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Chapter 2

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  • 1. 15 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies This chapter indicates the ideas relevant to thepresent subject relating to the other studies and is brieflydiscussed to provide the foundation of the proposed. Inorder to develop a new method and procedures, careful reviewof literature and studies had done for the development ofthe system.Local Literature In today‟s busy world, traveling has emerged as animportant leisure activity that people undertake. Motivatesfor travel come in a variety of reasons, among them are forphysical enjoyment. These include rest, relaxation andrecreation that would lead to release of stress or lesseningof tension from work. Others desire to learn about placesand their culture, while some enjoy meeting people orvisiting old friends and relatives. Self-fulfillment can
  • 2. 16 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTalso be achieved through traveling as it contributes topersonal development and even elevates social status (Cruz,2006; Goeldner& Richie, 2006; Claravall, 2008).“A person-trip is defined as one person taking one trip. Iftwo persons go on that trip, that equals two-person trips. Atrip is any travel 100 miles or more away from home”.(Introduction to Management in the Hospitality IndustryClayton W. Barrows and Tom Powers p.415) A tour becomes doubly enjoyable when there is a well-trained tour guide who makes a place of interest alive withhis commentaries on almost anything: history, geography,architecture, food, customs, and legend of trivia. Anaverage tourist may rely on guidebooks but the knowledgethat imparted by a tour guide may not be found in anybrochure. Tour guides are much like teachers; they deliverinformation about a destination in an accurate and engagingfashion. Thus, Mancini (2006) mentions that eighty percent
  • 3. 17 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT(80%) of tour travelers who became part of a previous surveywere extremely satisfied in tours where “learning” was animportant component. They too, were eager to share what theylearned to their friends and relatives. A tour guide is anindividual who leads groups of tourists around a town,museum or other tourist attraction. The guide providescorrect and accurate information on the features, events andhistory of the location; it is given therefore that he hasbroad knowledge about the destination (Cruz, 2009).Claravall further expounds that a tour guide is”. . . eitheran employee or affiliate of a duly licensed travel and touragency, guides tourists, both foreign and domestic, for afee, commission or any other form of lawful remuneration onlocal sightseeing excursions. (p.237).” Guides contributegreatly to the overall tourist experience with theirknowledge, skill and wit. A tour guide personalizes visit toany destination through his commentary, keeping hisnarration light and engaging so that his guests will
  • 4. 18 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTthoroughly enjoy themselves. Through the information heimparts, he fosters greater understanding among the localsand tourists. He informs the visitors about the localculture and environment. At the same time, he cautions themon how they must conduct themselves in the destination. Thisway, misconceptions about communities are cleared up andtourists come to appreciate local culture and theenvironment. Moreover, a tour guides take care of the safetyof his guests while in the destination.“A tour guide may take people on sight-seeing excursions oflimited duration”(Travel Perspectives A Guide to Becoming a Travel Professional GingerGorham/ Susan Rice p.9) A tour manager or tour escort, however is differentfrom a tour guide. While both carry administration dutiesand handle clients booked with a tour operator, a tourmanager is an individual who accompanies the guests for theduration of the entire tour (from point of origin to the
  • 5. 19 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTdestination and back) and manages the groups, movements andactivities. The tour guide on the other hand acts as thehost and operates only in one area or destination. He iswith the tour only for few hours, usually returning to hishome each night.(Mancini, 2007; Cruz, 2009; Collins, 2000; Claravall, 2008). Guiding people is a talent. It is to gather all theimportant information. A good tourist guide is the one, whopresents all the information in a simple yet exact way.Being a tour guide is a unique opportunity to live and workwith the must-see places and sites of the world. A key factor in the cultural process of conceptformation has been the tour guide. The modern role of tourguiding has its roots in the Grand Tour of the 17th and 18thcenturies: „the most satisfactory method of travelling was .. . under the direction and with the help of a vetturino .. . who acted as guide and courier‟(TOURISM: A New Perspective/Peter M. Burns and Andrew Holden p.57)
  • 6. 20 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT There are many different types of tours and so thereare a great many types of tour guides. However, there aresome essential skills all tour guides must have in order tobe effective. In Communication Skill: Oratory skills, where a tourguide must have great communication skills and be able totalk in depth and at length repeatedly throughout the daysand weeks. This takes a lot of toll on a person‟s tongue,mouth and throat and experience and skill at speeches andtalking would be an essential skill for any tour guide. Knowledge, a tour guide must have extensive andaccurate knowledge of the flora, fauna and history of thelocal area as well as the site or sites they arespecifically touring. A tour group tends to task manysimilar questions but there will always be something new. Research skills, the biggest difference between a goodtour guide and a bad one is the accuracy and how up to datetheir information is. A tour guide should have good research
  • 7. 21 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTskills so they have right info the information. Engaging personality, to provide enjoyable tours, atour guide should also have an outgoing, enthusiastic andengaging personality. Someone who enjoys questions and canentertain their group is something tour companies look for. An interest in traveling, many tour companies try tofind guides who have traveled extensively so they may beable to better serve the variety of cultures and ethnicitiesthey will encounter in a tour group. Organizational skills, there is a great amount oforganization needed for being a tour guide both in theinformation they many provide and as well as taking accountof everybody in a single tour group to ensure their safety. Memory, a tour guide should have a high capacity formemorization because of the amount they are expected to knowand be able to tell off the top of their head without goingback to look things up.
