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Introduction to  Psychology Ms. Koveos chapter 1
What is psychology? <ul><li>The scientific study of behavior and mental life.  </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolized with a  </li><...
Psychology, pseudoscience, and common sense <ul><li>Psychobabble and psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Not just common sense </...
Psychology’s past <ul><li>Two early psychologies </li></ul><ul><li>Functionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalysis </li></u...
Functionalism <ul><li>Early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness <...
Psychoanalysis <ul><li>A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy  </li></ul><ul><li>Originally formulated by S...
Your turn <ul><li>The first field of psychology to ask what the purpose of behavior and consciousness was: </li></ul><ul><...
Major Psychological perspectives <ul><li>Psychodynamic perspective  </li></ul><ul><li>Biological perspective </li></ul><ul...
The psychodynamic perspective <ul><li>Psychological approach that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, s...
The biological perspective <ul><li>Psychological approach that focuses on how the body and brain affect behavior, feelings...
The evolutionary perspective <ul><li>Psychological approach that emphasizes the ways in which behavior and mental processe...
The behavioral perspective <ul><li>Psychological approach that emphasizes people’s observable behavior and its explanation...
Humanist psychology <ul><li>Psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential,...
The cognitive perspective <ul><li>Psychological approach that emphasizes what goes on in people’s heads </li></ul><ul><li>...
The sociocultural perspective <ul><li>Psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural forces outside the indivi...
Psychological Approaches/Perspectives
Psychological Approaches/Perspectives
Your turn <ul><li>The psychological perspective that emphasizes the “deep,” psychological causes of people’s behavior is: ...
What do psychologists do? <ul><li>Providing mental health services  </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct research </li></ul><ul><li>W...
Psychological practice <ul><li>Counseling psychologists help people deal with problems associated with everyday life. </li...
Psychological research <ul><li>Research in areas of basic or applied psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul>...
Psychologists in other settings <ul><li>Sports </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer issues </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><...
Three methods used to answer the question “why” <ul><li>Descriptive Studies – establishing the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Cor...
1. Descriptive Methods <ul><li>Methods that yield descriptions of behavior, but not necessarily causal explanations, may o...
Case study example: chapter 1
Descriptive Methods:  1. Case studies <ul><li>A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated, ...
Descriptive methods:  2. Observational studies <ul><li>Researchers carefully and systematically observe and record behavio...
Descriptive methods:  3. Psychological tests <ul><li>Procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional...
Standardization <ul><li>The test is constructed to include uniform procedures for giving and scoring the test. </li></ul><...
Reliability <ul><li>When constructing a test, the scores achieved on the test at one time and place should be consistent w...
Validity <ul><li>The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure </li></ul>
Descriptive methods:  4. Surveys <ul><li>Questionnaires and interviews  that ask people directly about experiences,  attit...
II. Correlational Study <ul><li>A study that looks for a consistent relationship between two phenomena (variables) </li></...
Direction of correlations <ul><li>Positive correlations </li></ul><ul><li>An increase in one variable and increases in ano...
Scatterplots <ul><li>Correlations can be represented by scatterplots. </li></ul>
Correlation
Correlation
Correlation
Your turn <ul><li>What kind of correlation is this? </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Positive </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Negative </li></u...
Explaining correlations <ul><li>Correlations show  patterns ,  not causes .  </li></ul><ul><li>They help to predict  </li>...
 
Explain the following: <ul><li>In a small Midwestern town a police chief discovered that as ice cream consumption increase...
3. The Experiment <ul><li>A controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover i...
Components of an Experiment  <ul><li>Theory –  “hunch” </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis  - testable prediction about the outco...
Components of an Experiment  <ul><li>Hypothesis  - testable prediction about the outcome of research </li></ul><ul><li>You...
Components of an Experiment  <ul><li>Operational Definition –  specify how the phenomena in question are to be observed an...
Components of an Experiment  <ul><li>Operational Definition –  specify how the phenomena in question are to be observed an...
 
Components of an Experiment  <ul><li>3.  Independent variables  Variables the experimenter manipulates </li></ul><ul><li>4...
Components of an Experiment  <ul><li>3.  Independent variables  Variables the experimenter manipulates </li></ul><ul><li>4...
