0
Security & Preservation of  Rare Materials   Planning an Environmental Building Model ALA Annual Conference Library Admini...
Mission State Library of Pennsylvania The State Library is established by statute to serve all branches of state governmen...
Also  <ul><li>Federal Documents Depository Library (Celebrating 150 Years of service) </li></ul><ul><li>Most comprehensive...
The State Library Building  Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
The State Library of Pennsylvania Main Reading Room Law/Government Documents Foyer, Forum Building
Nuremberg Chronicles - 1493
Untitled Ephrata Cloister  Music Manuscript - 1754
Prints from “American Ornithology”  by  Alexander Wilson - 1865
Ben Franklin’s Kite & Key Experiment 19 October 1752 –  Pennsylvania Gazette
State Library of Pennsylvania Traces its Founding to 1745 Independence Hall Assembly Collection “ The Library that Launche...
Statutes at Large - 1735
“ Protection of this priceless collection is vital to our  Commonwealth’s heritage.”   Mathew J. Ryan, Speaker of the Hous...
Rare Books Collection Former Facilities
Timeline for Rare Books Room Renovation <ul><li>1998 – Tour of Rare Books Room  </li></ul><ul><li>1999 – Appointment of in...
Original  Rare Books Room Committee <ul><li>Governor’s Advisory Council - Susan Zug </li></ul><ul><li>Capitol Preservation...
Full Committee <ul><li>Lt. Governor </li></ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore of Senate </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker of the Hou...
Ribbon Cutting Ceremony
Partners & Politics <ul><li>Advocates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representative Peter Zug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitol Pr...
Sunday Patriot News August 15, 2004
The Patriot News August 17, 2004
The Patriot News June 9, 2008
Pennsylvania Rare Collections Library ‘…  it is the duty of every good citizen to use all opportunities, which occur to hi...
Project Goal <ul><li>To  preserve Pennsylvania’s rare collections  through the use of preventative conservation principles...
Outcome <ul><li>Collections are safeguarded within a benign preservation-based environment. </li></ul>
The Influence of Location Harrisburg
RCL – Rare Books Vault RCL – Reading Room Exhibit Hall Transitional Area Architectural Context – Forum Building
Environment <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exterior of the building </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No control </li></ul...
Project Scope (Complex) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building Environments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exterio...
Project Scope (Complexity Continues) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HVAC <...
Solving Complex Issues <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Particulate Filtration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial F...
Psychometrics DRY BULB TEMPERATUR (C) MOISTURE CONTENT
Air Parameters Rare Collections Library <ul><ul><li>(Allowing for seasonal drift)   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas Compl...
Lighting No Ultraviolet.  No Infra-red. Correct Intensity & Color for Collection(s)
 
Thermography
SCHEMATIC PLAN Transitional Rare Books Area Exhibit Hall Archivist’s Office Reading Room Rare Books Vault Transitional Rar...
Exhibit Hall – Ground Floor
Exhibit Hall – Ground Floor
Entrance to Reading Room from Exhibit Hall
Research/Reading Room – Ground Floor
Archivist Work Area
Rare Books Vault – Ground Floor
Post Construction Rare Books Vault  – Collection Relocation
Work Area – Lower Level
Protection <ul><li>Disaster Preparedness </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Detection </li></u...
Fire Alarm System <ul><li>Fully addressable </li></ul><ul><li>Zoned </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated into building & complex s...
EWSD Fire Detection STAGE 4 STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3 VISIBLE SMOKE INTENSE HEAT FLAMING FIRE INCIPIENT STAGE NO VISIBLE SMO...
Suppression <ul><li>Public Areas – Water Misting System </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibit Hall </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Room </li...
Public Area Suppression <ul><li>Water Mist Fire Suppression System </li></ul><ul><li>Totally safe for humans </li></ul><ul...
Private Area Suppression <ul><li>(3M Novec 1230) Fire Suppression System </li></ul><ul><li>Effective protection without th...
Water Mist Fire Suppression
Security <ul><li>Fully integrated into Capitol Security System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bi...
THE PENNSYLVANIA STUDY LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR CATHERINE BAKER-KNOLL, HONORARY CHAIR
CENTRAL REGION Ephrata Cloister  632 West Main Street Ephrata PA  17522 Kittochtinny Historical Society  Franklin Co. offi...
<ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temp & R/H Studies……………………….15 sites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VOC Studies………………………...
CELLULOSE DEGRADATION IN  AN ACETIC ACID ENVIRONMENT A.-L. Dupont and J. Tétreault Studies in Conservation, 2000 MIGRATION...
ASTM 100 YEAR STUDY 1998 - 2008 surrogate test books are  composed of 15 different papers
<ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SURROGATE TEST BOOKS/TEXT BLOCKS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ten commercial paper...
Design Parameters Air Pollutant Base Line Readings – 12/12/05
Identification of volatile organic compounds emitted by a naturally aged book using SPME/GC/MS Agnes Lattuati-Derieux, Syl...
Air Pollutant Standards     Acetic Acid 4.0 ppb   Formaldehyde 4.0 ppb     SO2 1.0 ppb   NO2 2.6 ppb   Ozone 2.0 ppb Speci...
 
