REDD took over in 2008 from previous community forest work since 2003. 13 local Community Forestry Committees. 58 villages. Technical support from the Forestry Administration, Technical Working Group on Forestry and Environment, Terra Global Capital, Climate Change Clinton International, and PACT Cambodia. Grant from DANIDA. Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) and has been approved. No revenue from carbon credits yet. A Consultation Workshop for the project was held with local community - 30 years under a REDD programme. biomass inventory made of the area. A 30-year agreement was signed between the Forestry Administration and PACT Cambodia.
Community Rights and Forest Carbon Markets Case Studies from Cambodia and IndonesiaShalmali Guttal, Focus on the Global South, August 1, 2012
Oddar MeancheyTerra Global Capital + PACT + Forestry Administration +Children Development Association (CDA)March 2008; 30 year agreement; REDD pilot built on pastcommunity forest protection work.
Target Area: 13 community forestry in 58 villagesREDD Pilot Area: 67,783.00 haSource: CDA
REDD took over in 2008from previous community forest work since 2003.“Currently, the main challenge of REDD Pilot Implementation is illegal logging bymilitary and powerful people. Conflicts with powerful men. There are many military inthe border area. Economic land concessions (ELCs) and mining are the main issues forREDD. The community forests are very small while the concessions are very large -more than 10,000 ha each. Comparing the two, ELCs and community forests, the ELCarea is bigger. The government may consult communities when setting up REDDareas, but people are not consulted when the government issues ELCs”.
BBeng Commune: Dong VengCommunity Forest (CF); 4 villages. CFstarted in 2004; military regimentsmoved into 2011, building road andlogging.
Dong Veng community forest : forestclearance for road and camp by military.
Ratana Rokha CF: 3 villagesSugarcane plantation in the middle of forest area
Ratana Rokha CF: forest area being cleared by company forsugarcane plantation
Ratana Rokha CF: forest area being clearedby company for sugarcane plantation
Romduol Veasna and Rouloh and RoulohThom CFs.Close to Thai border; army setting upcamps, bunkers, building roads, movingfamilies into the forests.
Close to Thai border; Cambodian army setting upcamps, bunkers, building roads, moving families into theforests.
Common setbacks• REDD pilot project built on existing CF work.• Not clear how much “choice” CF members had in joining the project; CF was turned into REDD, with new regulations and new agreement.• CF members do not understand/know much about the project, except that they are supposed to get 30% of revenue from sale of carbon credits (don’t understand what they are) but have still not received any money.• Communities unable to take action needed to protect forests from military and concessions, but have to follow new regulations about forest use according to REDD agreement.
Common setbacks• Differing ideas of benefits at community levels among communities, NGO & government officials.• Conflicts started among members of the same CF and among different CFs about who should get more money- breaking down of cooperation & commitment.• Forests getting destroyed & degraded; carbon credits not being sold on market; current forest quality very different from earlier measurements.REDD will collapse community forestry in OddarMeanchey. There is nothing in this project, only wordsand illusions. Chief of provincial CF network, OddarMeanchey.
The Green and Green AllianceIncreasing interventions of Indonesian Military (TNI) into conservation and climate projects1. Law 34/2004:•Allows military operations beyond war•Optimalization to support relevance ministries to achievegovernment’s goals,•Integration to village governance in all Indonesian regions thatdo conservation Source: AKSI and Solidaritas Perempuan 19
2 . Cooperation agreement between Indonesian Military (TNI) and Office of Environment Ministry June 3, 2010:• Synergy of program Environment Ministry and TNI to boost implementation of sustainable development in protection and management of environment in regard to respective roles and duties. Agreement between Forestry Minister and TNI about forest rehabilitation in conservation forest - March 24, 2011• A basis for forest rehabilitation in conservation forests and forest protection• Planning, pre-condition, field preparation, provision of sapling, maintenance, security, monitoring and evaluation• Forest ministry will provide all neccessary operational costs. Source: AKSI and Solidaritas Perempuan 20
• No lesson learnt from conflicts areas triggered by conservations through Ecosystem Restoration Concessions Source: AKSI and Solidaritas Perempuan21
Lesson learnt from Indonesia FIP for GCF• FIP is market driven and adds burden to people who already marginalized and impoverished under an incompetent, corrupt and oppressive government• FIP doesn’t adhere to international human rights and women’s human rights standards and conventions: CPR, ESCR, CEDAW, UNDRIP• FIP doesn’t comply with its own safeguard requirementsSource: AKSI and Solidaritas Perempuan 22
• FIP potentially increases violence and human rights violations in land conflict areas• FIP potentially contribute to militarization of forest projects through indirectly finance Indonesian military operations in conservation designated areas and strengthen the power of military• FIP is potentially mismanaged and trigger further corruption Source: AKSI and Solidaritas Perempuan 23