Your turn <ul><li>An experimenter wants to study the effects of music on studying.  He has some students study while liste...
Let’s look at an example… <ul><li>An experimenter wants to study the effects of music on studying.  He has some students s...
Control conditions <ul><li>In an experiment, a comparison condition in which subjects are not exposed to the same treatmen...
Random assignment <ul><li>For experiments to have experimental and control groups composed of similar subjects, random ass...
Experimenter effects <ul><li>Unintended changes in subjects’ behavior due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter....
chapter 1
Advantages and Limitations of Experiments <ul><li>Advantages:  </li></ul><ul><li>1. allow conclusions about cause and effe...
Comparing Research Methods
Descriptive statistics <ul><li>Statistical procedures that organize and summarize research data </li></ul><ul><li>Examples...
Inferential statistics <ul><li>Statistical procedures that allow researchers to draw inferences about how statistically me...
Choosing the best explanation <ul><li>Interpretation of results may depend on how the research was conducted. </li></ul>Cr...
Judging the results’ importance <ul><li>Statistical techniques can help determine if results are really important. </li></...
Critical thinking guidelines <ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Define your terms </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the evide...
Ethical Considerations In Using Human Subjects <ul><li>The Stanford Prison Study  – by Philip Zimbardo (1972)  Tested the ...
Ethical Considerations In Using Human Subjects <ul><li>The investigator is personally responsible for the ethical acceptab...
Ethical Considerations In Using Human Subjects <ul><li>5.  People may not be coerced into participating, and they must be ...
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Psychological Perspectives and Research Methods

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  1. 1. Introduction to Psychology Ms. Koveos chapter 1
  2. 2. What is psychology? <ul><li>The scientific study of behavior and mental life. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolized with a </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical </li></ul><ul><li>Relying on evidence gathered by careful observation, experimentation, or measurement </li></ul>chapter 1
  3. 3. Psychology, pseudoscience, and common sense <ul><li>Psychobabble and psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Not just common sense </li></ul>chapter 1
  4. 4. Psychology’s past <ul><li>Two early psychologies </li></ul><ul><li>Functionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalysis </li></ul>chapter 1
  5. 5. Functionalism <ul><li>Early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in how and why something happens </li></ul><ul><li>William James (1842-1910), a leader of functionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Set the course of psychology as a science </li></ul>chapter 1
  6. 6. Psychoanalysis <ul><li>A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Originally formulated by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes unconscious motives, conflicts, and early life experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Set the course of psychology as a method of therapy. </li></ul>chapter 1
  7. 7. Your turn <ul><li>The first field of psychology to ask what the purpose of behavior and consciousness was: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Phrenology </li></ul><ul><li>3. Psychoanalysis </li></ul><ul><li>4. Functionalism </li></ul>chapter 1
  8. 8. Major Psychological perspectives <ul><li>Psychodynamic perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Biological perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Eclectic approach </li></ul>chapter 1
  9. 9. The psychodynamic perspective <ul><li>Psychological approach that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual energy </li></ul><ul><li>This perspective involves </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious thoughts, desires, conflicts influence our behavior </li></ul>chapter 1
  10. 10. The biological perspective <ul><li>Psychological approach that focuses on how the body and brain affect behavior, feelings, and thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>This perspective involves </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Brain chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroscience </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior genetics </li></ul>chapter 1
  11. 11. The evolutionary perspective <ul><li>Psychological approach that emphasizes the ways in which behavior and mental processes are adaptive for survival </li></ul><ul><li>This perspective involves </li></ul><ul><li>How genetically influenced behavior that was functional or adaptive during evolutionary past may be reflected in our present behaviors, mental process and traits </li></ul>chapter 1
  12. 12. The behavioral perspective <ul><li>Psychological approach that emphasizes people’s observable behavior and its explanation by principles of learning </li></ul><ul><li>This perspective involves </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Operant Conditioning </li></ul>chapter 1
  13. 13. Humanist psychology <ul><li>Psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential, rather than the scientific understanding of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>This approach </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected behaviorism and psychoanalysis </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized creativity, free will and achieving potential </li></ul>chapter 1