2X air exchange rate ½ pollutant concentration ? Efficacy of intermittent ventilation for providing acceptable indoor air ...
power needed    to drive fan ~   (fan speed)  3 higher air exchange rate much higher  electrical cost Energy Usage & Savin...
. Preserving our Past for the Future
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Security & Preservation of Rare Materials: Planning an Environmental Building Model

2,136

Published on

Program sponsored by BES at ALA Annual 2008. Various topics such as standards for three different integrated storage environments, i.e., security, lighting, air quality, microbial filtration, fire suppression, temperature and humidity.

Published in: Business, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,136
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
35
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Mission State Library of Pennsylvania: To serve the library needs of all branches of State Government and to serve as the destination library for Pennsylvania materials. Book Cover - Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly Collection Circa 1745 Within the walls of the Forum/Education Building are books of overwhelming value to the humanities, scholars and the heritage of the Commonwealth and the Nation as a whole.
  • Transcript of "Security & Preservation of Rare Materials: Planning an Environmental Building Model"

    1. 1. Security & Preservation of Rare Materials Planning an Environmental Building Model ALA Annual Conference Library Administration and Management Association Saturday, June 28, 2008 Speakers: Caryn J. Carr – Director, State Library of Pennsylvania Dr. Larry Nesbit – Chair, Rare Books Room Committee Cornelius Rusnov – Project Architect Dr. William Joyce – Head of Special Collections, Pennsylvania State University
    2. 2. Mission State Library of Pennsylvania The State Library is established by statute to serve all branches of state government and to serve as a major research library with an emphasis on resources for, by and about Pennsylvania.
    3. 3. Also <ul><li>Federal Documents Depository Library (Celebrating 150 Years of service) </li></ul><ul><li>Most comprehensive Pennsylvania newspaper collection </li></ul><ul><li>Deep genealogy and local history collection </li></ul>
    4. 4. The State Library Building Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
    5. 5. The State Library of Pennsylvania Main Reading Room Law/Government Documents Foyer, Forum Building
    6. 6. Nuremberg Chronicles - 1493
    7. 7. Untitled Ephrata Cloister Music Manuscript - 1754
    8. 8. Prints from “American Ornithology” by Alexander Wilson - 1865
    9. 9. Ben Franklin’s Kite & Key Experiment 19 October 1752 – Pennsylvania Gazette
    10. 10. State Library of Pennsylvania Traces its Founding to 1745 Independence Hall Assembly Collection “ The Library that Launched a Revolution”
    11. 11. Statutes at Large - 1735
    12. 12. “ Protection of this priceless collection is vital to our Commonwealth’s heritage.” Mathew J. Ryan, Speaker of the House August 1981
    13. 13. Rare Books Collection Former Facilities
    14. 14. Timeline for Rare Books Room Renovation <ul><li>1998 – Tour of Rare Books Room </li></ul><ul><li>1999 – Appointment of initial committee </li></ul><ul><li>2001 – Full Committee established </li></ul><ul><li>2002 – Design began </li></ul><ul><li>2003 – Construction on new facilities began </li></ul><ul><li>2004 – Groundbreaking </li></ul><ul><li>2006 – Ribbon Cutting </li></ul>
    15. 15. Original Rare Books Room Committee <ul><li>Governor’s Advisory Council - Susan Zug </li></ul><ul><li>Capitol Preservation Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioner for Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>State Library Director </li></ul>Dr. Larry Nesbit, Chair
    16. 16. Full Committee <ul><li>Lt. Governor </li></ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore of Senate </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker of the House </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representative Zug </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capitol Preservation Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Gov. Adv. Council </li></ul><ul><li>House of Rep. Archivist </li></ul><ul><li>Dept. of Gen. Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deputy Secretary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Department of Ed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deputy Sec. For Libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Library Director </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office of Comm. Libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archivist </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Ribbon Cutting Ceremony
    18. 18. Partners & Politics <ul><li>Advocates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representative Peter Zug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitol Preservation Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore of Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker of the House of Representatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lieutenant Governor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The privilege of priority </li></ul><ul><li>Developing political savvy </li></ul>
    19. 19. Sunday Patriot News August 15, 2004
    20. 20. The Patriot News August 17, 2004
    21. 21. The Patriot News June 9, 2008
    22. 22. Pennsylvania Rare Collections Library ‘… it is the duty of every good citizen to use all opportunities, which occur to him, for preserving documents relating to the history of our country.’ Thomas Jefferson
