LIEAN JOIE L. VILLANUEVA<br />BST II-2<br />ASSiGNMENT iN RiZAL'S LiFE..1.  RiZAL'S BiOGRAPHY<br />Dr. José Protasio Rizal...
Liean joie l rizal
Liean joie l rizal
Liean joie l rizal
Liean joie l rizal
Liean joie l rizal
Liean joie l rizal
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  1. 1. LIEAN JOIE L. VILLANUEVA<br />BST II-2<br />ASSiGNMENT iN RiZAL'S LiFE..1. RiZAL'S BiOGRAPHY<br />Dr. José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda[1] (June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896, Bagumbayan), was a Filipino polymath, patriot and the most prominent advocate for reforms in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial era. He is considered a national hero of the Philippines,[2] and the anniversary of Rizal's death is commemorated as a Philippine holidaycalled Rizal Day. Rizal's 1896 military trial and execution made him a martyr of the Philippine Revolution.The seventh of eleven children born to a wealthy family in the town of Calamba, Laguna, Rizal attended the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, earning a Bachelor of Arts. He enrolled in Medicineand Philosophy and Letters at the University of Santo Tomas and then traveled alone to Madrid, Spain, where he continued his studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid, earning the degree of Licentiate in Medicine. He attended the University of Paris and earned a second doctorate at the University of Heidelberg. Rizal was a polyglot conversant in at least ten languages.[3][4][5][6]He was a prolific poet, essayist, diarist, correspondent, and novelist whose most famous works were his two novels, Noli me Tangere and El filibusterismo.[7] These are social commentaries on the Philippines that formed the nucleus of literature that inspired dissent among peaceful reformists and spurred the militancy of armed revolutionaries against the Spanish colonial authorities.As a political figure, Jose Rizal was the founder of La Liga Filipina, a civic organization that subsequently gave birth to the Katipunan[8] led by Andrés Bonifacio and Emilio Aguinaldo. He was a proponent of institutional reforms by peaceful means rather than by violent revolution. The general consensus among Rizal scholars, however, attributed his martyred death as the catalyst that precipitated the Philippine Revolution.<br />2. COMPARiSON OF THE CONDiTiON OF THE PHiL. iN TiME OF J. RiZAL<br />3. RiZAL EARLY LiFE & EDUCATiON.<br />Rizal first studied under the tutelage of Justiniano Aquino Cruz in Biñan, Laguna. He was sent to Manila and enrolled at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila. He graduated as one of the nine students in his class declaredsobresaliente or outstanding. He continued his education at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila to obtain a land surveyor and assessor's degree, and at the same time at the University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Arts and Letters where he studied Philosophy and Letters. Upon learning that his mother was going blind, he decided to study medicine specializing in ophthalmology at the University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Medicine and Surgery but did not complete the program claiming discrimination made by the Spanish Dominican friars against the native student. Without his parents' knowledge and consent, but secretly supported by his brother Paciano, he traveled alone to Europe: Madrid in May 1882 and studied medicine at the Universidad Central de Madrid where he earned the degree,Licentiate in Medicine. His education continued at the University of Paris and the University of Heidelberg where he earned a second doctorate. In Berlin he was inducted as a member of the Berlin Ethnological Society and the Berlin Anthropological Society under the patronage of the famous pathologist Rudolf Virchow. Following custom, he delivered an address in German in April 1887 before the anthropological society on the orthography and structure of the Tagalog language. He left Heidelberg a poem, "A las flores del Heidelberg," which was both an evocation and a prayer for the welfare of his native land and the unification of common values between East and West.At Heidelberg, the 25-year-old Rizal, completed in 1887 his eye specialization under the renowned professor, Otto Becker. There he used the newly invented ophthalmoscope (invented by Hermann von Helmholtz) to later operate on his own mother's eye. From Heidelberg, Rizal wrote his parents: “I spend half of the day in the study