  14. 14. The cognitive perspective <ul><li>Psychological approach that emphasizes what goes on in people’s heads </li></ul><ul><li>This perspective involves </li></ul><ul><li>Social-cognitive learning theories </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor of the mind as a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive processing including perception, thinking, memory and language </li></ul>chapter 1
  15. 15. The sociocultural perspective <ul><li>Psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural forces outside the individual </li></ul><ul><li>This perspective involves </li></ul><ul><li>Social psychology or the study of rules, roles, groups, and relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural psychology or the study of cultural norms, values, and expectations </li></ul>chapter 1
  16. 16. Psychological Approaches/Perspectives
  17. 17. Psychological Approaches/Perspectives
  18. 18. Your turn <ul><li>The psychological perspective that emphasizes the “deep,” psychological causes of people’s behavior is: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Biological perspective </li></ul><ul><li>2. Learning perspective </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cognitive perspective </li></ul><ul><li>4. Psychodynamic perspective </li></ul><ul><li>5. Sociocultural perspective </li></ul>chapter 1
  19. 19. What do psychologists do? <ul><li>Providing mental health services </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct research </li></ul><ul><li>Work in non academic settings – industry, law, sports, etc </li></ul>chapter 1
  20. 20. Psychological practice <ul><li>Counseling psychologists help people deal with problems associated with everyday life. </li></ul><ul><li>School psychologists work with parents, teachers, and students to enhance student performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical psychologists diagnose, treat, and study mental or emotional problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychiatrists are medical doctors (M.D.) and focus on biological causes, diagnose and treat them with medication. </li></ul>chapter 1
  21. 21. Psychological research <ul><li>Research in areas of basic or applied psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Educational psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial/organizational psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Psychometric psychologists </li></ul>chapter 1
  22. 22. Psychologists in other settings <ul><li>Sports </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer issues </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational problems </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental issues </li></ul><ul><li>Public policy </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion polls </li></ul><ul><li>Military training </li></ul><ul><li>Animal behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Legal issues </li></ul>chapter 1
  23. 23. Three methods used to answer the question “why” <ul><li>Descriptive Studies – establishing the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Correlational Studies – looking for relationships </li></ul><ul><li>The Experiment – hunting for the causes </li></ul>chapter 1
  24. 24. 1. Descriptive Methods <ul><li>Methods that yield descriptions of behavior, but not necessarily causal explanations, may or may not be applicable to general population. </li></ul><ul><li>Include </li></ul><ul><li>1. Case studies </li></ul><ul><li>2. Observational studies </li></ul><ul><li>3. Psychological tests </li></ul><ul><li>4. Surveys </li></ul>chapter 1
  25. 25. Case study example: chapter 1
  26. 26. Descriptive Methods: 1. Case studies <ul><li>A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated, which may be used to formulate broader research hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Most commonly used by clinicians; occasionally used by researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Aspects: provide unique insight into who we are </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks: information is missing, hard to interpret, not necessarily applicable to general population </li></ul>chapter 1
  27. 27. Descriptive methods: 2. Observational studies <ul><li>Researchers carefully and systematically observe and record behavior without interfering with behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalistic observation </li></ul><ul><li>Observe how people behave in their natural environments without controlling the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory observation </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose is to observe how people behave in a more controlled setting. </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zWsyIVVvDdw&feature=player_detailpage
  28. 28. Descriptive methods: 3. Psychological tests <ul><li>Procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological tests can be objective or projective. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of a good test include </li></ul><ul><li>Standardization </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul>
  29. 29. Standardization <ul><li>The test is constructed to include uniform procedures for giving and scoring the test. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to score tests in a standardized way, an individual’s outcome or score is compared to norms. </li></ul><ul><li>To establish norms, the test is given to a large group of people who are similar to those for whom the test is intended. </li></ul><ul><li>By having norms or established standards of performance, we know who scores low, average, or high. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Reliability <ul><li>When constructing a test, the scores achieved on the test at one time and place should be consistent with the scores achieved at another time and place. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Validity <ul><li>The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure </li></ul>