  • 8. 22 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT Patience, everything seems obvious to the one who knowsthe answer, and as a tour guide you will often encountersituations where a great deal of patience is needed. It isalso necessary to be able to cope with stressed tourists andpossible dissatisfied customers. Confidence, as the face and voice of ancient castlesand living cultures, a certain amount of confidence isneeded to project authority and mastery of the information.A hesitant or unconfident tour guide is not only unpleasantto watch but also will not inspire confidence in their tour. Leadership skills, to ensure an enjoyable and effectivetour, a guide must have some leadership abilities toencourage and direct the group when needed. Depending on thetype of tour offered, the guide may have to travel with agroup for a long time or over significant distance and to dothis it is essential they are a good leader.(http://www.paidemployment.com/Articles/Ten_Essential_Skills_for_a_Tour_Guide;173.aspx)
  • 9. 23 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT Time management skills are the abilities of a tourguide to recognize and solve personal time managementproblems. The goal of these time management lessons is toshow tour guide what he can do to improve those skills. Withgood time management skills you are in control of your timeand your life, of your stress and energy levels. You makeprogress at work. You are able to maintain balance betweenyour work, personal, and family lives. You have enoughflexibility to respond to surprises or new opportunities. Safety is something many guides overlook. Nothing ismore critical than making sure your guests are safe. Alwayscarry an emergency medical kit on your person. Band-Aids areparticularly important because feet tend to blister from allthe walking associated with sight-seeing. At your earliestconvenience take a CPR training course.Decision making is an essential leadership skill. If tourguide can learn how to make timely, well-considered
  • 10. 24 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTdecisions, then tour guide can lead his team to well-deserved success. Tour guides are one of the key front-line players inthe tourism industry. Through their knowledge andinterpretation of a destinations attractions and culture,and their communication and service skills, they have theability to transform the tourists‟ visit from a tour into anexperience. The role and duties may not be that glamorous asthe profession, in many countries, lacks a well-definedcareer path and their incomes are reliant on a variety ofincome sources. “As a tour guide, you occupy a key position in thepromotion of this world wide industry... you become thebridge between nations, you can promote friendly contact,rapport and understanding between peoples“.(Tour Guiding Primer, 2008, p. 6)
  • 11. 25 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTForeign Literature Customer expectations are “pretrial beliefs about aproduct …that serve as standards or reference points againstwhich product performance is judged” (Zeithaml, Berry, &Parasuraman, 2003, p. 1). Most research on serviceexpectations has entailed examination of either servicequality or satisfaction. This comes as no surpriseconsidering the central role expectation plays inconceptualizing satisfaction and service quality (Moutinho,2007; Oliver, 2000; Parasuraman, Berry, & Zeithaml, 2001;Pizam, Neumann, & Reichel, 2008; Turner, Reisinger, &McQuilken, 2001; Zeithamletc al., 2003).Customer expectations have been studied in cross-culturalcontexts. For instance, in their study on hotel servicequality and customer satisfaction in China, Y. Wang andPearson (2002) assessed service expectation by evaluatingthe importance of various service items. More recently,Kanousi‟s (2005) study showed that culture may impact
  • 12. 26 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTservice recovery expectations, and specificallyindividualism, masculinity, and long-term orientation (i.e.,three of the five Hofstadter cultural dimensions) wererelated to service recovery expectations. Similarly, KuehandVoon (2007) examined how culture influences the serviceexpectations of Generation Y consumers, and their findingsshowed that uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientationpositively affected service quality expectations, but powerdistance affected service quality expectations in a negativeway. Taking a qualitative approach, Lidén and Edvardsson(2003) examined customer expectations on service guaranteesin public transport. In seven focus group sessions,participants were told how to develop a chart of theirexpectations on service guarantees. Lidén and Edvardsson(2003) also explored in detail customers‟ needs and thoughtsas sources of expectation. Their findings emphasized theimportance of fairness as part of the guideline of service