of German and the other half, in the diseases of the eye. Twice a week, I go to the bierbrauerie, or beerhall, to speak German with my student friends.” He lived in a Karlstraße boarding house then moved to Ludwigsplatz. There, he met Reverend Karl Ullmer and stayed with them in Wilhelmsfeld, where he wrote the last few chapters of "Noli Me Tangere".A plaque marks the Heidelberg building where he trained with Professor Becker, while in Wilhemsfeld, a smaller version of the Rizal Park with his bronze statue stands and the street where he lived was also renamed after him. A sandstone fountain in Pastor Ullmer’s house garden where Rizal lived in Wilhelmsfeld, stands. Rizal's multifacetedness was described by his German friend, Dr. Adolf Meyer, as "stupendous." Documented studies show him to be a polymath with the ability to master various skills and subjects. He was an ophthalmologist, sculptor, painter, educator, farmer,historian, playwright and journalist. Besides poetry and creative writing, he dabbled, with varying degrees of expertise, in architecture,cartography, economics, ethnology, anthropology, sociology, dramatics, martial arts, fencing and pistol shooting. He was also a Freemason, joining Acacia Lodge No. 9 during his time in Spain and becoming a Master Mason in 1884.<br />4. RiZAL SOJOURN EUROPEAN CONTRiES AFTER HiS STUDY.<br />5.RiZAL'S 1ST HOME COMiNG<br />In the summer of August 1887, Rizal decided to return to the Philippines for some months.The circumstances during his time were favorable because many authorities at that time were liberally inclined. Both the Gran Oriente de España and Luz de Oriente was composed of Spaniards and Filipino masons.Rizal’s priority was to cure his mother’s eyes, thus his first operation of being an ophthalmologist based from his experiences and studies, was very successful in removing a double cataract and restored Teodora’s vision.He then provided a lot for the community by opening a gymnasium for them, shared his knowledge about European sports and taught them to the young folks, he even practiced as a physician during his stay in Calamba.Then in the land troubles at Calamba he suggested to the tenants that they ask in the lawsuits that the landlords show their deeds. This he knew these would be unwilling to do because they were claiming more land than their deeds covered. Also he got the town to report the full amount of rents paid so that the landlords would have to pay taxes which before they had been escaping. The litigation had arisen from refusals to sign new and one-sided contracts, in which the Rizal family led the tenants.For some time back Rizal's father had been in disfavor with the hacienda owners through denying to the manager a present of a turkey once when an epidemic had reduced his flock to only a few birds. He had been accustomed to make such gifts at the official's request so that individual became angry and raised the rent, doubling it. Again he doubled it when he found the first raise did not cause Francisco Rizal-Mercado to come begging forgiveness, but his tenant was not of the kind that looked out for self-interest when he considered himself in the right. He stood up for his rights and the courts justified his position. Legally he won but an abuse of authority by an unscrupulous governor general cost him his property. Yet he never seemed to regret his stand and never asked sympathy.Governor General Terrero, who had given Rizal a lieutenant named Jose Taviel de Andrade of the Civil Guard as a bodyguard, found it difficult to protect him and, after six months, advised him to leave. In the interview the governor general spoke of having been interested in reading the extracts from "Noli Me Tangere" quoted by the censor in the petition for the book's prohibition, and requested a copy.His betrothed, Leonor Rivera, whom he idealized in the "Maria Clara" of "Noli Me Tangere," through the withholding of Rizal's letters and by representations that he no longer thought of her, had been persuaded to marry a young English engineer.