    23. 23. Project Goal <ul><li>To preserve Pennsylvania’s rare collections through the use of preventative conservation principles. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Outcome <ul><li>Collections are safeguarded within a benign preservation-based environment. </li></ul>
    25. 25. The Influence of Location Harrisburg
    26. 26. RCL – Rare Books Vault RCL – Reading Room Exhibit Hall Transitional Area Architectural Context – Forum Building
    27. 27. Environment <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exterior of the building </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No control </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interior of the building </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very little control </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Project Scope (Complex) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building Environments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exterior of the Building </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interior of the Building </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rare Collections Library Environments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibit Hall </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading Room & Archivist’s Office </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rare Books Vault </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work Area & Wood Pulp/Leather </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rare Newspaper Repository </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heritage Collection ( future construction ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Law Library ( future construction ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Nine Different Environments
    29. 29. Project Scope (Complexity Continues) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HVAC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Detection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Suppression </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Seven Different Design Standards for Each Separate Environment
    30. 30. Solving Complex Issues <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Particulate Filtration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial Filtration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular Gas-phase Filtration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relative Humidity/Dew Point </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ultra-violet Rays </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infra-red Rays </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Air Quality & Conditioning Environmental Standards
    31. 31. Psychometrics DRY BULB TEMPERATUR (C) MOISTURE CONTENT
    32. 32. Air Parameters Rare Collections Library <ul><ul><li>(Allowing for seasonal drift) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas Completed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibit Hall 68-70º F, 20-45% R/H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading Room/Archivist Office 66º F, 25-40% R/H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rare Books Vault 50-58º F, 25-45% R/H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work Area & Wood Pulp/Leather 55º F, 20-45% R/H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rare Newspaper Repository 50º F, 15% R/H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future Construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional Area 55º F, 35% R/H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Law Library 70–72º F, 25–45% R/H </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Lighting No Ultraviolet. No Infra-red. Correct Intensity & Color for Collection(s)
    34. 35. Thermography
    35. 36. SCHEMATIC PLAN Transitional Rare Books Area Exhibit Hall Archivist’s Office Reading Room Rare Books Vault Transitional Rare Books Area Work Area Rare Newspaper Repository GROUND FLOOR East Wing, FORUM BU ILDING LOWER LEVEL East Wing, FORUM BU ILDING
    36. 37. Exhibit Hall – Ground Floor
    37. 38. Exhibit Hall – Ground Floor
    38. 39. Entrance to Reading Room from Exhibit Hall
    39. 40. Research/Reading Room – Ground Floor
    40. 41. Archivist Work Area
    41. 42. Rare Books Vault – Ground Floor
    42. 43. Post Construction Rare Books Vault – Collection Relocation
    43. 44. Work Area – Lower Level
    44. 45. Protection <ul><li>Disaster Preparedness </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Suppression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection </li></ul></ul>
    45. 46. Fire Alarm System <ul><li>Fully addressable </li></ul><ul><li>Zoned </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated into building & complex systems </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-alarm, storage areas (EWSD) early warning smoke detection </li></ul>
    46. 47. EWSD Fire Detection STAGE 4 STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3 VISIBLE SMOKE INTENSE HEAT FLAMING FIRE INCIPIENT STAGE NO VISIBLE SMOKE TIME SMOKE D ENSITY FLAME ION BEAM FIRE 1 ALERT ACTION VESDA Laser PLUS 88 FIRE 2 PHOTO SPRINKLER
    47. 48. Suppression <ul><li>Public Areas – Water Misting System </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibit Hall </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Room </li></ul><ul><li>Archivist’s Office </li></ul><ul><li>Private Areas – Clean Agent System </li></ul><ul><li>Rare Books Vault </li></ul><ul><li>Rare Newspaper Repository </li></ul><ul><li>Work Area </li></ul>