  • 13. 27 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTguarantee design. Next, the authors will turn to a review ofChinese outbound tourism. 2.3. The Development of ChineseOutbound Tourism. The Chinese government, through theestablishment of the Approved Destination Status (ADS)system, started allowing the Chinese public to traveloverseas for leisure purposes in early 2000s. Nevertheless,some may argue the starting point of Chinese outboundtourism could be tracked back to 2003, when Mainland Chinesecitizens were allowed to visit Hong Kong and Macao underspecial arrangements (Qu & Lam, 2007; Zhang & Heung, 2001).In 2007, through the enactment of the “ProvisionalRegulation on Self-supported Outbound Travel,” the Chinesegovernment officially revised its tourism policy so thatpeople could travel abroad at their own expense (Arlt, 2006;Guo, Kim, & Timothy, 2007). To date, there were a total of139 countries and territories with ADS, and 104 of theseagreements were already implemented (Qian, 2010). In 2009,Mainland Chinese citizens made approximately 47.66 million
  • 14. 28 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTtrips outside Mainland China (Qian, 2010).The rapid growth of Chinese outbound tourism has beenfrequently associated with such descriptors as “stunning” or“astonishing” (Guo et al., 2007; Y. Wang & Sheldon, 2005).Thanks to the country‟s fast economic development, risingindividual wealth, and the relaxation of much travelrestrictions imposed by authorities, the Chinese outboundtourism market grew at an average rate of 21 percent peryear from 2002 to 2007 (National Bureau of Statistics ofChina, 2003; 2004; 2008). Indeed, the unleashed demand fortravel abroad is so large that the growth rate of China‟soutbound travel surpassed that of the country‟s nationaleconomy, inbound and domestic tourism, and primarily allother Asian and developed countries (Guo et al., 2007).Also, Chinese outbound tourism has been developing steadily;in 2003, when SARS was sweeping the globe, the total numberof Chinese outbound visitors still increased by 21.8%(National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2004). In the year
  • 15. 29 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTof 2009, despite the global economic slowdown, Chinaoutbound tourism maintains a 4-percent growth rate (Qian,2010). From destinations‟ point of view, China has become animportant source market. In Asian countries such as Japan,Singapore, and the Philippines, the Greater China Region(Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan) has emergedas their leading source market (Japanese Tourism MarketingCo., 2009; Philippine Department of Tourism, 2009; SingaporeDepartment of Statistics, 2009). In other countries, such asthe United States, Canada and the United Kingdom, China isamong their fastest-growing source markets and has quicklybecome one of their top Asian markets (Canadian TourismCommission, 2008; Office for National Statistics, 2008;Sheatsley etc., al., 2009). A recent study estimated that the current Chineseoutbound travel market comprises approximately 22 millionpeople who have traveled or plan to travel to destinations
  • 16. 30 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENToutside Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macao. Among them,11.5 million have traveled or plan to travel to destinationsoutside Asia (Li, xHarrill, Uysal, Burnett, & Zhan, 2010).Although the current size of Chinese outbound travel isalready quite impressive, from a percentage-of-totalpopulation standpoint, Chinese outbound tourism developmentremains in an early stage but with huge growth potential(Lim & Y. Wang, 2008). Further, despite the current globaleconomic slowdown, China‟s economy is by and large in goodshape. Chinese outbound travel is hence expected to continuegrowing steadily (although at a lower rate) and “contributeto the stability of the world‟s tourism economy” (Dai,2008). This will probably make China an even more importanttarget market for destination marketing organizations (DMOs)worldwide.Local Studies A tour guide is an individual who leads groups oftourists around a town, museum or other tourist attraction.