<br />6. RIZAL’S expeRience in otheR countries<br />3 May 1882Rizal left Philippines for the first time Spain. He boarded the Salvadora using a passport of Jose Mercado, which was procured for him by his uncle Antonio Rivera, father of Leonor Rivera. He was accompanied to the quay where the Salvadora was moored by his uncle Antonio, Vicente Gella, and Mateo Evangelista.4 May 1882He got seasick on board the boat.5 May1882He conversed with the passengers of the ship; he was still feeling sea-sick.6 May 1882He played chess with the passengers on board.8 May 1882He saw mountains and Islands.9 May 1882Rizal arrived at Singapore.10 May 1882He went around the town of Singapore and maid some observations.11 May 1882In Singapore, at 2 p.m., Rizal boarded the boat Djemnah to continue his trip to Spain. He found the boat clean and well kept.12 May 1882He had a conversation with the passengers of the boat.13 May 1882Rizal was seasick again.14 May 1882On his way to Marseilles, Rizal had a terrible dream. He dreamed he was traveling with Neneng (Saturnina) and their path was blocked by snakes.May 15 1882Rizal had another disheartening dream. He dreamed he returned to Calamba and after meeting his parents who did not talk to him because of not having consulted them about his first trip abroad, he returned traveling abroad with one hundred pesos he again borrowed. He was so sad and broken hearted. Soon he woke up and found himself inside his cabin.17 May 1882Rizal arrived at Punta de Gales.18 May 1882At 7:30 a.m., he left Punta de Gales for Colombo. In the afternoon, Rizal arrived at Colombo and in the evening the trip was resumed.26 May 1882Rizal was nearing the African coast27 May 1882He landed at Aden at about 8:30 a.m. He made observation at the time.2 June 1882He arrived at the Suez Canal en route to Marseilles.3 June 1882He was quarantined on board the Djemnah in the Suez Canal.6 June 1882It was the fourth day at Suez Canal and was still quarantined on board of the boat.7 June 1882Rizal arrived at Port Said. In a letter to his parents, He described his trip en route to Aden along the Suez Canal.11 June 1882Rizal disembarked and, accompanied by a guide, went around the City of Naples for one hour. This was the first European ground he set foot on.12 June 1882At ten o’clock in the evening, the boat anchored at Marseilles. He sleptn board.13 June 1882Early on the morning he landed at Marseilles and boarded at the Noalles Hotel. Later he around for observation.14 June 1882His second in Marseilles.15 June 1882He left Marseilles for Barcelona in an express train.7. Rizal's travels<br />FIRST TRAVEL ABROAD3 May 1882Rizal left Philippines for the first time Spain. He boarded the Salvadora using a passport of Jose Mercado, which was procured for him by his uncle Antonio Rivera, father of Leonor Rivera. He was accompanied to the quay where the Salvadora was moored by his uncle Antonio, Vicente Gella, and Mateo Evangelista.4 May 1882He got seasick on board the boat.5 May1882He conversed with the passengers of the ship; he was still feeling sea-sick.6 May 1882He played chess with the passengers on board.8 May 1882He saw mountains and Islands9 May 1882Rizal arrived at Singapore.10 May 1882He went around the town of Singapore and maid some observations.11 May 1882In Singapore, at 2 p.m., Rizal boarded the boat Djemnah to continue his trip to Spain. He found the boat clean and well kept.12 May 1882He had a conversation with the passengers of the boat.13 May 1882Rizal was seasick again.14 May 1882On his way to Marseilles, Rizal had a terrible dream. He dreamed he was traveling with Neneng (Saturnina) and their path was blocked by snakes.May 15 1882Rizal had another disheartening dream. He dreamed he returned to Calamba and after meeting his parents who did not talk to him because of not having consulted them about his first trip abroad, he returned traveling abroad with one hundred pesos he again borrowed. He was so sad and broken hearted. Soon he woke up and found himself inside his cabin.17 May 1882Rizal arrived at Punta de Gales.18 May 1882At 7:30 a.m., he left Punta de Gales for Colombo. In the afternoon, Rizal arrived at Colombo and in the evening the trip was resumed.26 May 1882Rizal was nearing the African coast27 May 1882He landed at Aden at about 8:30 a.m. He made observation at the time.2 June 1882He arrived at the Suez Canal en route to Marseilles.3 June 1882He was quarantined on board the Djemnah in the Suez Canal.6 June 1882It was the fourth day at Suez Canal and was still quarantined on board of the boat.7 June 1882Rizal arrived at Port Said. In a letter to his parents, He described his trip en route to Aden along the Suez Canal.11 June 1882Rizal disembarked and, accompanied by a guide, went around the City of Naples for one hour. This was the first European ground he set foot on.12 June 1882At ten o’clock in the evening, the boat anchored at Marseilles. He sleptn board.13 June 1882Early on the morning he landed at Marseilles and boarded at the Noalles Hotel. Later