    48. 49. Public Area Suppression <ul><li>Water Mist Fire Suppression System </li></ul><ul><li>Totally safe for humans </li></ul><ul><li>Natural and non-toxic </li></ul><ul><li>Effective protection without the damage of traditional deluge water-based systems </li></ul>
    49. 50. Private Area Suppression <ul><li>(3M Novec 1230) Fire Suppression System </li></ul><ul><li>Effective protection without the damage of water-based systems </li></ul><ul><li>Deemed safe for humans, non-toxic at concentration used </li></ul><ul><li>Deemed safe for the collections </li></ul><ul><li>Extinguishes fire during the incipient stage of combustion </li></ul>
    50. 51. Water Mist Fire Suppression
    51. 52. Security <ul><li>Fully integrated into Capitol Security System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biometric Access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arrangement of Spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of Construction Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Staff </li></ul>
    52. 53. THE PENNSYLVANIA STUDY LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR CATHERINE BAKER-KNOLL, HONORARY CHAIR
    53. 54. CENTRAL REGION Ephrata Cloister 632 West Main Street Ephrata PA 17522 Kittochtinny Historical Society Franklin Co. official historical society 75 East King Street Chambersburg PA 17201 Mansfield University, North Hall Library 5 Swan Street Mansfield PA 16933 PA Archives 350 North Street Harrisburg PA 17120 Pattee and Paterno Libraries Penn State University Park Campus 510 Paterno Library University Park PA 16802 Southern York Public Library P.O. Box 239 80 Constitution Avenue Shrewsbury PA 17361 State Library 607 South Drive Harrisburg PA 17120 Millersville University PO Box 1002 1 South George Street Millersville PA 17551 WESTERN REGION Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh 4400 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh PA 15213 Raymond M. Blasco MD Memorial Library 160 East Front Street Erie PA 16507 EASTERN REGION Albright Public Library 500 Vine Street Scranton PA 18509 Free Library of Philadelphia 1901 Vine Street Philadelphia PA 19103 The Library Company 1314 Locust Street Philadelphia PA 19107 National Canal Museum 30 Centre Square Easton PA 18042 FIFTEEN IN-STATE SITES THE PENNSYLVANIA STUDY
    54. 55. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temp & R/H Studies……………………….15 sites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VOC Studies…………………………..........15 sites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light Studies………………………………….15 sites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Particulate Studies……………………………….RCL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pollutant Studies.…………………………………RCL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial Studies..…………………...............RCL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Usage & Savings Studies……………RCL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Suppression Studies……………………….RCL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term Paper Aging Studies………..15 sites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term Paper Aging Studies.........15 sites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>AREAS OF RESEARCH FOCUS:
    55. 56. CELLULOSE DEGRADATION IN AN ACETIC ACID ENVIRONMENT A.-L. Dupont and J. Tétreault Studies in Conservation, 2000 MIGRATION OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS FROM PAPER STACKS DURING ACCELERATED AGEING, PART II: VARIABLE TEMPERATURE STUDIES SPONTANEOUS FORMATION OF ACIDS IN THE NATURAL AGING OF PAPER A. Bulow, P. Begin, H. Carter, and T Burns Restaurator, 2000 C. Shahani and G. Harrison IIC Congress, 2002 AUTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF CELLULOSE PAPER IN SEALED VESSELS P. Calvini, A. Gorassina, and A.L. Merlani Restaurator, 2007
    56. 57. ASTM 100 YEAR STUDY 1998 - 2008 surrogate test books are composed of 15 different papers
    57. 58. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SURROGATE TEST BOOKS/TEXT BLOCKS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ten commercial papers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ten accelerated aged commercial papers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100 year(+) old paper </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50 year(+) old paper </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Custom formulated papers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hand sheets </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    58. 59. Design Parameters Air Pollutant Base Line Readings – 12/12/05
    59. 60. Identification of volatile organic compounds emitted by a naturally aged book using SPME/GC/MS Agnes Lattuati-Derieux, Sylvette Bonnassies-Termes, Bertrand Lavedrine Journal of Chromatography A, 1026 (2004) 9-18 Acetic Acid Toluene Butyric Acid Furfural Benzaldehyde Phenol Nonanal Decanal Vanillin Hexadecane Heptadecane Octadecane
    60. 61. Air Pollutant Standards Acetic Acid 4.0 ppb Formaldehyde 4.0 ppb SO2 1.0 ppb NO2 2.6 ppb Ozone 2.0 ppb Specifications For Air Pollutants In Storage And Exhibit Areas
    61. 63. 2X air exchange rate ½ pollutant concentration ? Efficacy of intermittent ventilation for providing acceptable indoor air quality. (Dr. M.H. Sherman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) Energy Usage & Savings Studies:
    62. 64. power needed to drive fan ~ (fan speed) 3 higher air exchange rate much higher electrical cost Energy Usage & Savings Studies: Fan Law
    63. 65. . Preserving our Past for the Future
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×