1 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT CHAPTER 1 The Problem and Its BackgroundIntroduction A tour guide is a person who leads groups of peoplearound a town, museum, or other tourist venue. The tourguide provides a commentary on the features and history ofthe location. The tours can be from as little as 10-15minutes to extended periods over many days. Considerableimportance is placed on the guides knowledge of localstories, history and culture depending on the location ofthe tour. This is a course for learning or validating theskills and duties involved in tour guiding for a tourismorganization. The tasks and responsibilities of a tour guide includethe following: describe tour points of interest to groupmembers, and respond to questions, escort individuals orgroups on cruises, sightseeing tours, or through places ofinterest such as industrial establishments, public
2 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTbuildings, and art galleries, conduct educational activitiesfor school children, monitor visitors activities to ensurecompliance with establishment or tour regulations and safetypractices, provide directions and other pertinentinformation to visitors, greet and register visitors, andissue any required identification badges or safety devices,distribute brochures and explain establishment processes andoperations at tour sites and research various topics,including site history, environmental conditions, andclients skills and abilities to plan appropriateexpeditions, instruction, and commentary. Filipinos are fun-loving and friendly people.Throughout the islands, there are festivals celebrated everyday and foreign guests are always welcome in their homes.Theoretical Framework Expectancy Theory proposes that a person will decide tobehave or act in a certain way because they are motivated toselect a specific behavior over other behaviors due to whatthey expect the result of that selected behavior will be.
3 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTIn essence, the motivation of the behavior selection isdetermined by the desirability of the outcome. However, atthe core of the theory is the cognitive process of how anindividual processes the different motivational elements.This is done before making the ultimate choice. The outcomeis not the sole determining factor in making the decision ofhow to behave. Expectancy theory is about the mental processesregarding choice, or choosing. It explains the processesthat an individual undergoes to make choices. In the studyof organizational behavior, expectancy theory isa motivation theory first proposed by Victor Vroom ofthe Yale School of Management. "This theory emphasizes the needs for organizations torelate rewards directly to performance and to ensure thatthe rewards provided are those rewards deserved and wantedby the recipients." Victor H. Vroom (2004) defines motivation as a processgoverning choices among alternative forms of voluntaryactivities, a process controlled by the individual. The
4 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTindividual makes choices based on estimates of how well theexpected results of a given behavior are going to match upwith or eventually lead to the desired results. Motivationis a product of the individual’s expectancy that a certaineffort will lead to the intended performance, theinstrumentality of this performance to achieving a certainresult, and the desirability of this result for theindividual, known as valence. Dependency theory, also referred to as core-peripherytheory, is based upon the inter-relationshipbetween development and underdevelopment. The term“dependency” can be used to signify economic, social orpolitical dependency, but in reality these different typesof dependency are all inter-related. Economic dependencyoften leads to social and political dependency, with thelatter two may be more difficult to establish in anobjective manner. Tourism development may exhibit thesymptoms of dependency theory when it results in theenrichment of developed metropolitan areas at the expense ofpoorer, underdeveloped regions. International examples often
5 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTcited tend to be small island states in close proximity tolarge industrialized economies (such as Caribbean tourismdestinations). However, dependency theory has also beencited for the larger landmasses of Afro-Asia and LatinAmerica. One could argue in most of these cases that theweakness of the internal political and economic structuresmade it likely that they would become dependentupon other nations during the late nineteenth and earlytwentieth centuries. With the advent of mass tourism, even those countriesthat were not sought out for their mineral deposits, slavelabor, strategic military locations or agricultural climateswere inevitably going to be brought into the dependencychain. But dependency theory may also relate to domestictourism where sparsely populated peripheral regions findthat their economic structures have been distorted by thedemands derived by tourism activity. Many issues surroundingtourism developments, such as second homes, often involvedependency. For instance, the land and general price
6 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTinflation that may be associated with tourism developmentmay make it impossible for local residents to purchase theirown homes or to survive in the area while engaged in moretraditional industries. This then makes the local economydependent upon tourism for its survival. The underlyingthesis of dependency theory is that the so-called developedareas are subject to sustained indigenous growth, whereasunderdeveloped areas exhibit reliance upon external factorsand, as such, derive their growth from the developed ormetropolitan areas: hence the term dependency.
