Reactions inaqeous solutions
Water
Water is   polar   +            - δ          δ
Forms adipole
Water is an excellentsolvent
Compounds that contain polar       molecules Ionic  solids
Polar molecules ionisation:            +         -  HCl(g) → H (aq) + Cl (aq)   δ+       δ-
Ionic solids dissociation:               +       - NaCl(g) → Na (aq) + Cl (aq)
Solutions that conductelectricity are known aselectrolytes
Strong   Weak       Non-     electrolytes
Strong    Weak                    Non- High     Low                   No [ions] [ions]   [ions]                 Do notCond...
Conductivity depends on:         Type of substance      Solubility of substanceConcentration of the ions in solution
Types of chemical reactions
Ion exchange reactions
Includes:Precipitation reactionsGas forming reactionsAcid-base reactions
Precipitationreactions
Precipitate forms when there is acombination of ions that can form a   salt that is insoluble in water.
Solubility rules
Balanced chemical equations  for precipitate reactions         Formulae Chemical            of      equation Word         ...
Testing for certain ions
Testing forhalides
-    -   -Cl , Br , I
AgNO3 (aq) and shake -Cl       White precipitate            Nitric acid     Nothing happens: chloride
AgNO3 (aq) and shake     -Br       Cream coloured precipitate                 Nitric acid         Nothing happenes bromide
AgNO3 (aq) and shake-I     Yellow precipitate          Nitric acid    Nothing happens iodide
Testing forSulphates
BaNO3 (aq)    White precipitate       Nitric acidNothing happens: sulphate
Testing forcarbonates
BaNO3 (aq)      White precipitate          Nitric acidPrecipitate disappears: carbonate
Gasformingreaction
When ions  exchange, and a gas    is part of the product. Acid and carbonate → CO2    Acid and metal → H2
Acid-base reaction
Acid-baseneutralisation
Acid and metal oxide
Acid and a metal carbonate
Acid and a metal
Redox reactions
Reduction/oxidation    reaction
Loss of electrons -    oxidation
Gain of electrons -    reduction
Metal displacementHydrogen displacementHalogen displacement
Tosummarise
When substances mix with water,they can dissolve.
When these  solutions conductelectricity, they are  called electrolytes.
Ion exchangereactions: Cations  and anions in  solutions swop       around.
Precipitation reactions:One of the products are         insoluble.
Gas forming reactions:One of the products is         a gas.
Acid-base reactions:Acids react to metal- ormetal-based substances       to form H2
Reactions in aqeous solutions
Reactions in aqeous solutions
Reactions in aqeous solutions
Reactions in aqeous solutions
Reactions in aqeous solutions
Reactions in aqeous solutions
Reactions in aqeous solutions
Reactions in aqeous solutions
Reactions in aqeous solutions
Reactions in aqeous solutions
Reactions in aqeous solutions
Reactions in aqeous solutions
Reactions in aqeous solutions
Reactions in aqeous solutions
Reactions in aqeous solutions
Reactions in aqeous solutions
Reactions in aqeous solutions
Reactions in aqeous solutions
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Reactions in aqeous solutions

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Grade 10 Physical Sciences

Based on Andries Oliviers' CAPS aligned textbook

Focus area: Reactions in aqueous solutions

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Reactions in aqeous solutions

  1. 1. Reactions inaqeous solutions
  2. 2. Water
  3. 3. Water is polar + - δ δ
  4. 4. Forms adipole
  5. 5. Water is an excellentsolvent
  6. 6. Compounds that contain polar molecules Ionic solids
  7. 7. Polar molecules ionisation: + - HCl(g) → H (aq) + Cl (aq) δ+ δ-
  8. 8. Ionic solids dissociation: + - NaCl(g) → Na (aq) + Cl (aq)
  9. 9. Solutions that conductelectricity are known aselectrolytes
  10. 10. Strong Weak Non- electrolytes
  11. 11. Strong Weak Non- High Low No [ions] [ions] [ions] Do notConduct Conduct Conduct well poorly
  12. 12. Conductivity depends on: Type of substance Solubility of substanceConcentration of the ions in solution
  13. 13. Types of chemical reactions
  14. 14. Ion exchange reactions
  15. 15. Includes:Precipitation reactionsGas forming reactionsAcid-base reactions
  16. 16. Precipitationreactions
  17. 17. Precipitate forms when there is acombination of ions that can form a salt that is insoluble in water.
  18. 18. Solubility rules
  19. 19. Balanced chemical equations for precipitate reactions Formulae Chemical of equation Word Balance reactants forequation & precipitate products
  20. 20. Testing for certain ions
  21. 21. Testing forhalides
  22. 22. - - -Cl , Br , I
  23. 23. AgNO3 (aq) and shake -Cl White precipitate Nitric acid Nothing happens: chloride
  24. 24. AgNO3 (aq) and shake -Br Cream coloured precipitate Nitric acid Nothing happenes bromide
  25. 25. AgNO3 (aq) and shake-I Yellow precipitate Nitric acid Nothing happens iodide
  26. 26. Testing forSulphates
  27. 27. BaNO3 (aq) White precipitate Nitric acidNothing happens: sulphate
  28. 28. Testing forcarbonates
  29. 29. BaNO3 (aq) White precipitate Nitric acidPrecipitate disappears: carbonate
  30. 30. Gasformingreaction
  31. 31. When ions exchange, and a gas is part of the product. Acid and carbonate → CO2 Acid and metal → H2
  32. 32. Acid-base reaction
  33. 33. Acid-baseneutralisation
  34. 34. Acid and metal oxide
  35. 35. Acid and a metal carbonate
  36. 36. Acid and a metal
  37. 37. Redox reactions
  38. 38. Reduction/oxidation reaction
  39. 39. Loss of electrons - oxidation
  40. 40. Gain of electrons - reduction
  41. 41. Metal displacementHydrogen displacementHalogen displacement
  42. 42. Tosummarise
  43. 43. When substances mix with water,they can dissolve.
  44. 44. When these solutions conductelectricity, they are called electrolytes.
  45. 45. Ion exchangereactions: Cations and anions in solutions swop around.
  46. 46. Precipitation reactions:One of the products are insoluble.
  47. 47. Gas forming reactions:One of the products is a gas.
  48. 48. Acid-base reactions:Acids react to metal- ormetal-based substances to form H2
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