he around for observation.14 June 1882His second in Marseilles.15 June 1882He left Marseilles for Barcelona in an express train.Rizal in Barcelona, Spain16 June 1882At 12:00 noon, Rizal arrived at Barcelona and boarded in the Fonda De España.23 June 1882In a letter, Rizal related to his parents his experiences during his trip from Port Said to Barcelona. In the same Letter, he requested them to send him a birth certificate and statement showing that he had parents in the Philippines.18 August 1882P. Leoncio Lopez of Calamba issued a certified copy of Rizal’s birth certificate.20 August 1882His article "Amor Patrio" was published in the Diarong Tagalog, a Manila newspaper edited by Basilio Teodoro. This was the First article he wrote abroad.Rizal in Paris 17 June 1883Rizal arrived at Paris. He spent the whole day walking around and observing the beautiful cities.18 June 1883With Felipe Zamora and Cunanan, He visited the Leannec Hospital to observe how Dr, Nicaise treated his patients. He was stunned to see the advanced facilities in the accommodation in the said hospital.19 June 1883He again visited Dr. Nicaise who showed the technique of operation. Later he went to see dupytren Museum.20 June 1883Rizal visited the Lariboisiere Hospital where Felix Pardo de Tavera was an extern. Here he observe the examination of the different diseases of women.21 June 1883After watching the done by Dr. Duply, he went to the Jardin d’ Acclimatation situated outside the Paris in the Forest of Bologna. He found there plants of all species and the rarest and most beautiful birds.5 July 1883In a letter to his parents, sisters and brother, Rizal continued describing the museum, buildings and hospitals he had visited in Paris.2 August 1883In a letter to his parents, he continued describing his visits to museum and his excursions to important place in Paris.<br />8. RIZAL’S 2nd home coming & the laliga fili<br />There were certain reasons as to why Jose Rizal would again return to his Fatherland. He decided to go home onMay 1892, with the following reasons:1. to confer with Governor Despujol regarding his proposol on the Borneo colonization.2. To establish the Liga Filipina in the Philippines. and3. To prove to his detractors, particularly Eduardo de Lete, that the latter was wrong in accusing Rizal of cowardliness and unbravely characteristic. It was said that de Lete attacked that Rizal was comfortable and safe in Hong Kong that he already abandoned the country's cause.As he arrived together with her sister Lucia in Manila, a series of events transpired. Among which are:June 26,1892 -(Sunday at 12:00 noon)Rizal and hissister Lucia arrived in Manila-Afternoon at 4:00 o'clock he went toMalacanang to seek audience with the Spanish GovernorGeneral Eulogio Despujol, Conde de Caspe. He was toldto come back at that night at 7:00 o'clock. Hereturned but told him to return on Wednesday (June29).June 27 -at 6:00 p.m. Rizal boarded a train in TutubanStation to visited his friends in Malolos(Bulacan),San Fernando (Pampanga), Tarlac(Tarlac), andBacolor(Pampanga). They discussed the problemsaffecting their people and took the oppurtunity togreet them personally.June 28 -at 5 o'clock in the afternoonRizal returnedto Manila by train. He was shadowed by the governmentspies who carefully his every movement. The homes hehad visited were seized by the Guardia CivilJune 29 -(Wednesday at 7:30) he saw his Excellency anddid not succeed to have the penalty of exile lifted.Hewas to come again the following day at 7:30June 30 -(thursday) they talked about the question ofBorneo and told Rizal to come back SundayJuly 3 -(Sunday) Rizal returned and talked aboutsundry things. Thanked Governor General Despujol forhaving lifted the exile of his sisters. asked him ifhe would like to go abroad to Hong Kong and answeredyes. Told him to return on WednesdayJuly 3, 1892 -(Sunday evening) Rizal attended ameeting of the patriots at the home of theChinese-Filipino mastizo on Ylaya Street, Tondo,Manila . RIzal explained the objectives of the LigaFilipina, a civic league of the Filipinos. Hepresented the Constitution of the Liga which he hadwritten in Hong Kong. The patriots were impressed andapproved the establishment of The LigaJuly 6 -(Wednesday) Rizal went to Malacanang to resumehis series of interviews with governor general. Thegovernor general showed hom some printed leafletswere entitled Pobres Frailes(Poor Friars). Rizaldenied having those leaflets. Despite his denial andinsistent demand for investigation. He was placedunder