  • 17. 31 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTThe guide provides correct and accurate information on thefeatures, events and history of the location. It is giventherefore that he has broad knowledge about the destination(Cruz, 2009). Claravall further expounds that a tour guideis “. . . either an employee or affiliate of a duly licensedtravel and tour agency, guides tourists, both foreign anddomestic, for a fee, commission or any other form of lawfulremuneration on local sightseeing excursions. (p. 237).” Tourist guiding has an important and multifaceted rolein tourism. A safe and quality experience offered by aguided tour involves the guide, tourists and theenvironment, and is fulfilled when all the three componentsinteract at the same point in space and time. The role ofguides in the tourism system distinguishes itself by itspotential to manage and orchestrate tourist experiences,enhance destination image and implement the goals ofresponsible tourism.
  • 18. 32 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT A well-traveled person has a wider outlook in life;more often than not they are also looked up by others.Travel, after all is considered a natural teacher and abridge to understanding of people. It is not surprisingtherefore, that Cruz (2006) describes travelling not as awant but a need. Tour guiding is a very satisfying occupation. Asidefrom meeting many people, one can earn a good salary, not tomention tips that satisfied guests will give. Andoy Dalimag,enthusiastically shares his experience: “Being a touristguide is fun and almost like playing. . . It is something Ilike doing because my town has a great tourist attractionplus I get to meet and learned from the people I tour(Gordon commends, 2008).” A tour guide is not uprooted fromhis home and does not have the responsibility of overseeingto all the needs of his clients, unlike that of a tourescort. It also builds character and challenges one‟sskills. Constant interaction with different types of people
  • 19. 33 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTtests one‟s patience and decision making skills (Mancini,2006). Guides contribute greatly to the overall touristexperience with their knowledge, skill and wit. A tour guidepersonalizes visit to any destination through hiscommentary, keeping his narration light and engaging so thathis guests will thoroughly enjoy themselves. Through the information he imparts, he fosters greaterunderstanding among the locals and the tourists. He informsthe visitors about the local culture and environment. At thesame time, he cautions them on how they must conductthemselves in the destination. This way, misconceptionsabout communities are cleared up and tourists come toappreciate local culture and the environment. Moreover, atour guide takes care of the safety of his guests while inthe destination.
  • 20. 34 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTForeign Studies The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (Hornby, 2000,p.572) defines a guide as „a person who shows other peoplethe way to a place, especially somebody employed to showtourist around interesting places‟. In this definition,providing direction is indicated as the primarily role of aguide. This path finding role is the original function of aguide who acts as a geographical guide to offer directions(Cohen, 2005). A key actor in the cultural process of conceptformation has been the tour guide. The modern role of tourguiding has its roots in the Grand Tour of the 17th and 18thcenturies: „the most satisfactory method of travelling was .. . under the direction and with the help of an vetturino. . . who acted as guide and courier‟(TOURISM: a new perspective/Peter M. Burns/Andrew Holden p.57)
  • 21. 35 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT The International Association of Tour Managers (IATM)ant the European Federation of Tourist Guide as a person whoguides groups or individual visitors from abroad or from thehome country around the monuments, sites and museums of acity or region; to interpret in an inspiring andentertaining manner, in the language of the visitor‟schoice, the cultural and natural heritage and environment(European Federation of Tourist Guide Associations, 2008). These industry bodies perceive the tour guide‟s role asproviding not only direction but also cultural andenvironmental interpretation. It is implied thatinterpretation is a part of guiding. The practice ofinterpretation was originally used in the USA National ParkService, and then adopted by others in both the public andnon-public sectors. The goal of interpretation is to conveythe magnificence of a place, inspire visitors and ultimatelyconvince them of the need to persevere parklands‟ (Pond,2003, p.71). „Interpretation provides the sociological,
  • 22. 36 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTeducational and cultural underpinning of guiding‟ (Pond,2003, p.71). Cohen (2005) posits that interpretation is theessence of the cultural-mediating role of tour guides, As aresult, interpretation is increasingly recognized by tourismindustry bodies and researches as a key function of guiding(Cohen, 2005; Weiler et al., 2001; Pond, 2003; Gurung etal., 2006; Weiler and Ham, 2011). In addition, the aforementioned definitions underlinethe multifaceted nature of the guiding job by categorizingtour guides based on types of tours including inbound ordomestic; the tour setting such as city or regional; thesubject matter (e.g. cultural, natural heritage andenvironment) as well as the negative language of the tourclient. As indicated in their organizational names, we can seethat the International Association of Tour Managers (IATM)and European Federation of Tourist Guide Associations(EFTGA) also distinguish between the job of a tour manager