  32. 32. Descriptive methods: 4. Surveys <ul><li>Questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about experiences, attitudes, or opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks: 1. volunteer bias 2. people lie </li></ul><ul><li>Can be extremely informative but must be conducted and interpreted carefully! </li></ul><ul><li>Two cautions: 1. how questions are phrased 2. must use words people understand </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lysWbzQyiWw </li></ul>
  33. 33. II. Correlational Study <ul><li>A study that looks for a consistent relationship between two phenomena (variables) </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation </li></ul><ul><li>A statistical measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Correlational coefficients can range from 0.0 – 1.0. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Direction of correlations <ul><li>Positive correlations </li></ul><ul><li>An increase in one variable and increases in another, or a decrease in one variable and a decrease in the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative correlations </li></ul><ul><li>An increase in one variable and a decrease in another. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Scatterplots <ul><li>Correlations can be represented by scatterplots. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Correlation
  37. 37. Correlation
  38. 38. Correlation
  39. 39. Your turn <ul><li>What kind of correlation is this? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Positive </li></ul><ul><li>2. Negative </li></ul><ul><li>3. No correlation </li></ul>
  40. 40. Explaining correlations <ul><li>Correlations show patterns , not causes . </li></ul><ul><li>They help to predict </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation does not mean causation! </li></ul>chapter 1
  41. 42. Explain the following: <ul><li>In a small Midwestern town a police chief discovered that as ice cream consumption increases, the crime rate increases. As people eat less ice cream, the crime rate decreases. What explains this relationship? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do children with bigger feet spell better? </li></ul>chapter 1
  42. 43. 3. The Experiment <ul><li>A controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another. </li></ul><ul><li>An experiment includes variables of interest, control conditions, and random assignment. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the only method of research that gives you a cause and effect! </li></ul>chapter 1
  43. 44. Components of an Experiment <ul><li>Theory – “hunch” </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis - testable prediction about the outcome of research </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s look at an example… </li></ul><ul><li>Theory - Low self esteem feeds depression </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis - People with low self esteem will score higher on a depression scale. </li></ul>chapter 1
  44. 45. Components of an Experiment <ul><li>Hypothesis - testable prediction about the outcome of research </li></ul><ul><li>Your turn: </li></ul><ul><li>A psychologist takes two groups: one that is given a painkiller for migraine headaches and one that is given a placebo. Neither group knows about the presence of the placebo. The psychologist tests the patients after two hours to see if the headache still remains </li></ul>chapter 1
  45. 46. Components of an Experiment <ul><li>Operational Definition – specify how the phenomena in question are to be observed and measured </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s look at an example… </li></ul><ul><li>People with low self esteem will score higher on a depression scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Operational Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Depression” can be defined operationally as a higher score on a depression scale. </li></ul>chapter 1
  46. 47. Components of an Experiment <ul><li>Operational Definition – specify how the phenomena in question are to be observed and measured </li></ul><ul><li>Your turn: </li></ul><ul><li>Justin Bieber is the best musician ever . </li></ul>chapter 1
  47. 49. Components of an Experiment <ul><li>3. Independent variables Variables the experimenter manipulates </li></ul><ul><li>4. Dependent variables Variables the experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent variable(s) </li></ul>chapter 1
  48. 50. Components of an Experiment <ul><li>3. Independent variables Variables the experimenter manipulates </li></ul><ul><li>4. Dependent variables Variables the experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent variable(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s look at an example… </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental psychologists want to know if exposing children to public television improves their reading skills. </li></ul><ul><li>IV: Exposure to public television </li></ul><ul><li>DV: Reading skills </li></ul>chapter 1
  49. 51. Your turn <ul><li>An experimenter wants to study the effects of music on studying. He has some students study while listening to music and others study in silence, and then compares their test scores. What is the independent variable in this experiment? </li></ul><ul><li>1. The students </li></ul><ul><li>2. The presence of music while studying </li></ul><ul><li>3. The kind of music </li></ul><ul><li>4. The test scores </li></ul>chapter 1