arrest and escorted to Fort Santiago by RamonDespujol the nephew and aide of Governor General.July 7 -the Gaceta de Manila publishedthe story ofRizal's arrest-the same issue the gubernatorial decree gavehim the reasonsfor Rizal's deportation.July 15, 1892 -(12:30a.m.)Rizal was brought underheavy guard to the streamer Cebu which was sailing toDapitan-(1:00 a.m.) the streamer under CAptainDelgras departed sailing south, passing Mindoro andPanayJuly 17, 1892 -reached Dapitan at 7:00 in the evening.Captain Delgras handed Rizal over to Captain RicardoCarnicero, Spanish commandant of Dapitan-the same night, Rizal began his exile inDapitan which would last until July 31, 1896, a periodof four years.After his exile in Dapitan, he would have one more hurrah at traveling abroad.On September 3, 1896, Rizal left for Spain from Manila.<br />9. RIZAL’S EXiLE in dapitan<br />Rizal was implicated in the activities of the nascent rebellion and in July 1892, was deported to Dapitan in the province of Zamboanga, a peninsula of Mindanao.[24] There he built a school, a hospital and a water supply system, and taught and engaged in farming andhorticulture.[citation needed] Abaca, then the vital raw material for cordage and which Rizal and his students planted in the thousands, was a memorial.The boys' school, in which they learned English, considered a prescient if unusual option then, was conceived by Rizal and antedated Gordonstoun with its aims of inculcating resourcefulness and self sufficiency in young men. They would later enjoy successful lives as farmers and honest government officials.[citation needed] One, a Muslim, became a datu, and another, José Aseniero, who was with Rizal throughout the life of the school, became Governor of Zamboanga.[citation needed]In Dapitan, the Jesuits mounted a great effort to secure his return to the fold led by Fray Sánchez, his former professor, who failed in his mission. The task was resumed by Fray Pastells, a prominent member of the Order. In a letter to Pastells, Rizal sails close to the ecumenism familiar to us today.<br />10. RIZAL’S tRip in abroad<br />11. RIZAL’S last home coming<br />Rizal's homecoming in 1896 was the last and the saddest return to his native land. He knew he was facing a great deal of adversary. He well knew that he is in big trouble, which could also mean that his head was at stake. But through it all, he was still gladly accepting the fact becuase he knew that he was doing this for his beloved country.Rizal would keep a diary, which would later be confiscated and used as evidences against Rizal, but to no avail. His arrival in Manila on a steamboat Colon, was greeted by the spaniards with glee, for it was time for reinforcing their militarymen. It also marked the trial of Jose Rizal.Rizal was subjected to a five-day grueling investigation. He was presented with both testimonial and documentary evidences. First, the trial was presided by Colonel Francisco Olive. Results of the preliminary investigation was forwarded to Governor General Ramon Blanco. Rizal was allowed to choose his defender. Although he only had a limited list to choose from, he chose a man that has a familiar thing with him. Luis Taviel de Andrade was chosen by Rizal to be his lawyer. He chose Luis because of the simliaraity of names between his then bodyguard Jose Taviel de Andrade. True enough, Luis and Jose were brothers.Whileat his prison cell at Fort Santiago, there was a battle outside of the courst. Rizal, being a man of peace and calmness, wrote a Manifesto to his people appealing to stop the unneccessary bloodshed. It hasn't been distributed because of the intervention of Governor General Polavieja.Luis Taviel de Andrade tried everything in his power to defend Rizal, but to no avail. Polvieja signed the document ordering the execution of Rizal. This would go down as one of the important person of history because of his infamous deed. This would lead to Rizal's last march to Bagumbayan.12. RIZAL’S Trials<br />13. RIZAL’S martrydom @ bagumbayanAccustomed to share the merry season with family, friends and relatives, the 1896 Christmas was in did, Rizal's saddest. Confined in a dark, gloomy cell, Rizal was in despair and had no idea of what his fate may be. Under this delusion, he wrote a letter to Lt. Taviel de Andrade requesting the latter to visit him before his trial for there was a very important matter they need to discuss. Likewise, Rizal greeted the lieutenant a joyous Christmas. The next day, December 26, about 8 o'clock in the morning, the