital management systemhas therefore not been explored beyond the realm of the servicessector in South Africa.The objective “to demonstrate how non-formal training can beassessed against formal benchmarks and how non-formal programscan become credit bearing” found merit in the emerging theme “therole of non-formal learning in a formal learning environment”.Findings from the literature survey suggest evolving practice in otherparts of the world, towards the development of systems that mayaddress this.However, in the development of the suggested framework thistheme would require a great deal of planning and systems design.The introduction of a system whereby non-formal training, such aswork based learning, becomes credit bearing in formal programscould however, be potentially administration intense. The researchdid not consider the impact of the additional administration burdenas it falls outside the scope of the study. Included in thisadministration burden is the need for quality assurance, articulation,mobility and record keeping. All these elements would have apotential cost implication that may require additional research.The objective “to demonstrate how a benchmark system can be usedfor a GAP analysis in human capital management” is addressed in“the role of strategic management in the development of an 198
  • 199. integrated human capital management system”. The use of anintegrated framework suggests the development of benchmarks byusing known educational standards.However, the potential risks should also be mentioned – job rolesdeduced from strategic plans may follow a highly “task orientated”approach, whilst education standards could suggest elements thatmay be esoteric and at times academic.The objective “to demonstrate how a Corporate QualificationsFramework can be developed whereby industry can quantify andmanage human capital for purposes of performance management” isaddressed in both themes 2 and 3.However, an integrated human capital management system that willbe developed, based on required competencies alone, is at risk ofbeing “too normative”, if the findings of theme 4, “the role ofawareness and contextual understanding” is not addressed in ameaningful way. A mindful balance between task and awarenessmay very well address this problem.“The role of skills development as productivity driver” emerged as atheme, but was not considered as an initial objective of the study.However, whether an increase in skills implies increase productivityneeds to be explored in more detail.6.3 PROPOSED FURTHER RESEARCH 199
  • 200. The research highlighted the need for further investigation into thefollowing: i. The practical application of a CQF in industry with specific reference to developing automated systems and software. ii. Determining Return on Investment (ROI) on the investment of workplace education versus productivity. iii. Effectiveness of workplace learning versus formal learning. iv. The real recognition of South African qualifications in the global arena, reciprocity and international employment prospects. v. The importance of contextual awareness and how to improve actual consciousness of employees in an attempt to address the development of purpose. vi. The real impact of a lack of contextual awareness on the poverty mindset. vii. Possible cost implications of using non-formal learning as formal learning credits. 200
  • 201. 6.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDYThe following limitations can be noted: i. The exclusion of learner and employee experiences from the research study. ii. The responses solicited during the research questionnaires are the opinions of the research participant’s perspectives and experiences. iii. The real impact of the Organising Framework of Occupations and the QCTO on the development of job descriptions. iv. The real impact of the Organising Framework of Occupations and the QCTO on the development of qualifications for occupationally directed education and training providers. v. Limited information of the real impact of lack of awareness on the world of work, productivity, society and human development.6.5 SUMMARYThe main focus of the transformation of education is to beresponsive to the needs of students of all ages and the intellectualchallenges of the environment. This assumes, amongst other, acommitment to democracy, social justice and the economic andsocial development of the system at large. It demands increasingaccess and equity in higher education particularly in relation to theparticipation rate of previously disadvantaged learners as well asmature learners. 201
  • 202. There is little meaning in knowing how to perform a task or job ifsuch a job has no purpose for the individual involved. Only throughthe development of one’s higher self, does one address the issue ofpurpose. Without finding purpose, all education and skill, remainuseless. The potential use for business is substantial, but requires atransformation in “thinking” of the stakeholders.Employers would need to become more aware of potentialeducational standards that they could use in the design of jobdescriptions. Employers should also be more active incommunicating workplace demands and requirements to trainingproviders. This would require a closer relationship between industryand the providers of learning. The responsibility of the providercommunity would be to become more agile, more responsive andmore open to faster changes, to accommodate the needs of industry.In chapter one reference is made to the assumption that the“norms“ used are indeed applicable. Thus, the quantification oflearning takes place in relation to qualifications that may notnecessarily represent true stakeholder or industry requirements. Theintroduction of the Organising Framework for Occupations aims toaddress this issue and may lead to the development of more realisticnorms in the future.In chapter 6, the integrated use of a CQF is addressed in the contextof work place learning and work place credit. The integratedconclusion suggests a redesign of the educational model that should 202
  • 203. be more flexible, more adaptable and more effective, serving theneeds of society at large.The role of innovation and advancement of nations will have aperpetual demand on educational institutions in providing therequired competencies for global industry needs. Education and thecapacity of employees will become the international measurement ofcountries per capita GDP (Gross Domestic Production). In viewthereof the role of the workplace provision will become increasinglyimportant. 203
  • 204. Chapter 1: Chapter Chapter Research 4: 5:Emerg Question, Research ing aims and Findings Themes objectives Lack of integrated Ground Recomme Human ed Captital ndations Theory Management Chapter 2: Literature Chapter 6: Survey - Chapter 3: Objectives evolution Research reviewed, of thought Methodology Limitations discussedDiagram 6.1 Evolution of the Research Project 204
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