  50. 52. Let’s look at an example… <ul><li>An experimenter wants to study the effects of music on studying. He has some students study while listening to music and others study in silence, and then compares their test scores. What is the dependent variable in this experiment? </li></ul><ul><li>1. The students </li></ul><ul><li>2. The presence of music while studying </li></ul><ul><li>3. The kind of music </li></ul><ul><li>4. The test scores </li></ul>chapter 1
  51. 53. Control conditions <ul><li>In an experiment, a comparison condition in which subjects are not exposed to the same treatment as in the experimental condition. </li></ul><ul><li>In some experiments, the control group is given a placebo, an inactive substance or fake treatment. </li></ul>chapter 1
  52. 54. Random assignment <ul><li>For experiments to have experimental and control groups composed of similar subjects, random assignment should be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Each individual participating in the study has the same probability as any other of being assigned to a given group. </li></ul>chapter 1
  53. 55. Experimenter effects <ul><li>Unintended changes in subjects’ behavior due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for preventing experimenter effects include single- and double-blind studies. </li></ul>chapter 1
  54. 56. chapter 1
  55. 57. Advantages and Limitations of Experiments <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>1. allow conclusions about cause and effect 2. permit researchers to distinguish real effects from placebo effects </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations: </li></ul><ul><li>1. participants are not always representative of the greater population 2. participants may not act normally in effort to please the researcher </li></ul>chapter 1
  56. 58. Comparing Research Methods
  57. 59. Descriptive statistics <ul><li>Statistical procedures that organize and summarize research data </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic mean </li></ul><ul><li>Standard deviation </li></ul>chapter 1
  58. 60. Inferential statistics <ul><li>Statistical procedures that allow researchers to draw inferences about how statistically meaningful a study’s results are. </li></ul><ul><li>The most commonly used inferential statistics are significance tests. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical tests that show how likely it is that a study’s results occurred merely by chance </li></ul>chapter 1
  59. 61. Choosing the best explanation <ul><li>Interpretation of results may depend on how the research was conducted. </li></ul>Cross-sectional studies Subjects of different ages are compared at a single time. Longitudinal studies Subjects are periodically assessed over a period of time. chapter 1
  60. 62. Judging the results’ importance <ul><li>Statistical techniques can help determine if results are really important. </li></ul><ul><li>Meta-analysis is a procedure for combining and analyzing data from many studies. It determines how much of the variance in scores across all studies can be explained by a particular variable. </li></ul>chapter 1
  61. 63. Critical thinking guidelines <ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Define your terms </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze assumptions and biases </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid emotional reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t oversimplify </li></ul><ul><li>Consider other interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerate uncertainty </li></ul>chapter 1
  62. 64. Ethical Considerations In Using Human Subjects <ul><li>The Stanford Prison Study – by Philip Zimbardo (1972) Tested the psychological and emotional effects of the prison experience on inmates and guards. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis – Your environment (the situation) will determine how you behave more strongly than who you are (your internal nature). </li></ul><ul><li>Participants – 24 college men, randomly assigned to role of prisoner or guard (prisoners were required to stay in “prison” 24/7 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FkmQZjZSjk4 </li></ul>chapter 1
  63. 65. Ethical Considerations In Using Human Subjects <ul><li>The investigator is personally responsible for the ethical acceptability of the research and should consult others when there is any doubt. </li></ul><ul><li>The investigator is responsible for the ethical conduct of all who work with him or her, although all involved have ethical obligations. </li></ul><ul><li>Prospective research participants have a right to be as fully informed as possible about the nature of the experiment – this is know as obtaining the individual’s informed consent. </li></ul><ul><li>The investigator should maximize openness and honestly with participants and minimize deceit. If the true purpose of the experiment must be concealed, the participant should be fully informed after the experiment as to why this deception was necessary. </li></ul>chapter 1
  64. 66. Ethical Considerations In Using Human Subjects <ul><li>5. People may not be coerced into participating, and they must be allowed to withdraw from participation at any time. </li></ul><ul><li>6. The investigator must make clear to participants what agreement is being made between the two parties (participant and experimenter) and must honor any commitments made to the participants. </li></ul><ul><li>7. The investigator must minimize discomfort and protect participants from harm and danger. If any of these are likely to be involved, the participants must be fully informed of the risks. Procedures involving any serious and lasting harm are forbidden. </li></ul>chapter 1
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