7 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTConceptual Framework INPUT PROCESS OUTPUTThe local Willtourist’s extent to theperception to Qualities ofthe Filipino Survey a Tour Guide:Tour Guides Questionnaires.in terms of: Good Interview and communic Personal Statistical and ation ity; treatment of skills Communic Data Analysis. Knowledg ation e Skills Interpretation and of Gathered Personal Technica Data. integrit l y Skills? Professi onal appearan ce Sense of humor Punctual ity Tactfuln FEEDBACK ess Fig. 1 Conceptual Paradigm of the Study
8 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTConceptual Paradigm of the Study Figure 1 illustrates the different variables thataffect the expectations of Local Tourist to Filipino TourGuides. These input variables greatly affect their jobperformances. The variables are: The job performance alongpersonality effectiveness wherein Filipino tour guides arewell groomed, has a sense of anticipation, and good manners;along communication skills wherein Filipino tour guidescommunicate effectively with tourists, expresses ideasclearly and uses refined language in dealing with others;along skill efficiency and quality of work wherein Filipinotour guides possesses knowledge in handling tourists’ day today activity, arranges itinerary, and schedules effectivelyand; along public relations wherein tour guides showsgenuine respect for human personalities, maintain goodrapport between tourist – tour guide relationships. All customers have different needs and want that needto be fulfilled. These needs and wants build up theirexpectations of the tourism product purchased. If these
9 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTinput factors are valued, carefully examined and objectivelyimplemented more likely Filipino tour guides tend todisplay: maintain personal effectiveness, propercommunication techniques, improved and upgraded performanceand competencies and good feedback to tourists.Statement of the Problem This study is intended to find out the expectations andperceptions of tourists towards Filipino tour guides. Morespecifically, the researchers sought to answer the followingquestions: 1. How do the local tourists perceive the Filipino TourGuides in terms of: 1.1 Personality; 1.2 Communication Skills and 1.3 Technical Skills? 2. Is there a significant difference on perception ofthe local tourist to the Filipino Tour Guides using theabove mentioned variables?
10 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT 3. From the findings of the study, what do theresearchers recommend?Hypothesis There is no significant difference on the perception ofthe local tourists to the Filipino Tour Guides when groupedaccording to sex.Scope and Limitations of the Study The study is limited to the following scope: theresearchers will rely on information that will be gatheringfrom the Filipino Tourists and some person will be able tohelp by giving information and ideas regarding the researchwork. A questionnaire will be distributed during thepersonal interview with the Filipino people, and tourguides.Significance of the Study The study will benefit the following: as guide for theFilipino people especially the tourism students, tourguides, the Department of the Tourism and the people
11 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTconcerned to Tourism Industry. To be aware with theperception, expectation, wants, needs and motives of theFilipino tourist. The researchers will work hard together toencourage and motivate the Filipino people to travel aroundthe country. To the Filipino Tourists. Knowing the performance oftour guides in a certain firm, may provide some strategiesin teaching and guidelines for the implementation offunctional guidance program and activities that will benefitfor the students taking up tourism course or to the futuretour guides. To the Students/Future Tour Guides. It may provide someinsights as to how to impart good tour guide skills neededin a certain firm. To the Tour Guides. To understand the condition ofperformance of tour guides’ task and its relationship topersonal effectiveness, communication, skill efficiency andquality of work, and public relations that is necessary so
12 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENTas to help them in facing their problems and be able toovercome and eliminate them as they become fully successful;and to be able to know their strength and weaknesses as tourguides who yearns for more efficient employee. To the Travel Agencies. To serve as the base fortravel agency with regards to hiring of their tour guides.Travel agencies may be able to determine which is moreemployable, if it is the single tour guides or married ones.The improvement of better tour guiding that may result fromthis study may lead to a better employer’s employeerelationship; good rapport between the company and theirtour guides same with the other employees in the company.Definition of Terms The researchers believe that some terms needclarification in order to impart his ideas clearly. Theseterms are defined as they are used in this research.
13 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT Communication Skills. This refers to the expression ofideas clearly to clients, using refined language in dealingwith others; utilizes regular channel of communication. Perceived. This refers to become aware of directlythrough any of the senses, especially sight or hearing.http://www.thefreedictionary.com/perceived Perception. This refers to the act or faculty ofapprehending by means of the senses or of the mind;cognition; understanding. Immediate or intuitiverecognition or appreciation, as of moral, psychological, oraesthetic qualities; insight; intuition; discernment: anartist of rare perception. Personality. This refers to individual characteristicsof one person that reflects to himself. Public relation. This refers to the methods andactivities employed by an individual, organization, orgovernment to promote a favorable relationship with thepublic.
14 EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT Technical Skill. This refers to the proficiency,ability or dexterity; in typing, dictation and keepingrecords. Tour Guide. This refers to a person who guides visitorsin the language of their choice and interprets the culturaland natural heritage of an area. Tourists. This refers to the person who travels forpleasure, usually sightseeing and staying in hotels.