court-martial of Rizal commenced. The hearing was actually a kind of moro-moro – a planned trial wherein Rizal, before hearing his verdict, had already been prejudged. Unlike other accused, Rizal had not been allowed to know the people who witnessed against him. The trial took place at Cuartel de España, a military building, with a court composed of seven military officers headed by Lt. Col. Jose Togores Arjona. Present at the courtroom were Jose Rizal, the six other officers in uniform (Capt. Ricardo Muñoz Arias, Capt. Manuel Reguera, Capt. Santiago Izquierdo Osorio, Capt. Braulio Rodriguez Nuñez, Capt. Manuel Diaz Escribano, and Capt. Fernando Perez Rodriguez), Lt. Taviel de Andrade, Judge Advocate Capt. Rafael Dominguez, Lt. Enrique de Alcocer (prosecuting attorney) and a number of spectators, including Josephine Bracken. After Judge Advocate Dominguez opened the trial, it was followed by Atty. Alcocer's reiteration of the charges against Rizal, urging the court that the latter be punished with death. Accordingly, the three crimes accused to him were rebellion, sedition and illegal association – the penalty for the first two being life imprisonment to death, while the last, correctional imprisonment and a charge of 325 to 3,250 pesetas. Lt. Taviel de Andrade, on the other hand, later took the floor reading his speech in defense of Rizal. To supplement this, Rizal read his own defense which he wrote in his cell in Fort Santiago. According to Rizal, there are twelve points to prove his innocence: 1. as testified by Pio Valenzuela, Rizal was against rebellion 2. he had not written a letter addressed to the Katipunan comprising revolutionary elements 3. without his knowledge, his name was used by the Katipunan; if he really was guilty, he could have escaped while he was in Singapore 4. if he was guilty, he should have left the country while in exile; he shouldn't have built a home, bought a parcel of land or established a hospital in Dapitan. 5. if he was really the leader of the revolution, the revolutionists should have consulted him. 6. he did not deny that he wrote the by-laws of the La Liga Filipina, but to make things clear, the organization was a civic association, not a revolutionary society. 7. after the first meeting of La Liga, the association banished because of his exile in Dapitan, thus, did not last long. 8. if the La Liga was reorganized nine months later, he had no idea about it 9. if the La Liga had a revolutionary purpose, then Katipunan should not have been organized. 10. if the Spanish authorities found his letters having bitter atmosphere, it was because in 1890 his family was being persecuted resulting to their dispossession of properties and deportation of all his brothers-in-law. 11. he lived an exemplary life in Dapitan – the politico-military commanders and missionary priests in the province could attest to that. 12. if according to witnesses the speech he delivered at Doroteo Ongjunco's house had inspired the revolution, then he want to confront these persons. If he really was for the revolution, then why did the Katipunan sent an unfamiliar emissary to him in Dapitan? It is so because all his friends were aware that he never advocated violence.But the military court remained indifferent to the pleads of Rizal. After a short deliberation, he was sentenced to be shot in musketry until death at 7 o'clock in the morning of December 30, 1896 at Bagumbayan. The decision was submitted to Gov. Polavieja who immediately sought the opinion of Nicolas de la Peña – the latter found the verdict just and final. Two days later, the governor general signed the court's decision and ordered Rizal's execution. Martyrdom at BagumbayanUpon hearing the court's decision, Rizal already knew that there's no way that his destiny would be changed – Rizal knew it was his end, and had accepted his fate. Captain Rafael Dominguez, at 6 o'clock in the morning of December 29, 1896, read before him the official notice of his execution, scheduled the next day. Rizal was immediately transferred to the prison chapel where he spent his last hours on earth. Inside the chapel, Rizal busied himself by writing correspondences to friends and family, bidding everyone farewell; and conversing with his Jesuit priests friends. He had a lot of visitors, arriving one or two after the other: • Fr. Miguel Saderra Mata – the Rector of the Ateneo Municipal; arrived in the prison early in the morning. • Fr. Luis Viza – came with Fr. Mata; the priest to whom Rizal asked for the image of the Sacred