  • 23. 37 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTand a tour guide. Tour Manager, often used interchangeablywith courier, tour escort and tour leader, refers to aperson whose escorts the group during the entire trip, andis mainly responsible for managing the logistical aspects ofthe tour (Cohen, 2005). A tour guide, normally city-based,accompanies the group on day tours and sometimes onovernight tours. His or her major role is to provide thegroup with the information on the visited place(s). The tourguide might also undertake some of the administrativeresponsibilities of a tour manager (Hollaway, 2001).However, in many cases, especially in non-urban areas, theroles of tour manager and guide are often merged and thedifferences between the two are blurred. For the purpose ofthis chapter, we define a tour guide as someone who playsthe roles of both tour manager and tour guide.“A tour guide may take people on sight-seeing excursions oflimited duration”
  • 24. 38 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT(Travel Perspectives A Guide to Becoming a Travel Professional/Susan Ricep.9) This review of definitions of tour guides reveals thata tour guide‟s role can be multifaceted, including provisionof direction and information on attractions and the visitedregion, facilitating understanding of the destination andits culture and managing the safety, security and control ofthe group (Schmit, 2009; Hollaway, 2001; Pond, 2003). Thelevel of demand for each of these roles depends upon thenature of the group and the situation (Hollaway, 2001).Based on existing definitions, we define a tour guide ofinbound group tours as a person who leads groups from abroadto the important sites of a city or region, providescommentary and interpretation of cultural and naturalattractions in the language of the visitors, facilitatestourists‟ experiences in the host country and manages thetour.
  • 25. 39 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT Most respondents showed interest in local culture andcustoms such as participating in local events, festivals,and shows. A respondent in Beijing commented, “[I would liketo experience] local surroundings. For example, youngertourists who visit England can go to a concert to experiencethe atmosphere; older tourists may want go to an opera.”Participants in Beijing and Shenzhen said that they preferto see things not available in China. For instance, somewere curious about red-light districts, sex museums, andother adult-entertainment venues, simply because those areprohibited in China. Although half of the FGs would like toexperience some local nightlife, respondents in Guangzhouand Nanjing thought that evening should be reserved forresting because daytime activities are exhausting. As for activities, some FG participants reportedinterests in shopping. For example, a respondent in Xi‟anexpected tour operators to have a better understanding of“…Chinese shopping habits: What kind of things should they
  • 26. 40 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTbuy when traveling abroad? What gifts would they buy forseniors and what would they buy for children? So that theycould provide suitable products to satisfy Chinese needs forshopping.”Another respondent in Shenzhen preferred to visit“shopping areas with local flavor instead of regular shops.No matter if purchases are made, the experience will bebetter.” A respondent in Tianjin commented, “The only thingwhich attracts me is shopping; there are internationalbrands at very good prices.” All participants indicated thatthey did not want “forced” shopping. In addition, theiractivities of interest include extreme sports, horse-riding,fruit-picking, gambling, shows, and parties.Synthesis of Related Literature and Studies Based on our groups‟ research, we are confident toconclude that a Filipino tour guide provide a link betweentourists and destinations by giving information thateventually helps in understanding and appreciation ofcultures.
  • 27. 41 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT Therefore, there are some essential skills all tourguides must have in order to be effective. Communication Skills. 1.Oratory skills 2.Knowledge3.Research skills 4.Engaging personality 5.An interest intraveling 6.Organizational skills 7.Memory8.Patience9.Confidence10.Leadership skills;(http://www.paidemployment.com/Articles/Ten_Essential_Skills_for_a_Tour_Guide;173.aspx)Management Skills; Critical thinking skills; Decision makingskills. However, we found out that the functions andeffectiveness of the tourist guide in every touristdestination depends on the qualities of a tour guide suchas: enthusiasm, outgoing and approachable, self-confidence,proactive nature, sensitivity, flexibility, authenticity,pleasant, professional appearance, sense of humor,knowledge, good communication skills, organization,
  • 28. 42 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTdecisiveness, good health, personal integrity, charisma,love of country, people-loving, open mindedness,tactfulness, punctuality, proper decorum, honesty,resourcefulness, fairness in treatment, patience, reasonableand humble.