Heart of Jesus which he made during his stay in Ateneo. • Fr. Antonio Rosell – another friend of Rizal who gladly eaten a fine breakfast with him; returned in the afternoon to resume his talk with Rizal. • Lt. Taviel de Andrade – Rizal extended his appreciation for Andrade's services as his defense counsel. • Fr. Federico Faura – had prophesied earlier rather comically that Rizal would lose his head for writing the Noli Me Tangere, and the latter “congratulated” the priest for being right. • Fr. Jose Villaclara – Rizal's former teacher in Ateneo; ate lunch with him. • Fr. Vicente Balaguer – accompanied Fr. Villaclara; ate luch with Rizal as well. • Santiago Mataix – contributor in the El Heraldo de Madrid • Teodora Alonzo – Rizal knelt before his beloved mother, begging for forgiveness and understanding; the mother and son were separated by the strong grip of the prison guard. • Trinidad – arrived when Teodora left the chapel; to her, Rizal handed down an alcohol cooking stove and whispered that something was inside it (turned out to be his last piece, the Mi Ultimo Adios, written in a small piece of paper). • Gaspar Castaño – fiscal of the Royal Audiencia; had a good conversation with Rizal. Late at night, around 10 o'clock, a retraction letter prepared by Archbishop Bernardino Nozaleda was presented to Rizal, however, he rejected it for being too long. Fr. Balaguer, on the other hand, showed another draft from Fr. Pio Pi, which Rizal liked but wanted some parts of which be changed. By 11:30pm, Rizal wrote and signed the retraction letter in which he renounced the mason movement – witnesses to this event were Juan del Fresno (Chief of the Guard Detail) and Eloy Moure (Assistant of the Plaza). Rizal then confessed to Fr. Villaclara, and after which, slept. Two hours later, he rose up and prayed and confessed again. Inside the chapel, he knelt before the altar and prayed with the rosary. He, for the third time, confessed to Fr. Villaclara and once finished, read Imitacíon de Cristo by Tomas á Kempis. At 3:30 in the morning of December 30, 1896, Fr. Balaguer lead a mass – Rizal, once again, made a confession and received Communion. At 5:00am, he ate his last breakfast and autographed some memorabilia including religious pictures and books which will be passed on to his mother, and her sister, Trinidad. Accompanied by his sister Narcisa, Josephine Bracken arrived and as requested by Rizal, the couple was canonically blessed as husband and wife by Fr. Balaguer. To Josephine, Rizal gave the Imitacíon de Cristo as wedding gift. For the last time, he wrote a letter to his parents, Ferdinand Blumentritt and Paciano. By 6:30am, Rizal's march to Bagumbayan commenced. He – in his black suit, black necktie, black hat, black shoes and white vest – calmly walked from his prison cell in Fort Santiago to the execution site, with Lt. Taviel de Andrade on one side, and Fathers Estanislao March and Jose Villaclara, on the other side. They walked behind four advanced guards armed with bayonets. Jose Rizal was tied behind from elbow to elbow, although, still had the freedom to move his arms. In his right arm was a rosary which he kept on holding until his final breath. Meters before the execution place, a number of spectators awaited Rizal. During his long march, Rizal saw familiar faces and places; he spent his time reminiscing his childhood, the fun he had with his family and friends. In the Bagumbayan Field, Rizal shook the hands of the two priests and his defender, bidding them farewell. A priest blessed and offered him a crucifix which he gently kissed. Rizal had one request, that is, that he be shot facing the firing squad, however, in vain since the captain of the squad ordered a back shot. As such, Rizal had no choice but to turn his back. A physician by the name of Dr. Felipe Ruiz Castillo, was amazed that Rizal's vital signs were normal, particularly his pulse rate – was Rizal really unafraid to die? The firing squad was commanded in unison with drumbeats. Upon the brisk command “Fire!”, the guns of the squad flared. Rizal, by his sheer effort and remaining energy, twisted his body around to face the firing squad, and so, fell on the ground with his face toward the blue sky, his head slightly inclined toward the rising sun in the east. What can be heard from the crowd of Spaniards was their loud, audible voice, shouting “Long live Spain! Death to traitors!” Jose Rizal died at exactly 7:03 in the morning of December 30.<br />

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